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Serum Vitamin D Depends Less on Latitude Than on Skin Color and Dietary Intake During Early Winter in Northern Europe.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. (Arcum)
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 62, no 4, 643-649 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if dietary vitamin D intake is adequate for sufficient vitamin D status during early winter in children living in Sweden, irrespective of latitude or skin color.

METHODS: As part of a prospective, comparative, two-center intervention study in northern (63°N) and southern (55°N) Sweden, dietary intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH) D), associated laboratory variables, and socio-demographic data were studied in 5 to 7-year-old children with fair and dark skin in November and December.

RESULTS: 206 children with fair/dark skin were included, 44/41 and 64/57 children in northern and southern Sweden, respectively. Dietary vitamin D intake was higher in northern than southern Sweden (p=0.001), irrespective of skin color, partly due to higher consumption of fortified foods, but only met 50-70% of national recommendations (10 μg/day). S-25(OH) D was higher in northern than southern Sweden, in children with fair (67 vs. 59 nmol/L; p < 0.05) and dark skin (56 vs. 42 nmol/L; p < 0.001). S-25(OH) D was lower in dark than fair skinned children at both sites (p < 0.01), and below 50 nmol/L in 40 and 75% of dark-skinned children in northern and southern Sweden, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient vitamin D status was common during early winter in children living in Sweden, particularly in those with dark skin. Although, higher dietary vitamin D intake in northern than southern Sweden attenuated the effects of latitude, a northern country of living combined with darker skin and vitamin D intake below recommendations are important risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. Vol. 62, no 4, 643-649 p.
Keyword [en]
latitude, skin color, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, child, diet
National Category
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Endocrinology and Diabetes Pediatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116960DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001028ISI: 000373209900024PubMedID: 26628439OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-116960DiVA: diva2:914605
Available from: 2016-03-24 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2016-08-17Bibliographically approved

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Lind, TorbjörnHernell, OlleSilfverdal, Sven-ArneÖhlund, Inger
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