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Adherence to Venous Blood Specimen Collection Practice Guidelines Among Nursing Students and Healthcare Staff
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Clinical chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4135-7754
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background Patient safety is an undisputable part of healthcare. The use of clinical practice guidelines, usually based on evidence-based practice/best practice, promotes patient safety and high quality care, reduces unnecessary patient suffering, and healthcare costs. Analysing results from venous blood specimen collection is one of the most commonly used services within healthcare, and a substantial number of decisions on diagnosis, treatment, and treatment evaluation are based on the results. Hence, the accuracy of these tests are vitally important. Earlier research has demonstrated that healthcare staff report suboptimal adherence to venous blood specimen collection guidelines together with the need for improved practices. Blood sample collection is carried out by several professionals, among them registered nurses and, as a consequence, nursing students too. University nursing students learn and practice venous blood specimen collection in one of their first semesters. After initial skill training at clinical skill laboratories, they continue to perform the task during clinical placements in various clinical settings. Few or no studies have been performed on nursing students, hence it seemed important to assess guideline adherence to venous blood specimen collection among university students as well as to further explore adherence to guidelines among healthcare staff. Therefore, the overall aim for this thesis was to explore adherence to, and factors influencing venous blood specimen collection guidelines practice among university nursing students and healthcare staff.

Methods The thesis includes four studies. Study I-III had a quantitative, cross-sectional design, study IV had a qualitative approach. Study I included 164 healthcare staff from 25 primary healthcare centres. Study II included 101 nursing students in their 5th and 6th semesters, and study III included 305 nursing students in their 2nd, 4th, and 6th semesters. To assess adherence to venous blood specimen collection guidelines, data were collected using the Venous Blood Specimen Questionnaire, completed with background variables (I, II, III) and additional scales (III). Descriptive statistics, multilevel and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the data. In study IV, data were collected through five focus group interviews among 6th semester nursing students (n=26). Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

Results Workplace affiliation was found to explain variances in reported adherence between different primary healthcare centres. Associations between reported venous blood specimen collection practices and individual as well as workplace factors were revealed. Nursing students were found to increasingly deviate from guideline adherence during their education. Also among students, several associations between guideline adherence and other iv

factors were revealed. Reported research use at clinical practice was associated with higher levels of adherence, as were higher capability beliefs regarding both evidence-based practice and academic ability. Analyses from focus group interviews summarised students’ reflections on deviations from VBSC guidelines in the overall theme ‘Striving to blend in and simultaneously follow guidelines’.

Conclusion Both healthcare staff at primary healthcare centres and nursing students demonstrate decreasing levels of guideline adherence with time. Factors influencing adherence are both individual as well as contextual. This indicate that both students and staff are subjected to socialisation processes that influences levels of adherence. In order to enhance venous blood specimen collection practices and thereby patient safety, actions must be taken - both in healthcare clinical contexts and by educators. The use of models in practical skill training, and in the ambition to bridge the theory-practice gap may be the path to success. It is reasonable to assume that collaboration between, on the one hand, education representatives and on the other, supervising RNs in clinical settings, will be fruitful. Finally, by empowering students their self-efficacy may be strengthened, and hence their ability to maintain guideline adherence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016. , 63 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1794
Keyword [en]
Adherence, Clinical practice guidelines, Experiences, Nursing student, Patient safety, Pre-analytical errors, Primary healthcare, Questionnaires, Venous blood specimen collection
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120082ISBN: 978-91-7601-444-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-120082DiVA: diva2:926911
Public defence
2016-06-03, Aula, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2016-05-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Associations between workplace affiliation and phlebotomy practices regarding patient identification and test request handling practices in primary healthcare centres: a multilevel model approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between workplace affiliation and phlebotomy practices regarding patient identification and test request handling practices in primary healthcare centres: a multilevel model approach
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2015 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 15, 503Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Clinical practice guidelines aim to enhance patient safety by reducing inappropriate variations in practice. Despite considerable efforts to enhance the use of clinical practice guidelines, adherence is often suboptimal. We investigated to what extent workplace affiliation explains variation of self-reported adherence to venous blood specimen collection regarding patient identification and test request handling practices, taking into consideration other primary healthcare centre and individual phlebotomist characteristics. Methods: Data were collected through a questionnaire survey of 164 phlebotomy staff from 25 primary healthcare centres in northern Sweden. To prevent the impact of a large-scale education intervention in 2008, only baseline data, collected over a 3-month period in 2006-2007, were used and subjected to descriptive statistics and multilevel logistic analyses. Results: In two patient identification outcomes, stable high median odds ratios (MOR) were found in both the empty model, and in the adjusted full model including both individual and workplace factors. Our findings suggest that variances among phlebotomy staff can be largely explained by primary healthcare centre affiliation also when individual and workplace demographic characteristics were taken in consideration. Analyses showed phlebotomy staff at medium and large primary healthcare centres to be more likely to adhere to guidelines than staff at small centres. Furthermore, staff employed shorter time at worksite to be more likely to adhere than staff employed longer. Finally, staff performing phlebotomy every week or less were more likely to adhere than staff performing phlebotomy on a daily basis. Conclusion: Workplace affiliation largely explains variances in self-reported adherence to venous blood specimen collection guidelines for patient identification and test request handling practices among phlebotomy staff. Characteristics of the workplace, as well as of the individual phlebotomist, need to be identified in order to design strategies to improve clinical practice in this and other areas.

Keyword
Clinical practice guidelines, Guideline adherence, Nursing, Phlebotomy, Professional socialization, Venous blood specimen collection, Workplace affiliation
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-112246 (URN)10.1186/s12913-015-1157-9 (DOI)000364771700001 ()26552430 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
2. Deviations from venous blood specimen collection guideline adherence among senior nursing students
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deviations from venous blood specimen collection guideline adherence among senior nursing students
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2014 (English)In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 34, no 2, 237-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Despite considerable efforts to increase patient safety by supporting the use of best practice medical and nursing guidelines by healthcare staff, adherence is often suboptimal. Swedish nurses often deviate from venous blood specimen collection (VBSC) guideline adherence. We assessed the adherence to national VBSC guidelines among senior nursing students.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, self-reported questionnaire survey among 101 out of 177 senior nursing students consisting of web-based students in their fifth semester and campus-based students in their fifth or sixth semester out of six. In regard to the VBSC procedures, we asked about adherence to the patient identification, test request handling, and test tube labelling protocols that the students had learned during their second semester and practiced thereafter.

Results: Guideline adherence to patient identification was reported by 81%, test request handling by 74%, and test tube labelling by 2% of the students. Students with no prior healthcare education reported to a higher extent that they operated within the guidelines regarding labelling the test tube before entering the patient's room compared to students with prior healthcare education. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we found that fifth semester web-based program students adhered better to VBSC guidelines regarding comparing patient ID/test request/tube label compared to campus-based students.

Conclusions: Senior nursing students were found to adhere to VBSC guidelines to a similar extent as registered nurses and other hospital ward staff in clinical healthcare. Thus student adherence to VBSC guidelines had deteriorated since their basic training in the second semester, and this can impact patient safety during university/clinical studies. The results of our study have implications for nursing practice education.

(C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-87178 (URN)10.1016/j.nedt.2013.06.018 (DOI)000331347000014 ()
Available from: 2014-03-31 Created: 2014-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
3. Factors associated with nursing students' adherence to venous blood collection practice guidelines: A cross sectional study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors associated with nursing students' adherence to venous blood collection practice guidelines: A cross sectional study
2017 (English)In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 23, 92-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Venous blood specimen collection is a common procedure that nursing students perform during pre-registration courses, and training for such collections takes place on campus as well as at clinical placements. However, levels of adherence to practice guidelines are still suboptimal among both nursing students and healthcare staff. We aimed to explore nursing students' adherence to the Swedish national venous blood specimen collection practice guidelines regarding patient identification and test request management and how this adherence is related to clinical experience, capability beliefs, research use,and the perceived social climate in clinical contexts. A survey with a cross-sectional design was conducted among 305 nursing students at a medium sized university in Sweden. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The survey showed that 82% of the students adhered to patient identification guideline practices and 80% to test request management practices. Factors associated with correct patient identification procedures were semester and frequency of research use.Factors associated with correct test request management were previous healthcare work experience,semester, and capability beliefs regarding academic abilities and evidence-based practice. We conclude that there is a need to develop educational tools to train students in research use and evidence-based practice in order to enhance guideline practice adherence and improve patient safety.

Keyword
Guideline adherence, Patient safety, Practical skills, Venous blood specimen collection
National Category
Nursing Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120133 (URN)10.1016/j.nepr.2017.02.002 (DOI)000398876200014 ()28278444 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2017-05-16Bibliographically approved
4. Senior Nursing Students’ Reflection on Deviations from Guideline Adherence regarding Venous Blood Specimen Collection Practice: a qualitative study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Senior Nursing Students’ Reflection on Deviations from Guideline Adherence regarding Venous Blood Specimen Collection Practice: a qualitative study
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120134 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2016-05-12

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