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Effects on power, strength and lean body mass of menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle based resistance training
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, Vol. 57, nr 1-2, s. 43-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of menstrual and oral contraceptive cycle on a high frequency periodized leg resistance training in trained women. METHODS: Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive cycle for four months. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1 (N.=19) trained with high frequency (5 times-w-') during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2 (N.=19) during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group (N.=21) performed regurlar (3 times.w(-1)) leg resistance training for four months. RESULTS: Significant increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque values in hamstrings for group 1 were observed, but not in group 2. In the control group an increase in squat and countermovement jump, and peak torque (only left hamstring) was also observed. There was also a significant increase in lean body mass of the legs in group 1 only. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without oral contraceptive. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle is more beneficial to optimize training than in the last two weeks. Resistance training during the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle even resulted in a larger gain of lean body mass than regular training.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2017. Vol. 57, nr 1-2, s. 43-52
Nyckelord [en]
Women, Muscle strength, Resistance training, Menstrual cycle
Nationell ämneskategori
Idrottsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112551DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.16.05848-5ISI: 000398129700006PubMedID: 26558833OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-112551DiVA, id: diva2:881205
Tillgänglig från: 2015-12-10 Skapad: 2015-12-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Training and hormones in physically active women: with and without oral contraceptive use
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Training and hormones in physically active women: with and without oral contraceptive use
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Background: The number of women participating in sports has increased dramatically, though research in sports are often performed on men. Physical exercise is known to increase physical performance and improve well-being. Although exercise has beneficial health effects for most of the women, it is known that strenuous exercise may also have negative health consequences. Common are menstrual dysfunctions and the medical effects of a long-standing amenorrhea are serious. Moreover, strenuous exercise without adequate recovery may lead to overreaching (OR) /overtraining syndrome (OTS). An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects are essential. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the effects on strength and power of high frequency periodised leg resistance training to evaluate a training regime and moreover to investigate if the training was well accepted and without potential exercise-related negative consequences. Moreover, to provide normative data on oxytocin and cortisol to elucidate if these hormones could be one diagnostic marker in combination with others to monitor and diagnose female athletes that may be at risk to develop OR/OTS.

Methods: Fifty-nine women, participated in the four month intervention study. Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1, trained with high frequency (5 times·w-1) during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2, during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group performed regular (3 times·w-1) leg resistance training. Another 33 women participated in the observational study. The OC users and non-users, were followed over a nine-month period with monthly blood sampling of oxytocin and cortisol, and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) as a subjective measure of OR/OTS.

Results: The women who performed high frequency leg resistance training, 5 times·w-1, during the first two weeks of each cycle showed significant increase in jump height, peak torque values in hamstrings, increased lean body mass of the legs, and their experiences of the training were positive. These results were not found when the periodised training was performed during the last two weeks of each cycle. In the control group an increase in jump height, and peak torque (left hamstring) was observed. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without OC use. Moreover, no exercise-related negative consequences were detected in any of the three groups. The women in the observational study showed seasonal variations in oxytocin and cortisol, with different pattern in OC users to non-users. No convincing relationships to POMS were found. 

Conclusions: The high frequency periodised leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the cycle is more beneficial to optimize resistance training, than the last two weeks. The high frequency periodised leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences and was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle. Due to seasonality and impact of OC use, oxytocin and cortisol are not suggested to be optimal, diagnostic markers alone/in combination with others, to detect OR/OTS in physically active women.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. s. 82
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1820
Nyckelord
female athletes, hormones, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptive cycle, resistance training, muscle strength, power, body composition, female athlete triad, overreaching, overtraining syndrome
Nationell ämneskategori
Idrottsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124842 (URN)978-91-7601-516-2 (ISBN)
Externt samarbete:
Disputation
2016-09-23, Vårdvetarhuset, Aulan, Umeå, 09:00 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-02 Skapad: 2016-08-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-07Bibliografiskt granskad

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Wikström-Frisén, LisbethBoraxbekk, Carl JohanHenriksson-Larsén, Karin

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