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Dyslipidemia is common after spinal cord injury - independent of clinical measures
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
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2015 (English)In: Jacobs Journal of Physical Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 2469-3103, Vol. 1, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To survey the incidence of clinical risk markers and its correlation with established clinical measurements for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a heterogeneous spinal cord injured (SCI) patient population.

Design: Descriptive, cross-sectional study.

Subjects: 78 patients with SCI, at different injury and functional level.

Methods: Anthropometric data, blood pressure, a blood lipid panel, blood glucose and a questionnaire were analyzed.

Results: Eighty-one percent of all patients had dyslipidemia (DL) and a majority of the patients with abdominal measures below the recommended cut-off levels had DL. Self-reported physical activity above the cut-off level was reported by 32.1%of the patients. There were no differences in clinical measures, serum lipid values and blood glucose between physically active and not active patients. No differences were seen between men/women, tetraplegia/paraplegia and wheelchair dependent/not wheelchair dependent patients.

Conclusion: DL is common and seems to be not treated or undertreated in the studied SCI patient group with different neurological lesion and functional levels. General anthropometric clinical measures do not seem to be valid for evaluating risk for CVD in this patient group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 1, no 1
Keyword [en]
Cardiovascular Disease, Tetraplegia, Paraplegia, Blood Lipids, Blood Glucose, Anthropometry, BMI, Physical Activity
National Category
Neurology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Health Sciences
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-118527OAI: diva2:913733
Available from: 2016-03-22 Created: 2016-03-22 Last updated: 2016-09-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Spinal cord injuries in Sweden: studies on clinical follow-ups
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spinal cord injuries in Sweden: studies on clinical follow-ups
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A spinal cord injury is a serious medical condition, often caused by a physical trauma. An injury to the spinal cord affects the neurotransmission between the brain and spinal cord segments below the level of injury. The SCI causes a loss of motor function, sensory function and autonomic regulation of the body, temporary or permanent. Significantly improved acute care, primary comprehensive rehabilitation and life-long structured follow-up has led to persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) living longer than ever before. However, increased long-time survival has allowed secondary conditions to emerge, like diabetes mellitus and where cardiovascular disease (CVD) now is the most common cause of death among SCI patients. Other possible CVD-related comorbidities in this patient group have been reported to be pain and mood disturbances. There is still lack of, and need for more knowledge in the field of CVD-related screening and prevention after SCI.

The overall aim of this thesis was to contribute to a scientific ground regarding the need for CVD-related screening and prevention after SCI.

In Paper I and Paper II, patients with wheelchair-dependent post-traumatic SCI (paraplegia) were assessed. The results in paper I showed that 80% of the examined patients had at least one cardiovascular disease risk marker irrespective of body mass index (BMI). Dyslipidemia was common for both men and women at all BMI categories. The study also showed a high prevalence of hypertension, especially in men. Paper II showed a low frequency of self-reported physical activity, where only one out of 5 persons reported undertaking physical activity >30 min/day. The physically active had lower diastolic blood pressure but no significant difference in blood lipids.

In paper III and IV, patients with SCI (tetraplegia and paraplegia) participated in the studies. Eighty-one percent of the patients had dyslipidemia, where also a majority of the patients with normal abdominal clinical measures had dyslipidemia. Self-reported physical activity >30min/day was reported by one third of the patients. No differences were found between physically active and not physically active patients when it came to blood glucose, serum lipid values and clinical measures (paper III). Pain was common in the patient group, however, most often on a mild to moderate level. Anxiety and depression was less common than reported in other studies (paper IV).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. 73 p.
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1824
Tetraplegia, paraplegia, cardiovascular disease, prevention, anthropometry, physical activity
National Category
Research subject
Rehabilitation Medicine
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-125202 (URN)978-91-7601-526-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-09-30, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2016-09-23Bibliographically approved

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Flank, PeterRamnemark, AnnaLevi, RichardFahlström, Martin
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