Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Is it all part of the game?: Victim differentiation and the normative protection of victims of online antagonism under the European Convention on Human Rights
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1184-1385
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4642-3872
2016 (English)In: International Review of Victimology, ISSN 0269-7580, E-ISSN 2047-9433, Vol. 22, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article analyses the issue of online antagonism (defined as antagonistic harassment, defamation, insults and threats online) and the positive obligations of states to counter such antagonism under the European Convention on Human Rights, from a legal and victimological perspective. The article illustrates how the necessary balancing between positive obligations to protect privacy under article 8, and the protection of freedom of speech under article 10, will result in different levels of protection depending on the victim and the type of victimisation in question. This may affect the possibilities for individual victims to gain legal redress, specifically access to the criminal justice system. By comparisons to the current Swedish legislative context, the article highlights some avenues for legislatures to enhance protection for certain groups without interfering with article 10. It also concludes that a failure to protect victims of online antagonism through criminal law may ipso facto weaken the foundations of public discourse that article 10 is supposed to protect, which should be taken into account in a balancing of the rights in question. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 22, no 2
Keyword [en]
Privacy, freedom of speech, crime victims, online antagonism, hate speech, online harassment, European Convention on Human Rights, positive obligations
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)
Research subject
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116715DOI: 10.1177/0269758016628947OAI: diva2:902288
Offer för näthat. En rättsvetenskaplig studie av brottsoffers möjlighet till upprättelse vid hot och kränkningar på internet
Available from: 2016-02-10 Created: 2016-02-10 Last updated: 2016-03-08

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

Other links

Publisher's full text

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Enarsson, ThereseNaarttijärvi, Markus
By organisation
Department of Law
In the same journal
International Review of Victimology
Law (excluding Law and Society)

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 125 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link