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Sustainability measures in quicklime and cement clinker production
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. (Thermochemical Energy Conversion Laboratory)
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis investigates sustainability measures for quicklime and cement clinker production. It is the aim of this thesis to contribute to the effort of creating a more sustainable modus of industrial production.

The methods used comprises process simulations through multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations, fuel characterization and raw materials characterization through dynamic rate thermogravimetry.

The investigated measures relate to alternative fuels, co-combustion, oxygen enrichment, oxyfuel combustion, mineral carbonation and optimizing raw material mixes based on thermal decomposition characteristics.

The predictive multicomponent chemical equilibrium simulation tool developed has been used to investigate new process designs and combustion concepts. The results show that fuel selection and oxygen enrichment influence energy efficiency, and that oxyfuel combustion and mineral carbonation could allow for considerable emission reductions at low energy penalty, as compared to conventional post-combustion carbon dioxide capture technologies. Dynamic rate thermogravimetry, applied to kiln feed limestone, allows for improved feed analysis with a deeper understanding of how mixing of different feed materials will affect the production processes. The predictive simulation tool has proven to be of practical value when planning and executing production and full scale campaigns, reducing costs related to trial and error.

The main conclusion of this work is that several measures are available to increase the sustainability of the industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015. , 82 p.
Keyword [en]
limestone, quicklime, cement clinker, sustainability, oxygen, carbon dioxide, thermal decomposition, dynamic rate thermogravimetry, predictive multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations, mineral carbonation
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112842ISBN: 978-91-7601-392-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-112842DiVA: diva2:882932
Public defence
2016-01-29, sal N420, Naturvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-18 Created: 2015-12-16 Last updated: 2015-12-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Carbon dioxide storage by mineralisation applied to a lime kiln
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon dioxide storage by mineralisation applied to a lime kiln
Show others...
2012 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF ECOS 2012 / [ed] Enrico Sciubba, Giampaolo Manfrida, Umberto Desideri, Firenze: Firenze University Press, 2012, Vol. VI, 226-1-226-13 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a design, for a pilot-scale application, of a two-staged process that is under study at Åbo Akademi University (ÅA), for Carbon dioxide Storage by Mineralisation (CSM). The ÅA route implies the production of brucite (besides Ca- and Fe- based by-products) from a magnesium/calcium silicate rock, using recoverable ammonium sulphate (AS), followed by carbonation of the Mg(OH)2 in a pressurised fluidised bed at ~ 500°C, 20-30 bar CO2 partial pressure. An assessment is reported for operating the CSM process on waste heat from a limekiln (lime production: 210 t/day) in Pargas, Southwest Finland, i.e. without external energy input apart from what is needed for crushing the rock to the required particle size (a few % of the overall CSM process energy requirement) and compressing the flue gas to be treated. Part of the off-gas from the limekiln (CO2 content ~21%-vol) will be processed without a CO2 separation step. The feature of operating without CO2 separation makes CSM an attractive and cost-competitive option when compared to conventional CCS involving underground storage of CO2. An exergy analysis is used to optimise process layout and energy efficiency, and at the same time maximise the amount of CO2 that can be bound to MgCO3 given the amount of waste heat available from the kiln. Also, experimental results are reported for producing Mg(OH)2 (and Fe,Ca(OH)2) from local rock material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Firenze: Firenze University Press, 2012
Keyword
CO2 mineral sequestration, Scale-up, Lime kiln.
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
biology, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111574 (URN)ISBN 978-88-6655-322-9 (ISBN)
Conference
ECOS 2012 - THE 25TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EFFICIENCY, COST, OPTIMIZATION, SIMULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ENERGY SYSTEMS JUNE 26-29, 2012, PERUGIA
Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-17 Last updated: 2015-12-17Bibliographically approved
2. Improved Process Modeling for a Lime Rotary Kiln Using Equilibrium Chemistry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved Process Modeling for a Lime Rotary Kiln Using Equilibrium Chemistry
2012 (English)In: Journal of engineering technology, ISSN 0747-9964, Vol. 29, no 1, 8-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article describes an improved process model for simulation of the manufacturing process of lime in a rotary kiln. The model simulates ideal behavior of complex chemical systems with an assumed homogenous mixing without time-dependent factors. It is a totally predictive model that excludes the empirical parameters. The model is a chemical phase equilibrium model that calculates the final product in a non-equilibrium mode, according to established methods. The phase chemistry is among the most complex found in the literature for lime manufacturing. The thermodynamic data used in the model is based on 11 components (Ca, Si, Al, Fe, K, S, Cl, C, H, O and N). The fuel has an important role in the lime manufacturing process. Special attention is required since it is fed directly into the process via the burner and can influence the process and final product. In the model, the fuel is defined in order to have it behave in a realistic way, and operational data from a full scale lime plant verify the simulation results. The simulated amounts of gas and solids correlate well with operational data. The predicting chemical composition of the product needs improvement by adding more system components and their related compounds to the thermodynamic database. Simulation results from co-combustion of coal and processed waste based fuel oil that it is a versatile tool for predicting product quality and amount, temperature profiles of the rotary kiln, and exhaust gas composition and amount.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Engineering Education, 2012
Keyword
Burning process, thermodynamic aspects
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-85999 (URN)000315244400002 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 2006-06679Bio4Energy
Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Modelling the cement process and cement clinker quality
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling the cement process and cement clinker quality
2014 (English)In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 26, no 6, 311-318 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a recently developed simulation model that can be used as a tool for evaluating sustainable development measures for cement and lime production processes. Examples of such measures are introducing new combustion technologies such as oxy-fuel combustion, using biomass fuel and using alternative materials in the raw material feed. One major issue when introducing process changes is the need to maintain product quality. In some ways, oxygen-enriched air combustion resembles oxy-fuel combustion. The model results were validated and found to be consistent with full-scale operational data for normal running conditions and for a full-scale test with oxygenenriched air. The model shows, for example, that with an additional 1500 m3/h of oxygen, fuel addition at the calciners can increase up to 108% and the raw material feed rate can increase up to 116% for a process with a raw meal feed of 335.5 t/h.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ICE Publishing, 2014
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86000 (URN)10.1680/adcr.13.00050 (DOI)000344814500002 ()
Funder
Bio4EnergySwedish Energy Agency, 30527-1
Available from: 2014-02-14 Created: 2014-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Simulation of oxy-fuel combustion in cement clinker manufacturing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation of oxy-fuel combustion in cement clinker manufacturing
2015 (English)In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 27, no 1, 42-49 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A thermodynamic process model is used as an evaluation tool. Full oxy-fuel combustion is evaluated for circulation of 20–80% of flue gases to the burn zone of a rotary kiln. The full oxy-fuel combustion simulations exhibit altered temperature profiles for the process. With 60% recirculation of flue gases, the temperature in the burn zone is comparable to the reference temperature, and carbon dioxide concentration in the flue gases increases from 33 to 76%. If water is excluded, carbon dioxide concentration is 90%. The partial oxy-fuel combustion method is evaluated for 20 and 40% recirculation of flue gases from one cyclone string to both calciners. Fuel and oxygen feed to the burning zone and calciners are optimised for the partial oxy-fuel scenario. The lowest specific energy consumption is desired while maximising the amount of carbon dioxide theoretically possible to capture. By introducing partial oxy-fuel combustion with 20% recirculation of flue gases in the carbon dioxide string, total carbon dioxide emissions increases by 4%, with 84% possible to capture. Within the limits of the model, the introduction of full oxy-fuel and partial oxyfuel combustion is possible while maintaining product quality. When simulating partial oxy-fuel combustion, the energy consumption will increase even when no power consumption for the production of oxygen is included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thomas Telford: ICE Publishing, 2015
Keyword
cement clinker production, process modell, oxy-fuel combustion
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86361 (URN)10.1680/adcr.13.00068 (DOI)000351286400006 ()
Available from: 2014-02-24 Created: 2014-02-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Oxyfuel combustion in rotary kiln lime production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxyfuel combustion in rotary kiln lime production
2014 (English)In: Energy Science & Engineering, ISSN 2050-0505, Vol. 2, no 4, 204-215 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to study the impact of oxyfuel combustion applied to a rotary kiln producing lime. Aspects of interest are product quality, energy efficiency, stack gas composition, carbon dioxide emissions, and possible benefits related to carbon dioxide capture. The method used is based on multicomponent chemical equilibrium calculations to predict process conditions. A generic model of a rotary kiln for lime production was validated against operational data and literature. This predicting simulation tool is used to calculate chemical compositions for different recirculation cases. The results show that an oxyfuel process could produce a high-quality lime product. The new process would operate at a lower specific energy consumption thus having also a reduced specific carbon dioxide emission per ton of product ratio. Through some processing, the stack gas from the new process could be suitable for carbon dioxide transport and storage or utilization. The main conclusion of this paper is that lime production with an oxyfuel process is feasible but still needs further study.

Keyword
Carbon capture and storage, energy efficiency, lime, oxyfuel
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111578 (URN)10.1002/ese3.40 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
6. The Effects of Oxygen Enrichment and Fuel Composition on Rotary Kiln Lime Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effects of Oxygen Enrichment and Fuel Composition on Rotary Kiln Lime Production
2015 (English)In: Journal of Engineering Technology, ISSN 0747-9664, Vol. 32, no 1, 30-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article discusses the impact of oxygen (O2) enrichment on rotary kiln lump lime production. A predictive simulation tool is utilized to investigate the effect of O2 enrichment on the following key parameters of the lime process: kiln temperature profile, product quality, specific energy consumption and kiln production capacity. Three fuel mixes - 100% coal, 90% coal and 10% waste derived fuel oil, and 90% coal and 10% sawdust - are simulated at three oxygen levels. The oxygen levels represent three scenarios: no enrichment (21% O2), moderate enrichment (23% O2), and moderate-to-high enrichment (25% O2). This work is a part of the on-going efforts to reduce the environmental impact of industrial production. Reducing emissions, utilizing biofuels and waste derived fuels, full utilization of raw materials, and energy efficiency are areas of importance for industry. In the long term, oxyfuel technology, i.e., combustion with recirculated kiln gases and pure oxygen, could allow for near-zero emission production and carbon sequestration from industry and power production. In the short term, emission reductions in lime production must be achieved through other means, such as energy efficiency. As a step on the path to a near-zero emission lime plant, this paper describes an investigation of the influence of oxygen enrichment in rotary kiln lime production. The simulated results show positive effects of O2 enrichment, and the simulation results have been used by the kiln operator for in-house training. Results indicate that oxygen enrichment applied to lime production can reduce energy consumption and emissions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Engineering Education, 2015
National Category
Chemical Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-105273 (URN)000355062900004 ()
Available from: 2015-06-22 Created: 2015-06-22 Last updated: 2015-12-17Bibliographically approved
7. Characterization of kiln feed limestone by dynamic heating rate thermogravimetry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of kiln feed limestone by dynamic heating rate thermogravimetry
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Mineral Processing, ISSN 0301-7516, E-ISSN 1879-3525, Vol. 147, 31-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quicklime is a product rich in calcium oxide produced in industrial kilns. The process involves thermal decomposition of minerals with high content of calcium carbonate. The kiln feed properties vary with the geological formation from where the mineral is quarried or mined. Characterization of feed properties is necessary to achieve an optimized kiln production. In this work the decomposition of four different types of calcite ore was investigated by comparing conventional constant heating rate and dynamic heating rate thermogravimetric methods. The conclusion of this work is that the conventional method always "overshoots" the calcination temperature when continuously heating during calcination compared to the dynamic rate method that resembles the kiln by holding temperatures constant during the calcination event. This justifies the used of the dynamic rate method. By a correct experimental parameter setup the dynamic rate method can be adapted for individual kilns and feed fractions, giving new additional value to the kiln operator and increasing the high value use of limestone deposits. This new method to characterize calcination properties of kiln feed materials can be utilized in normal kiln operations and when developing new mixes of different quality limestone. The results show differences when comparing the methods and different materials even though CaCO3 is present only as calcite. In addition, the dynamic rate method is faster than the conventional method. Besides quicklime production the method can also be applied in other industries calcining limestone, such as cement clinker production.

Keyword
Limestone, lime kiln feed, dynamic rate thermogravimetry, thermal decomposition
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112834 (URN)10.1016/j.minpro.2016.01.001 (DOI)000370107800005 ()
Note

Originally included in thesis in manuscript form.

Available from: 2015-12-16 Created: 2015-12-16 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

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