Photorespiration is a complex and tightly regulated process occurring in photosynthetic organisms. This process can alter the cellular redox balance, notably via the production and consumption of both reducing and oxidizing equivalents. Under certain circumstances, these equivalents, as well as reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, can become prominent in subcellular compartments involved in the photorespiratory process, eventually promoting oxidative post-translational modifications of proteins. Keeping these changes under tight control should therefore be of primary importance. In order to review the current state of knowledge about the redox control of photorespiration, we primarily performed a careful description of the known and potential redox-regulated or oxidation sensitive photorespiratory proteins, and examined in more details two interesting cases: the glycerate kinase and the glycine cleavage system. When possible, the potential impact and subsequent physiological regulations associated with these changes have been discussed. In a second part, we reviewed the extent to which photorespiration contributes to cellular redox homeostasis considering, in particular, the set of peripheral enzymes associated with the canonical photorespiratory pathway. Finally, some recent biotechnological strategies to circumvent photorespiration for future growth improvements are discussed in the light of these redox regulations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.