umu.sePublications
Change search
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Increasing training load without risking the female athlete triad: Menstrual cycle based periodized training may be an answer?
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4458-6475
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
2016 (English)In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects that may lead to the female athlete triad are essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential negative effects of high frequency periodized menstrual/OC cycle based leg resistance training on components in the female athlete triad.

METHODS: Fifty-nine women, with experience of resistance training and with regular menstrual/OC cycles were included in the analyses. The participants were randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre-to-post change of sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass, bone mineral density in the spine. We further examined the participants’ own experience of the training programs.

RESULTS: No significant negative impact on sex and growth hormones, cortisol, total body fat mass and bone mineral density in the spine, was detected in any of the groups. Moreover, the women in group 1 experienced their training program as positive.

CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency periodized leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences on components in the female athlete triad. Moreover, the training was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016.
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120381PubMedID: 27167713OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-120381DiVA: diva2:928642
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31
In thesis
1. Training and hormones in physically active women: with and without oral contraceptive use
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Training and hormones in physically active women: with and without oral contraceptive use
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The number of women participating in sports has increased dramatically, though research in sports are often performed on men. Physical exercise is known to increase physical performance and improve well-being. Although exercise has beneficial health effects for most of the women, it is known that strenuous exercise may also have negative health consequences. Common are menstrual dysfunctions and the medical effects of a long-standing amenorrhea are serious. Moreover, strenuous exercise without adequate recovery may lead to overreaching (OR) /overtraining syndrome (OTS). An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects are essential. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the effects on strength and power of high frequency periodised leg resistance training to evaluate a training regime and moreover to investigate if the training was well accepted and without potential exercise-related negative consequences. Moreover, to provide normative data on oxytocin and cortisol to elucidate if these hormones could be one diagnostic marker in combination with others to monitor and diagnose female athletes that may be at risk to develop OR/OTS.

Methods: Fifty-nine women, participated in the four month intervention study. Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1, trained with high frequency (5 times·w-1) during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2, during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group performed regular (3 times·w-1) leg resistance training. Another 33 women participated in the observational study. The OC users and non-users, were followed over a nine-month period with monthly blood sampling of oxytocin and cortisol, and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) as a subjective measure of OR/OTS.

Results: The women who performed high frequency leg resistance training, 5 times·w-1, during the first two weeks of each cycle showed significant increase in jump height, peak torque values in hamstrings, increased lean body mass of the legs, and their experiences of the training were positive. These results were not found when the periodised training was performed during the last two weeks of each cycle. In the control group an increase in jump height, and peak torque (left hamstring) was observed. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without OC use. Moreover, no exercise-related negative consequences were detected in any of the three groups. The women in the observational study showed seasonal variations in oxytocin and cortisol, with different pattern in OC users to non-users. No convincing relationships to POMS were found. 

Conclusions: The high frequency periodised leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the cycle is more beneficial to optimize resistance training, than the last two weeks. The high frequency periodised leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences and was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle. Due to seasonality and impact of OC use, oxytocin and cortisol are not suggested to be optimal, diagnostic markers alone/in combination with others, to detect OR/OTS in physically active women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. 82 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1820
Keyword
female athletes, hormones, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptive cycle, resistance training, muscle strength, power, body composition, female athlete triad, overreaching, overtraining syndrome
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124842 (URN)978-91-7601-516-2 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Public defence
2016-09-23, Vårdvetarhuset, Aulan, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-02 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2016-09-05Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

No full text

PubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Wikström-Frisén, LisbethBoraxbekk, Carl-JohanHenriksson-Larsén, Karin
By organisation
Sports medicineCentre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR)
In the same journal
Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Sport and Fitness Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

Altmetric score

Total: 1703 hits
ReferencesLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link