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The role of exosomes in transferal of acquired cisplatin resistance
Klinisk Kemi. (Kjell Grankvist)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4968-6192
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: A major obstacle when treating cancer patients with cisplatin is that cancer often acquires cisplatin resistance during treatment, resulting in poor patient survival time. One important mechanism of cisplatin resistance is thought to be transferal of pro-survival characteristics, such as increased expression of the anti-apoptotic heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) through release and uptake of exosomes, small bioparticles that contain proteins, messenger RNA (mRNA) or micro RNA (miR).

Methods: We studied the morphology and size distribution of exosomes released by malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and non-small cell lung cancer cells through confocal microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. We assessed whether exosomes extracted from cells of the studied cell lines could fuse with the plasma membrane and introduce HSP70 to the cell surface through confocal microscopy.

Results: Exosomes secreted from cisplatin-resistant P31res cells and H1299res cells were able to fuse with the plasma membrane and present HSP70 on the surface of cells from the corresponding cell line (P31 and H1299) as well as the cells they originated from.

Conclusions: Cisplatin resistance transferal through exosomes may lead to better future treatment alternatives.

Keyword [en]
Cisplatin, acquired drug resistance, exosomes, globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
cellforskning; Medical Cell Biology; Oncology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119775OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-119775DiVA: diva2:923692
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2011/599
Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2016-04-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Targeting Gb3 and apoptosis-related proteins to overcome cisplatin resistance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Targeting Gb3 and apoptosis-related proteins to overcome cisplatin resistance
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Gb3 och apoptos-relaterade proteiner som måltavla för att bryta cisplatinresistens
Abstract [en]

Background Cisplatin is used for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but treatment with cisplatin often leads to acquired resistance to cisplatin, resulting in poor patient survival. Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) have been associated with cisplatin resistance. Gb3 serves as a receptor for verotoxin-1 (VT-1), which induces apoptosis, and has been shown to have a functional dependency to MDR1 and heat shock protein 70 (HSP7o). The Bcl-2 family of proteins and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are key regulators of apoptosis. BH3-mimetics mimic pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins, while Smac mimetics mimic the IAP-binding protein Smac/Diablo. These drugs have shown great promise in reversing cisplatin resistance. Exosomes are small bio-nanoparticles secreted and taken up by both cancer cells and normal cells. They have the ability to transfer properties between cells and have been shown to confer resistance to cisplatin.

Methods In this thesis, NSCLC cell line H1299 and MPM cell line P31 were studied using western blot, flow cytometry, proteome profilers, confocal microscopy and gene expression arrays to investigate changes in protein and gene expression after acquisition of cisplatin resistance (P31res and H1299res) or after incubation with exosomes or drugs that target these. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were studied using fluorometric cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay.

Results This thesis confirms that Gb3 is a potential target for cisplatin resistance reversal. Incubation with glycosphingolipid production inhibitor DL-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol (PPMP) and VT-1 led to reduced Gb3 cell surface expression and increased cytotoxic effect of cisplatin in all cell lines. Gb3 and MDR1 was not co-localized in any studied cell line, but Gb3 and HSP70 were co-localized on the cell surface and PPMP and VT-1 led to a decrease of both Gb3 and HSP70. Both BH3-mimetic obatoclax and Smac mimetic AT-406 had an additive effect on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in P31 and a synergistic effect in P31res. Results indicate that exosomes from cisplatin-resistant cell lines can transfer HSP70 to the surface of cells.

Conclusion Cell surface Gb3 and HSP70, the Bcl-2/IAP-family proteins and exosomal transfer of cisplatin resistance characteristics are potential targets in combatting cisplatin resistance that show therapeutic promise and warrant further research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2016. 48 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1807
Keyword
Cisplatin resistance, exosomes, gb3, HSP70, the Bcl-2 family
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Research subject
cellforskning; Medical Cell Biology; Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-119778 (URN)978-91-7601-475-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-05-23, E04, By 6E, Nod R, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, 901 85 Umeå, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2011/599
Available from: 2016-05-02 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2016-05-26Bibliographically approved

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