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Control-based load-balancing techniques: Analysis and performance evaluation via a randomized optimization approach
Lund University, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1364-8127
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. (DS)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0106-3049
Lund University.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1143-1127
Lund University, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 52, 24-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cloud applications are often subject to unexpected events like flashcrowds and hardware failures. Users that expect a predictable behavior may abandon an unresponsive application when these events occur. Researchers and engineers addressed this problem on two separate fronts: first, they introduced replicas - copies of the application with the same functionality - for redundancy and scalability; second, they added a self-adaptive feature called brownout inside cloud applications to bound response times by modulating user experience. The presence of multiple replicas requires a dedicated component to direct incoming traffic: a load-balancer. Existing load-balancing strategies based on response times interfere with the response time controller developed for brownout-compliant applications. In fact, the brownout approach bounds response times using a control action. Hence, the response time, that was used to aid load-balancing decision, is not a good indicator of how well a replica is performing. To fix this issue, this paper reviews some proposal for brownout-aware load-balancing and provides a comprehensive experimental evaluation that compares them. To provide formal guarantees on the load balancing performance, we use a randomized optimization approach and apply the scenario theory. We perform an extensive set of experiments on a real machine, extending the popular lighttpd web server and load-balancer, and obtaining a production-ready implementation. Experimental results show an improvement of the user experience over Shortest Queue First (SQF)-believed to be near-optimal in the non-adaptive case. The improved user experience is obtained preserving the response time predictability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 52, 24-34 p.
Keyword [en]
Load-balancing, Randomized optimization, Cloud control
National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119368DOI: 10.1016/j.conengprac.2016.03.020ISI: 000377740300003OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-119368DiVA: diva2:920654
Funder
Swedish Research Council, Cloud ControlSwedish Research Council, Power and temperature control for large-scale computing infrastructureseLLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile Communications
Available from: 2016-04-18 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2016-09-14Bibliographically approved

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The full text will be freely available from 2018-07-31 11:07
Available from 2018-07-31 11:07

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Papadopoulos, Alessandro VittorioKlein, CristianMaggio, MartinaHernández-Rodriguez, FranciscoElmroth, Erik
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