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Simuleringens situerade aktiviteter: Förutsättningar för lärande i polisutbildning
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
2016 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is about simulations in professional education and what they mean for developing professional knowing. When educating new police officers, using simulations is an integral part of the educational program. A starting point for the studies in this thesis was that not only the scenario but also the preparation and the debriefing, i.e. the situated activities, must be included. Another starting point was that activities and the individuals cannot be studied separately; both have to be included in the analyses. Two simulations, which were part of the Swedish police education program were studied. The approach was explorative and the methods used to collect data were observations, video-observations, interviews and surveys. The unit of analysis focused how students acted in and how they made sense of the simulation activities. The analytical process was influenced by a sociocultural and dialogical framework, in which learning is seen as a social activity. The thesis showed that using simulation in professional education is a complex endeavor in which the social aspects of simulating have to be acknowledged. The analyses showed that the situated activities of the simulation have to be linked to each other in way that enables the participants to; first, produce a situation with authenticity and second, to use previous experiences and coordinate them with new ones from the simulation in order to create good conditions for learning. This means acknowledging that the stance of a simulation needs to be longer than just the actual simulation. How they are embedded in the education program and how gaps in students knowing are to be bridged after the simulation, need to be considered. The main implication of the results is that the use of simulations in professional education require a specific simulation pedagogy. Some foundations of this are outlined and include; the fact that a simulated situation is a hybrid and never a mirror of a professional situation and also includes creating simulation competence among both teachers and students. This includes learning the “gaming rules” of simulating such as how to act in different roles, how to produce authenticity, what is to be included and what is to be ignored in order to make the scenario work. Simulation pedagogy also has to acknowledge that focus needs to be on how to support the participants’ learning and not assume that there is a direct connection between participation and learning. If all of these issues are considered in the design, the potential of simulations for developing professional knowing can be utilized. To conclude, this thesis shows that in the detailed study of scenarios, preparation and follow-up are important and draw attention to aspects that are central for understanding the conditions for learning in simulations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016. , 87, 34 sidor bilagor p.
Series
Akademiska avhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen, Umeå universitet, ISSN 0281-6768 ; 116
Keyword [en]
simulation, police, police education, vocational education, learning, scenario training, simulation pedagogy, professional knowing
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-114810ISBN: 978-91-7601-406-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-114810DiVA: diva2:898551
Public defence
2016-02-19, Hörsal E, Humanisthuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-29 Created: 2016-01-28 Last updated: 2016-01-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Video–based debriefing enhances reflection, motivation and performance for police students in realistic scenario training
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Video–based debriefing enhances reflection, motivation and performance for police students in realistic scenario training
2012 (English)In: Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences: vol. 46, 4th World Conference on Educational Sciences (WCES-2012) 2-5 February 2012 Barcelona, Spain / [ed] Gülsün A. Baskan, Fezile Ozdamli, Sezer Kanbul and Deniz Özcan, Elsevier , 2012, 2816-2824 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between video-supported debriefing and student police officers’ performance in realistic scenario training? Two groups conducted two weapon-scenario sessions. One group used video-based debriefing in addition to the regular debriefing and one did not. The result showed that the students that used video increased their reflection regarding possible solutions to the scenario. The video group also increased their motivation to train the skills involved in the scenario. The expert assessment made by the weapon instructor showed that the video group improved their performance in the second scenario session, which was not the case for the traditionally debriefed group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
realistic scenario; reflection; simulation; video-based debriefing
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60014 (URN)10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.570 (DOI)
Conference
4th WORLD CONFERENCE ON EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES (WCES-2012) 02-05 February 2012 Barcelona, Spain
Available from: 2012-10-16 Created: 2012-09-27 Last updated: 2016-01-28Bibliographically approved
2. Why don’t they catch the baby?: a study of a simulation of a critical incident in police education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Why don’t they catch the baby?: a study of a simulation of a critical incident in police education
2014 (English)In: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 66, no 2, 212-231 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Vocational education should prepare students for the professional demands of the work. In police education, one way to accomplish this is to simulate specific situations so that students may develop professional knowledge. This article aims to increase the understanding of how simulations support learning of knowledge and skills by investigating how participants make sense of the critical incident they are involved in. To accomplish this, in this study, we have focused on the actions and utterances of the participants. We also used video analysis to analyse the actions of a student police patrol in a simulated critical incident. The participants’ passive actions did not fully mimic a critical incident suggesting that they defined the situation as a passive educational situation. The results demonstrated that simulation-based exercises’ possibilities for supporting vocational learning depend on such factors as authenticity, role-playing and ‘simulation competency’.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2014
Keyword
vocational education & training, VET and development, pedagogy, learning in the professions, competence
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-93436 (URN)10.1080/13636820.2014.896405 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-09-22 Created: 2014-09-22 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Vad var det som hände?: Efterbearbetning av en simulering för utvecklande av professionell kunskap hos polisstudenter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vad var det som hände?: Efterbearbetning av en simulering för utvecklande av professionell kunskap hos polisstudenter
2014 (Swedish)In: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 2242-458X, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 4, no 2, 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Att öva för att lära sig att hantera polisiära situationer utgör ett viktigt inslag i polisstudenters utbildning. Lärandet sker genom praktiska övningar t.ex. drillövningar och övningar av specifika momentmen även via simuleringar där studenter agerar som polis imera komplexa situationer. Simuleringar ärinte unika för polisutbildningutan utgör ett vanligt inslag i professionsutbildninggenom sin koppling till ”verkliga” situationer (Peters & Vissers, 2004; Lederman, 1984). Under de senaste årtiondena har simuleringar använts för utbildning inom så skilda professionsfält som medicin och hälsovård, flyg och blåljusverksamhet. Simuleringar kan vara av skiftande karaktär t.ex. fysiska i form av rollspel men även datorbaserade. Simuleringar kan syfta till att utveckla en specifik färdighet (se t.ex. Windsor, 2009; Stefanidis, Acker, & Heniford, 2008; Wallin, Meurling, Hedman, Hedengård, & Felländer-Tsai,2007),som t ex att lära sig hur man avläser röntgenbilder (se t.ex. Söderström, Häll, Nilsson, & Ahlqvist2012) eller till att lära hur man ska agera i komplexa situationer (Andersson, Carlström, & Berlin, 2013; Bauman, Gohm & Bonner,2011), t.ex. vid svåra olyckshändelser med många personer inblandade (se t.ex. McConnell & Drennan, 2006). Simuleringar av komplexa situationer med många inblandade brukar benämnas som fullskaliga(se t.ex. Andersson, Carlström, & Berlin, 2013). Simuleringar antas träna och utveckla professionell kunskap genom att förbereda studenter på att hantera komplexa och ibland farliga situationer som de kan komma att ställas inför i enkommande yrkespraktik. Användningen av simuleringar i utbildningarbygger således på ett antagande om överföring av erfarenheter och kunskaper från ett sammanhang till ett annat(se t.ex. Söderström, Åström, Anderson & Bowles, 2014). I denhär artikeln utgår vi från simulering som en utbildningsresurs där deltagarna interagerar med varandra och miljön (situationen) på ett målorienterat sätt i syfte att lära sig polisära kunskaper

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
http://www.nordyrk.org/, 2014
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-96587 (URN)10.3384/njvet.2242-458X.14v4i2a8 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-11-24 Created: 2014-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
4. The impact of preparation: conditions for developing professional knowledge through simulations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of preparation: conditions for developing professional knowledge through simulations
2015 (English)In: Journal of Vocational Education and Training, ISSN 1363-6820, E-ISSN 1747-5090, Vol. 67, no 4, 529-542 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines simulations of critical incidents in police education by investigating how activities in the preparation phase influence participants’ actions and thus the conditions for learning professional knowledge. The study is based on interviews in two stages (traditional and stimulated recall interviews) with six selected students and video analysis of one student police patrol’s short-term preparation. The results showed that simulation and associated activities informed the students of their responsibilities and pre-determined tasks without effectively helping them to cope with the situation. The analysis suggests that an understanding of the social and interactional requirements for producing the kind of situation that the students were to be trained for and learn from were not mediated. Thus our conclusion is that good conditions for learning in and through simulations require a simulation competence among the participants and that it is a responsibility of the instructors to consider how this competence is to be developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2015
Keyword
Vocational Education and Training, higher education, pedagogy, Vocational HE, competence
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-107740 (URN)10.1080/13636820.2015.1076500 (DOI)000374508000007 ()
Available from: 2015-08-28 Created: 2015-08-28 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved

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Sjöberg, David

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