The Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32): its factorial structure and association to indices of impairment in German and Swedish nonclinical samples
2007 (English)In: Comprehensive Psychiatry, ISSN 0010-440X, E-ISSN 1532-8384, Vol. 48, no 1, 79-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Background: Bipolar disorders are often not recognized. Several instruments were developed but none primarily focused on hypomania. The Hypomania Checklist (HCL) is aimed at the identification of bipolarity in outpatients. Using a German and Swedish sample, we investigated if the factor structure in nonclinical samples is similar to the one reported for outpatient samples. Furthermore, we tested if people who probably had a lifetime history of hypomania report more depression or other signs of impairment and if current depression is associated with lifetime hypomania.
Method: In the German study, participants completed the HCL-32 as an online questionnaire that also included questions about lifetime and current depression (n = 695), whereas the Swedish data relied on the paper-and-pencil version of the HCL-32 completed by a ranclorn sample from a representative population sample (n = 408).
Results: The factor structure of the HCL-32 was fairly similar in both samples and to the ones presented by Angst et al (J Affect Disord 2005;88:217-33). People reporting "highs" (>= 4 days and experiencing negative consequences) not only endorsed more HCL-32 symptoms but also had higher rates of current and former depression and psychotherapy. Level of current depression was also associated with lifetime hypomanic symptoms.
Discussion and limitation: An "active-elated' and "risk-taking/irritable" factor of hypomania can be distinguished with the HCL-32 in clinical and nonclinical samples. Based on our results, the HCL-32 might even be useful as screening toot in nonclinical samples and not only in depressed outpatients. However, our data do not allow estimating sensitivity and specificity of the HCL-32 because structured clinical interviews were not included.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier, 2007. Vol. 48, no 1, 79-87 p.
national comorbidity survey, bipolar spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, psychiatric disorders, general population, mental disorders, mood disorder, II disorder, prevalence, validation
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118227DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.07.001ISI: 000242954200013PubMedID: 17145286OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-118227DiVA: diva2:913529