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Stroke and depression in very old age
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3594-0337
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Stroke och depression i mycket hög ålder (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Background The prevalence and incidence of stroke are known to increase with age, which, combined with demographic change, means that very old patients with stroke are a growing patient group. Risk factors for incident stroke among very old people have not been widely investigated. The impact of depression on mortality in very old people who have had a stroke also remains unclear. 

The aim of this thesis was to investigate the risk factors for incident stroke, the epidemiology of stroke and depression, and the consequences of having had a stroke regarding the risk of depression and mortality among very old people.

Methods A randomly selected half of 85-, all 90-, and all ≥95-year-olds in certain municipalities in Västerbotten County, Sweden, and Pohjanmaa County, Finland were targeted in a population-based cohort study from 2000-2012. The 65-, 70-, 75-, and 80-year-olds in all the rural and random samples from the urban municipalities in the same counties were furthermore targeted in a survey in 2010.

In the cohort study patients were assessed in their homes, by means of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and other assessment scales, as well as blood pressure measurements, several physical tests, and a review of medical diagnoses appearing in the medical charts. Incident stroke data were collected from medical charts guided by hospital registry records, cause of death records, and reassessments after 5 years. Depression was defined as a GDS-15 score ≥5. A clinical definition of all depressive disorders, based on assessment scale scores and review of medical charts was also used. A specialist in geriatric medicine evaluated the diagnoses. The survey included yes/no questions about stroke and depression status, and the 4-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Associations with mortality and incident stroke were tested using Cox proportional-hazard models. 

Results In the ≥85-year-olds examined in 2005-2007 (n=601), the stroke prevalence was 21.5%, the prevalence of all depressive disorders was 37.8% and stroke was independently associated with depressive disorders (odds ratio 1.644, p=0.038). The prevalence of depression according to GDS-15 scores was 43.2% in people with stroke compared with 25.0% in people without stroke (p=0.001). However, in ≥85-year-olds examined in Sweden from 2000-2012 (n=955), from all past data collections in the study, depression was not independently associated with incident stroke. 

In ≥65-year-olds who responded to a survey in 2010 (n=6098), the stroke prevalence rose with age from 4.7% among the 65- to 11.6% among the 80-year-olds (p<0.001). The prevalence of depression rose from 11.0% among the 65- to 18.1% among the 80-year-olds (p<0.001). In the group with stroke, depression was independently associated with dependence in personal activities of daily living and having a life crisis the preceding year, while in the non-stroke group, depression was independently associated with several additional demographic, social and health factors.

In ≥85-year-olds examined in 2005-2007 with valid GDS-15 tests (n=452), having had a stroke was associated with increased 5-year mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 1.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-2.03]. Having had a stroke and depression was associated with increased 5-year mortality compared with having only stroke (HR 1.90, 95% CI 1.15-3.13), having only depression (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.03-2.45), and compared with having neither stroke nor depression (HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.69-3.69). Having only stroke without a depression did not increase mortality compared with having neither stroke nor depression.

In ≥85-year-olds examined in Sweden from 2000-2012 (n=955), from all past data collections in the study, the stroke incidence was 33.8/1000 person-years during a mean follow-up period of about three years. In a comprehensive multivariate model, atrial fibrillation (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07–3.19) and higher systolic blood pressure (SBP; HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.30 per 10-mmHg increase) were associated with incident stroke overall. In additional multivariate models, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg (HR 2.45, 95% CI 1.47–4.08) and SBP ≥160 mmHg (v. <140 mmHg; HR 2.80, 95% CI 1.53–5.14) were associated with incident stroke.

Conclusion The prevalence of both stroke and depression increased with age, and rates were especially high among very old people. Having had a stroke was independently associated with a higher prevalence of depression among very old people, however, depression was not independently associated with a higher incidence of stroke. Having had a stroke was associated with increased all-cause mortality among very old people, but only among those who were also depressed. High SBP (≥160 mmHg), DBP (≥90 mmHg) and atrial fibrillation were the only consistent independent risk factors for incident stroke among very old people.

Abstract [sv]

I västvärlden inklusive Sverige så ökar gruppen av människor som uppnår åldern 80 år eller äldre. Människorna som uppnår denna mycket höga ålder har en hög förekomst av kardiovaskulära riskfaktorer, har ofta flera samtidiga sjukdomar och ofta funktionsnedsättningar. Medicinska behandlingsåtgärder är ofta mindre effektiva och förknippade med biverkningar i åldersgruppen.

Stroke är en sjukdom som beror på skada av hjärnvävnad till följd av minskad blodtillhörsel till delar av hjärnan. Det är känt att såväl förekomsten av och insjuknandet i stroke ökar med stigande ålder. Den som drabbas av stroke löper risk att få en bestående funktionsnedsättning och att dö i förtid. En vanlig komplikation efter att ha drabbats av stroke är nedstämdhet eller depression.

Vetenskapliga studier om stroke har tidigare negligerat mycket gamla människor, vilket i takt med den pågående demografiska utvecklingen framstått som allt mer orimligt. Det är ej helt klarlagt vilka riskfaktorer som leder till att insjukna med stroke i mycket hög ålder. Överdödligheten förknippad med att drabbas av depression efter stroke är också oklar i åldersgruppen. Det är också oklart vad som skiljer depression efter stroke från depression bland den övriga befolkningen av åldrade människor.

Den populations-baserade kohortstudien GErontologisk Regional DAtabas (GERDA) inleddes år 2000 för att kartlägga faktorer förknippade med gott åldrande bland mycket gamla människor. Hälften av 85-åringarna, alla 90-åringar och alla ≥95-åringar i utvalda kommuner i Västerbotten erbjöds att delta i studien. Därefter har återbesök hos tidigare deltagare i sina nya åldersgrupper och rekrytering av nya deltagare genomförts vart femte år. Studien utvidgades med utvalda kommuner i Österbotten, Finland vid den första femårsuppföljningen. Datainsamlingen i studien bestod av demografiska frågor, skattningsskalor, blodtrycksmätning och kognitiva test genomförda vid ett hembesök i deltagarens hem, samt genomgång av journalhandlingar. År 2010 skickades även en enkät ut till 65-, 70-, 75- och 80-åringar i alla kommuner i Västerbotten och Österbotten. Enkäten innehöll frågor om demografi, hälsa, sjukdomar och intressen.

Bland deltagarna i kohortstudien bestämdes förekomsten av tidigare stroke baserat på genomgång av journaluppgifter och uppgifter från hembesöken. Förekomsten av depression bestämdes baserat på poängsättning från en validerad skattningsskala för depression, samt baserat på en sammanvägning av journaluppgifter och skattningsskalor. En specialist i geriatrik fattade det slutliga beslutet om diagnoser. Insjuknande i stroke bestämdes baserat på journalgenomgång av individer med stroke-relaterade diagnoskoder i sjukhusregistret, i dödsorsaksregistret eller uppgift om stroke vid femårsuppföljningen i studien. Bland deltagarna i enkätstudien bestämdes förekomsten av tidigare stroke baserat på självrapportering, och förekomsten av depression bestämdes baserat på en sammanvägning av självrapportering och en skattningsskala för depression. 

Förekomsten av stroke i enkätstudien steg med ålder, från 4.7% bland 65-åringar till 11.6% bland 80-åringar. Förekomsten av stroke var omkring 20% bland ≥85-åringar, med minimal variation mellan 85-, 90- och ≥95-åringar. Förekomsten av depression var högre bland dem med stroke jämfört med de övriga deltagarna, både gällande den sammavägda diagnosen och baserat endast på poängsättning. Stroke och sömnproblem var oberoende associerade med depression.

Bland ≥65-åringar i enkätstudien var funktionsnedsättning och genomgången livskris associerade med depression hos dem med en tidigare stroke. Bland deltagare utan stroke var ett antal ytterligare externa faktorer, inklusive subjektiv upplevelse av dålig ekonomi och att inte ha någon att anförtro sig till, associerade med depression.

Både stroke och depression var associerade med ökad dödlighet bland ≥85-åringar. De med stroke utan depression hade en dödlighet i linje med normalbefolkningen utan stroke eller depression. Förekomsten av samtidig stroke och depression var associerad med högre dödlighet än normalbefolkningen, jämfört med dem med enbart stroke eller enbart depression.

Högt systoliskt blodtryck (≥160 mmHg), högt diastoliskt blodtryck (≥90 mmHg) och förmaksflimmer var oberoende riskfaktorer för att insjukna i stroke bland ≥85-åringarna. Sambandet mellan blodtryck och strokerisk försvagades ej hos människor med kognitiv eller funktionell nedsättning. Tidigare stroke, hjärtsvikt, kognitiv nedsättning, näringsbrist, depressiva symtom och låg gånghastighet var också associerade med att insjukna i stroke, men ej oberoende av varandra.

Sammanfattningsvis så stiger förekomsten av stroke med åldern och är särskilt hög bland mycket gamla människor. Depression är betydligt vanligare hos mycket gamla människor med stroke, även justerat för störningsfaktorer. Depression är främst associerat med funktions-nedsättning hos människor med stroke, men med ett större antal externa faktorer hos människor utan stroke. Mycket gamla människor med stroke har särskilt hög dödlighet om de samtidigt är deprimerade, men en dödlighet i linje med normalbefolkningen om de inte är deprimerade. Högt systoliskt och diastoliskt blodtryck samt förmaksflimmer är viktiga och behandlingsbara orsaker till att drabbas av stroke i mycket hög ålder.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University , 2016. , 56 p.
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1800
Keyword [en]
stroke, depression, very old, oldest old, epidemiology, mortality, risk factors, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, geriatric depression scale
National Category
Geriatrics
Research subject
Geriatrics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120388ISBN: 978-91-7601-460-8OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-120388DiVA: diva2:928775
Public defence
2016-06-10, Vårdvetarhusets Aula, Lasarettsbacken 7, 907 46 Umeå, Umeå, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-05-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The prevalence of stroke and the association between stroke and depression among a very old population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The prevalence of stroke and the association between stroke and depression among a very old population
2012 (English)In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 55, no 3, 555-559 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are few studies comparing those who have had and have not had a stroke among those aged 80 years and over, the very old. The aim of this paper was to investigate the prevalence of stroke and the association between stroke and depression in a very old population. This paper is based on cross-sectional data from a population-based study performed between 2005 and 2007. Half of those aged 85 years, all 90-, and 95-year-olds and older in eight urban and rural municipalities in northern Sweden and Finland were invited to participate. A sample of 601 individuals who participated fully in the study was selected. Data were collected through assessments, structured interviews and investigation of medical charts. A specialist in geriatric medicine determined disease status for depression based on medical records and results from the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15, the Montgomery A Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Organic Brain Syndrome (OBS) scale, and for stroke based on medical records and reported disease. The prevalence of stroke was 21.5%. The prevalence of depression was 50.4% among those with stroke compared to 34.3% among those without stroke (OR 1.944, p < 0.001). In a logistic regression model adjusted for several demographic variables, diseases and functional level, stroke was independently associated with depression (OR 1.644, p = 0.038). A large proportion of those with depression, both with and without stroke, were not receiving antidepressant medication. In conclusion, the stroke prevalence was high and stroke showed a strong association with depression among very old people. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keyword
cerebrovascular disease, stroke, depression, epidemiology, very old
National Category
Geriatrics Gerontology, specializing in Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-60636 (URN)10.1016/j.archger.2012.04.012 (DOI)000308667900006 ()
Available from: 2012-11-07 Created: 2012-10-22 Last updated: 2016-05-18Bibliographically approved
2. The prevalence of stroke and depression and factors associated with depression in elderly people with and without stroke
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The prevalence of stroke and depression and factors associated with depression in elderly people with and without stroke
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120387 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-05-18
3. The association between stroke, depression, and 5-year mortality among very old people
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between stroke, depression, and 5-year mortality among very old people
2013 (English)In: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 44, no 9, 2587-2589 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and Purpose Depression after stroke has been associated with increased mortality, but little is known about this association among very old people. Methods A population-based study among people 85 years of age was conducted in northern Sweden and Finland, comprising cross-sectional assessments and subsequent survival data. The 452 individuals who had completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 assessment were selected. Depression was defined as a score of 5 on the geriatric depression scale. Results Of those with a history of stroke, 38 of 88 (43.2%) people were depressed, and 11 of the 38 (28.9%) were treated with antidepressants, compared with 91 of 364 (25.0%) depressed (P=0.001) and 17 of 91 (18.7%) treated with antidepressants among those without stroke. Having a history of stroke and ongoing depression was associated with increased 5-year mortality compared with having only stroke (hazard ratio, 1.90; confidence interval, 1.15-3.13), having only depression (hazard ratio, 1.59; confidence interval, 1.03-2.45), and compared with having neither stroke nor depression (hazard ratio, 2.50; confidence interval, 1.69-3.69). Having only stroke without depression did not increase mortality compared with having neither stroke nor depression. Conclusions A history of stroke was associated with increased mortality among very old people but only among those who were also depressed. Depression seemed to be underdiagnosed and undertreated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013
Keyword
cerebrovascular disorders, depression, epidemiology, mortality, stroke, very old
National Category
Neurology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-86083 (URN)10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.002202 (DOI)000329982500051 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2014-02-17 Created: 2014-02-17 Last updated: 2016-05-18
4. High blood pressure as a risk factor for incident stroke among very old people: a population-based cohort study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High blood pressure as a risk factor for incident stroke among very old people: a population-based cohort study
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120386 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-05-18

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