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Vocational Literacy in Mozambique: Historical Development, Current Challenges and Contradictions
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. (UMSER)
Eduardo Mondlane Univ Mozambique, Dept Educ, Maputo, Mozambique.
2016 (English)In: Literacy and Numeracy Studies: An international journal in the education and training of adults, ISSN 1441-0559, E-ISSN 1839-2903, Vol. 24, no 1, 23-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study analyses the historical development of vocational literacy in basic education and Non-Formal Vocational Education (NFVE) in Mozambique, as well as current challenges and contradictions. The theoretical lens of Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is employed in the study. Methodologically the study was executed through an analysis of oral, printed and e-resources produced by the main stakeholders and also the reflective experiences of the authors in their extensive educational work in the country. The findings reveal poorly developed vocational literacy education in schools and non-formal settings in spite of recurrent political declarations about its importance. There is a strong dependence by formal and particularly NFVE sectors on the technical and financial support provided by international organisations. Vocational literacy courses are characterized by a lack of adequate equipment and poor practice. As a consequence, theoretical or elementary forms of vocational knowledge are dominant in the courses, resulting in the dissatisfaction of both learners and educators. Vocational literacy development proved to be a complex field that faces many challenges and is characterised by diverse internal contradictions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 24, no 1, 23-42 p.
Keyword [en]
vocational literacy, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory, contradictions
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119215DOI: 10.5130/lns.v24i1.4899ISI: 000372437300003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-119215DiVA: diva2:919400
Available from: 2016-04-13 Created: 2016-04-13 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training in Mozambique: Contexts, policies, pedagogies and contradictions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training in Mozambique: Contexts, policies, pedagogies and contradictions
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Education and training in Mozambique are considered to be a ‘right’ and a ‘duty’ for all its citizens. Non-Formal Vocational Education and Training (NFVET) has been promoted to increase educational opportunities for more citizens, particularly the most vulnerable groups- the out of school and unemployed.

The aim of this study is to gain a deeper insight into NFVET in Mozambique, explore its context and historical development, and to identify factors that could contribute to the improvement of this area of education. It is a qualitative, exploratory study carried out in Mozambique. Semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, non-participant observations, analysis of both printed and electronic documents and life story narratives of research participants were used as methods of data collection. The theories and concepts of adult education and Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) constituted the theoretical framework of the study.

The findings of the study reveal that NFVET is highly relevant in the context of change and development in Mozambique. This area of education plays an increasingly relevant role in helping people to continually improve their skills and contributes to their empowerment and social inclusion. However, contextual factors such as lack of resources, teachers’ poor professional competencies and weak linkages between the training programmes and the labour market constitute the main barriers for the attainment of the objectives of these programmes.

The study concludes that framework and activities of NFVET need to be improved. This improvement includes strengthening existing policies, the need for the professionalisation of educators by enhancing their competencies and the improvement of their working conditions. Further, the development and provision of new curriculum and material taking into account the learners’ needs, the local context and the demands of the labour market are needed. The establishment of functional partnerships between NFVET providers and systematic participative evaluation of the training programmes are also suggested to ensure the quality and sustainability of the programmes.

 

Abstract [sv]

I Moçambique ses utbildning både som en rättighet och en skyldighet för alla medborgare. Regeringen har infört obligatorisk grundskola för alla barn med målsättningen att utrota analfabetism. Olika initiativ och policys har implementerats för att nå målet, men ändå exkluderas många barn, ungdomar och vuxna, i synnerhet i landsbygdsområden. Enbart formell utbildning kan inte svara mot den ökade efterfrågan av utbildning i Moçambique. Därför har icke-formell utbildning (non-formal education; NFE) lyfts fram som ett sätt att öka möjligheterna för utbildning för fler medborgare, speciellt i de mest utsatta grupperna (de som inte går i skolan eller är arbetslösa).

Syftet med den här studien är att få djupare insikt i icke-formell yrkesutbildning (NFVET) i Moçambique; att utforska dess kontext och historiska utveckling, samt att identifiera faktorer som skulle kunna bidra till att förbättra denna typ av utbildning. Studien är kvalitativ och explorativ och utförd i Moçambique. För datainsamlingen användes semistrukturerade intervjuer, fokusgruppintervjuer, icke-deltagande observationer, analys av tryckta och elektroniska dokument samt försökspersoners livsberättelser. Studien grundas i de teoretiska och begreppsliga ramverken av vuxenutbildning och kulturhistorisk verksamhetsteori (CHAT). Ramverken har bidragit till analys och förståelse av NFVET, dess historiska utveckling samt dess motsägelser och utmaningar.

Resultaten visar att NFVET utgör ett mycket viktigt bidrag till utbildningen i Moçambique i en tid av ekonomisk och social utveckling. Den snabba ekonomiska och sociala utvecklingen gör så att det uppkommer ett brett spektrum av utbildningsmöjligheter, och NFVET är ett av dessa. Utbildningsområdet spelar en allt viktigare roll i att hjälpa människor att ständigt förbättra sina färdigheter och bidra till deras delaktighet och sociala integration. Men kontextuella faktorer såsom brist på resurser, bristande lärarkompetens och svaga kopplingar mellan utbildningsprogram och arbetsmarknad utgör de huvudsakliga hindren för att uppnå målen för dessa program.

Slutsatsen är att många NFVET-aktiviteter måste förbättras. Förändringar bör omfatta förstärkning av nuvarande policys, professionalisering av lärare genom kompetensutveckling och förbättring av lärares arbetsvillkor. Vidare behövs det förbättring av de befintliga styrdokumenten och läromedel med hänsyn till de deltagarnas behov, kontexten och den efterfrågan som finns på arbetsmarknaden. Slutligen föreslås inrättande av funktionella partnerskap mellan NFVET-leverantörer och systematisk uppföljning av programmen för att säkerställa dess kvalitet och hållbarhet.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2017. 60 p.
Series
Doktorsavhandlingar i pedagogiskt arbete, ISSN 1650-8858 ; 76
Keyword
Adult education, Cultural Historical Activity Theory, empowerment, life skills, Non-Formal Education, professionalisation, vocational education and training, Vuxenutbildning, kulturhistorisk aktivitetsteiri, egenmakt, livskunskap, icke-formell utbildning, professionalisering, yrkesutbildning
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
educational work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-134365 (URN)978-91-7601-704-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-01, KB3A9, KBC huset, Linnaeus väg 6, 901 87, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-03 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved

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