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Die-Hard:Reliable Scheduling to Survive Correlated failures in Cloud Data Centers
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
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2016 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In large scale data centers, a single fault can lead to correlated failures of several physical machines and the tasks running on them, simultaneously. Such correlated failures can severely damage the reliability of a service or a job running on the failed hardware. This paper models the impact of stochastic and correlated failures on job reliability in a data center. We focus on correlated failures caused by power outages or failures of network components, on jobs running multiple replicas of identical tasks. We present a statistical reliability model and an approximation technique for computing a job’s reliability in the presence of correlated failures. In addition, we address the problem of scheduling a job with reliability constraints.We formulate the scheduling problem as an optimization problem, with the aim being to maintain the desired reliability with the minimum number of extra tasks to resist failures.We present a scheduling algorithm that approximates the minimum number of required tasks and a placement to achieve a desired job reliability. We study the efficiency of our algorithm using an analytical approach and by simulating a cluster with different failure sources and reliabilities. The results show that the algorithm can effectively approximate the minimum number of extra tasks required to achieve the job’s reliability.

16th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
Keyword [en]
Cloud computing; Scheduling; Reliability; Fault tolerance; Correlated failures
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116791OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-116791DiVA: diva2:902563
Conference
16th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid Computing(CCGRID)
Note

Originally published in manuscript form.

Available from: 2016-02-11 Created: 2016-02-11 Last updated: 2016-04-07
In thesis
1. Cluster Scheduling and Management for Large-Scale Compute Clouds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cluster Scheduling and Management for Large-Scale Compute Clouds
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cloud computing has become a powerful enabler for many IT services and new technolo-gies. It provides access to an unprecedented amount of resources in a fine-grained andon-demand manner. To deliver such a service, cloud providers should be able to efficientlyand reliably manage their available resources. This becomes a challenge for the manage-ment system as it should handle a large number of heterogeneous resources under diverseworkloads with fluctuations. In addition, it should also satisfy multiple operational require-ments and management objectives in large scale data centers.Autonomic computing techniques can be used to tackle cloud resource managementproblems. An autonomic system comprises of a number of autonomic elements, which arecapable of automatically organizing and managing themselves rather than being managedby external controllers. Therefore, they are well suited for decentralized control, as theydo not rely on a centrally managed state. A decentralized autonomic system benefits fromparallelization of control, faster decisions and better scalability. They are also more reliableas a failure of one will not affect the operation of the others, while there is also a lower riskof having faulty behaviors on all the elements, all at once. All these features are essentialrequirements of an effective cloud resource management.This thesis investigates algorithms, models, and techniques to autonomously managejobs, services, and virtual resources in a cloud data center. We introduce a decentralizedresource management framework, that automates resource allocation optimization and ser-vice consolidation, reliably schedules jobs considering probabilistic failures, and dynam-icly scales and repacks services to achieve cost efficiency.As part of the framework, we introduce a decentralized scheduler that provides andmaintains durable allocations with low maintenance costs for data centers with dynamicworkloads. The scheduler assigns resources in response to virtual machine requests andmaintains the packing efficiency while taking into account migration costs, topologicalconstraints, and the risk of resource contention, as well as fluctuations of the backgroundload.We also introduce a scheduling algorithm that considers probabilistic failures as part ofthe planning for scheduling. The aim of the algorithm is to achieve an overall job reliabil-ity, in presence of correlated failures in a data center. To do so, we study the impacts ofstochastic and correlated failures on job reliability in a virtual data center. We specificallyfocus on correlated failures caused by power outages or failure of network components onjobs running large number of replicas of identical tasks.Additionally, we investigate the trade-offs between vertical and horizontal scaling. Theresult of the investigations is used to introduce a repacking technique to automatically man-age the capacity required by an elastic service. The repacking technique combines thebenefits of both scaling strategies to improve its cost-efficiency.

Abstract [sv]

Datormoln har kommit att bli kraftfulla möjliggörare för många nya IT-tjänster. De ger tillgång till mycket storskaliga datorresurser på ett finkornigt och omedelbart sätt. För att tillhandahålla sådana resurser krävs att de underliggande datorcentren kan hantera sina resurser på ett tillförlitligt och effektivt sätt. Frågan hur man ska designa deras resurshanteringssystem är en stor utmaning då de ska kunna hantera mycket stora mängder heterogena resurser som i sin tur ska klara av vitt skilda typer av belastning, ofta med väldigt stora variationer över tid. Därtill ska de typiskt kunna möta en mängd olika krav och målsättningar för hur resurserna ska nyttjas. Autonomiska system kan med fördel användas för att realisera sådana system. Ett autonomt system innehåller ett antal autonoma element som automatiskt kan organisera och hantera sig själva utan stöd av externa regulatorer. Förmågan att hantera sig själva gör dem mycket lämpliga som komponenter i distribuerade system, vilka i sin tur kan bidra till snabbare beslutsprocesser, bättre skalbarhet och högre feltolerans. Denna avhandling fokuserar på algoritmer, modeller och tekniker för autonom hantering av jobb och virtuella resurser i datacenter. Vi introducerar ett decentraliserat resurshanteringssystem som automatiserar resursallokering och konsolidering, schedulerar jobb tillförlitligt med hänsyn till korrelerade fel, samt skalar resurser dynamiskt för att uppnå kostnadseffektivitet. Som en del av detta ramverk introducerar vi en decentraliserad schedulerare som allokerar resurser med hänsyn till att tagna beslut ska vara bra för lång tid och ge låga resurshanteringskostnader för datacenter med dynamisk belastning. Scheduleraren allokerar virtuella maskiner utifrån aktuell belastning och upprätthåller ett effektivt nyttjande av underliggande servrar genom att ta hänsyn till migrationskostnader, topologiska bivillkor och risk för överutnyttjande. Vi introducerar också en resursallokeringsalgoritm som tar hänsyn till korrelerade fel som ett led i planeringen. Avsikten är att kunna uppnå specificerade tillgänglighetskrav för enskilda tjänster trots uppkomst av korrelerade fel. Vi fokuserar främst på korrelerade fel som härrör från problem med elförsörjning och från felande nätverkskomponenter samt deras påverkan på jobb bestående av många identiska del-jobb. Slutligen studerar vi även hur man bäst ska kombinera horisontell och vertikal skalning av resurser. Resultatet är en process som ökar kostnadseffektivitet genom att kombinera de två metoderna och därtill emellanåt förändra fördelning av storlekar på virtuella maskiner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå University, 2015. 24 p.
Series
, UMINF, ISSN 0348-0542 ; 15.19
Keyword
Cloud computing, Scheduling, Resource Management
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112467 (URN)978-91-7601-389-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-01-21, Hörsal A, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-12-16 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved

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