Mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
2014 (English)In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 7, 1-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
The 21st century has provided many examples of the devastating effects attacks can have when public transportation has been targeted or used as weapons. Four hundred and seventy seven mass-casualty attacks (≥10 fatally injured and/or ≥100 non-fatally injured) against public transportation and terminal buildings during the years 1970–2009 were studied with data from the Global Terrorism Database in addition to open media sources, scientific journals, and books. Asia was the most frequently targeted region, followed by the Middle East & North African region and Sub Saharan Africa. Airplanes were the most frequently attacked mode of transport during the 1970s, but were surpassed by buses in the mid-80s. There was also an alarming increase in attacks against terminal buildings during 2000–2009. The two most common types of attacks were bombings and armed assault. Complex tactical approaches so as to achieve as much carnage as possible were apparent—e.g., maximizing the number of exposed people, enhancing weapon effects, approaching victims one-by-one, combining several attack types, and targeting rescue personnel. These approaches were more predominant during the last two decades and attacks against rescue personnel were exclusive to the 21st century. The average number of injured increased considerably, despite a quite stable incidence rate since the 1980s. High numbers of non-fatally injured people were connected to attacks on terminal buildings, multiple targets and complex tactical approaches. These incidents, with more and more non-fatally injured, challenge our societal response structures and thus require more research.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 7, 1-16 p.
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-117254DOI: 10.1007/s12198-013-0125-zOAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-117254DiVA: diva2:906746
ProjectsPreparedness for mass-casualty attacks on public transportation
FunderSwedish National Board of Health and Welfare