Essential metals: assessing risks from dificiency and toxicity
2015 (English)In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals: Volume I: General considerations / [ed] Gunnar F. Nordberg, Bruce A. Fowler, Monica Nordberg, Academic Press, 2015, 4, 281-297 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Recommendations aimed at protecting the public from toxicity of essential elements including essential metals have usually been developed separately from those recommendations aimed at protection from deficiency. Because of the uncertainties involved in the evaluations, these recommendations have sometimes been in conflict, emphasizing the need for a new approach, including a balanced consideration of nutritional and toxicological data. In developing these new principles of evaluation, some basic concepts based on interindividual variability in sensitivity to deficiency and toxicity must be considered. Such variation translates into one interval of (low) daily intakes, at which there is a risk of developing deficiency, and another interval of (high) dietary intakes at which toxicity may occur. In most instances, there is a third set of intakes in between, which represents the acceptable range of oral intake (AROI), in which no adverse effects occur. It must be noted, however, that a range cannot be found that protects all persons from adverse effects. Those persons with genetically determined sensitivity may require higher intakes to avoid deficiency or lower intakes to avoid toxicity than those defined by the AROI. The AROI is defined as protecting 95% of an unselected human population from minimal adverse effects of deficiency or toxicity.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2015, 4. 281-297 p.
critical effect, critical endpoint, acceptable range of oral intake (AROI), upper level (UL), requirements for individuals, homeostatic mechanisms, bioavailability, speciation, biomarkers of deficiency, biomarkers of toxic effects
Environmental Health and Occupational Health
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112398DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-59453-2.00014-7ISBN: 9780123982926OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-112398DiVA: diva2:877383