Serum Vitamin D Depends Less on Latitude Than on Skin Color and Dietary Intake During Early Winter in Northern Europe.
2015 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 62, no 4, 643-649 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if dietary vitamin D intake is adequate for sufficient vitamin D status during early winter in children living in Sweden, irrespective of latitude or skin color.
METHODS: As part of a prospective, comparative, two-center intervention study in northern (63°N) and southern (55°N) Sweden, dietary intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (S-25(OH) D), associated laboratory variables, and socio-demographic data were studied in 5 to 7-year-old children with fair and dark skin in November and December.
RESULTS: 206 children with fair/dark skin were included, 44/41 and 64/57 children in northern and southern Sweden, respectively. Dietary vitamin D intake was higher in northern than southern Sweden (p=0.001), irrespective of skin color, partly due to higher consumption of fortified foods, but only met 50-70% of national recommendations (10 μg/day). S-25(OH) D was higher in northern than southern Sweden, in children with fair (67 vs. 59 nmol/L; p < 0.05) and dark skin (56 vs. 42 nmol/L; p < 0.001). S-25(OH) D was lower in dark than fair skinned children at both sites (p < 0.01), and below 50 nmol/L in 40 and 75% of dark-skinned children in northern and southern Sweden, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient vitamin D status was common during early winter in children living in Sweden, particularly in those with dark skin. Although, higher dietary vitamin D intake in northern than southern Sweden attenuated the effects of latitude, a northern country of living combined with darker skin and vitamin D intake below recommendations are important risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015. Vol. 62, no 4, 643-649 p.
latitude, skin color, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, child, diet
Gastroenterology and Hepatology Endocrinology and Diabetes Pediatrics
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116960DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001028ISI: 000373209900024PubMedID: 26628439OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-116960DiVA: diva2:914605