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Modelling and simulation of building components: thermal interaction between multilayer wall and hydronic radiator
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. (Energy efficiency)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2822-0000
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background and Scope The scope of this thesis is to investigate the thermal behaviour of building components as hydronic radiator and multilayer walls subjected to dynamic conditions. The modelling and simulation of these building components provide information on how these components thermally interact among each other. The thermal interaction is fundamental to know how the energy is used in buildings. In particular, the thermal energy used in rooms can be expressed as the efficiencies for emission in a space heating system. This thesis analyzes the efficiencies for emission of a space heating system equipped with hydronic radiator for Swedish buildings by providing a comprehensive and detailed approach on this topic.

 

Methodology The methods used in this thesis are: experiment, modelling of multilayer wall and hydronic radiator, the dynamic simulation of the building and the efficiencies for emission of a space heating system. Here, the experiment, known as step response test, shows the heating up process of a hydronic radiator. The observation of the qualitative measurements suggests the most suitable technique of modelling the radiator known as transient modelling with multiple storage elements. The multilayer wall has been discretized both in space and time variable with a Finite Difference Method. Dynamic simulation of the building provides the efficiencies for emission of a space heating system.

 

Findings The experimental results show how the radiator performs the charging phase. The performance of the transient model is compared with lumped steady state models in terms of temperature of exhaust flow and total heat emitted. Results of the dynamic simulation show how buildings located in a Northern climate use the energy in a better way than Southern climates in Sweden. Heavy active thermal mass provides higher efficiencies for emission than light thermal mass. Radiators with connection pipes located on the same side react faster at the thermodynamic changing of the mass flow rate by providing higher efficiencies for emission than radiators with connection pipes located on the opposite side.

 

Conclusion and Outlook This thesis increases the knowledge about the modelling and simulation of hydronic radiators and multilayer walls. More research is needed on this topic to encompass modelling details of building components often ignored. The modelling and simulation of building components are the key to understand how building components thermally interact with each other. The thermal interaction among building components is a fundamental parameter for the assessment of efficiencies of emission of the space heating system. In the near future, the concept of efficiencies of emission can be implemented in National Building Code, therefore, this study provides guidelines on how to assess these efficiencies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University , 2016. , 39 p.
Keyword [en]
Hydronic radiator, multilayer wall, efficiencies of emission
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Systems Analysis; Technical Physics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121201ISBN: 978-91-7601-515-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-121201DiVA: diva2:931582
Presentation
2016-06-15, MC413, MIT-huset, Umeå University, Umeå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Advisors: Ronny Östin and Mohsen Soleimanni Mohseni, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Umeå University

Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2016-06-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Investigations of thermal parameters addressed to a building simulation model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigations of thermal parameters addressed to a building simulation model
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of BS2015, India, Hyderabad: International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2015, , 2741-2748 p.2741-2748 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper shows the tolerance of thermal parameters addressed to a building simulation model in relation to the local control of the HVAC system. This work is suitable for a modeler that has to set up a building simulation model. The modeler has to know which parameter needs to be considered carefully and vice-versa which does not need deep investigations. Local differential sensitivity analysis of thermal parameters generates the uncertainty bands for the indoor air. The latter operation is repeated with P, PI and PID local control of the heating system. In conclusion, the local control of a room has a deterministic impact on the tolerance of thermal parameters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
India, Hyderabad: International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2015. 2741-2748 p.
Keyword
Hybrid model of a room, local sensitivity analysis, HVAC, tolerance of thermal parameters
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Technical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116129 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India, Dec. 7-9, 2015.
Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
2. Transient model of a panel radiator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transient model of a panel radiator
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India, Dec. 7-9, 2015, India, Hyderabad: International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2015, , 2749-2756 p.2749-2756 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper shows a transient model of a hydronic panel radiator modelled as a system of multiple storage elements. The experiment´s results suggest the more suitable technique for modelling this technology. The panel radiator is modelled numerically with eight thermal capacitance connected in series by keeping a memory of the heat injected in the thermal unit. The comparison of the performance among lumped steadystate models and transient model, in terms of heat emission and temperature of exhaust flow, shows the potential of the latter approach. To conclude, (1) the transient phase is essential for modelling stocky panels, and (2) this type of modelling has to be addressed for evaluating the performance of low energy buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
India, Hyderabad: International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA), 2015. 2749-2756 p.
Keyword
Transient model of panel radiator, EN 15316
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Technical Physics; English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-116130 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of BS2015: 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, Hyderabad, India, Dec. 7-9, 2015.
Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
3. Practical support for evaluating efficiency factors of a space heating system in cold climates: modelling and simulation of hydronic panel radiator with different location of connection pipes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Practical support for evaluating efficiency factors of a space heating system in cold climates: modelling and simulation of hydronic panel radiator with different location of connection pipes
2017 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 10, no 5, 1253-1267 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plenty of technical norms, included in the EPBD umbrella, assess the performance of buildings or its sub-systems in terms of efficiency. In particular, EN 15316 and its sub-sections, determine the system energy requirements and the system efficiencies of space heating system. This paper focuses on the estimation of efficiencies for emission of hydronic radiators. The assessment of efficiencies for emission occurs by evaluating the amount of heat emitted  from the heat emitter and the extra thermal losses towards building envelope. The heat emitted from radiators varies during the heating up/cooling down phases. A factor that influences the heat emitted during these phases is the location of connection pipes of the radiator. Connection pipes can be located on opposite side or at the same side of the radiator. To better estimate the heat emitted from radiators a transient model with multiple storage elements is used in a building simulation model. Sensitivity analysis encompasses all  the possible variations on extra thermal losses due to the building location in different climates, the heaviness of active thermal mass and the type of radiator local control. The final outcome of this paper is a practical support where the designer can easily assess the efficiencies for emission of hydronic radiators  for Swedish buildings. As main result, (i) the efficiency for control of space heating system is higher in Northern climates than in Southern climates, (ii) heavy active thermal masses allow higher efficiencies for emission than light active thermal masses, (iii) connection pipes located on the same side of the radiator enable higher efficiencies for emission than pipes located on opposite side.

Keyword
Hydronic panel radiator, Efficiency factors, Connection pipes, Transient model with multiple storage elements, Climate, Active thermal mass
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Systems Analysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121199 (URN)10.1007/s12053-017-9506-7 (DOI)000411865800013 ()
Available from: 2016-05-29 Created: 2016-05-29 Last updated: 2017-11-17Bibliographically approved
4. One dimensional model of transient heat conduction through multilayer walls/slabs: The functionality of insulation and brick materials in terms of decrement factor and time lag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>One dimensional model of transient heat conduction through multilayer walls/slabs: The functionality of insulation and brick materials in terms of decrement factor and time lag
2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Abstract Multilayer wall is a common type of building envelope used in buildings located in cold climates. The building envelope is typically composed by internal and external masses made by bricks or concrete separated by a large thickness of insulation material. This paper investigates the thermal behavior of a multilayer wall subjected to temperature excitation on both wall sides. The analysis is conducted by discretizing the continuous space and time variables of the mathematical model identified in the heat equation. Euler backwards solves the numerical model of multilayer wall by providing an unconditionally stable solution. The step response test shows the correct working of the model which reaches the steady state solution. The results of this paper are expressed in terms of temperature of each wall layer against the time. In particular, (i) the large thickness of insulation material separates thermodynamically the outside external mass from the internal mass, (ii) 20 cm thickness of insulation material damps the heat wave with a decrement factor of 3.41 °ͦC and a time lag of 1 hour, (iii) the external brick layer damps the heat wave with a decrement factor of 1.97 °ͦC and a time lag of 5 hours.

Keyword
Heat equation, Euler Implicit solver, Multilayer walls/slabs, Finite Dierence Method
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Systems Analysis; Technical Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121200 (URN)
Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2016-06-03
5. Hybrid heating system for open-space office/laboratory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid heating system for open-space office/laboratory
2015 (English)In: Energy, Science and Technology 2015: Book of Abstracts. The energy conference for scientists and researchers / [ed] Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Karlsruher, Germany: Karlsruhe, KIT , 2015, Vol. 1, 315-315 p.Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Open-space office/laboratory are quite common in Scandinavia and they are usually designed for multipurposework. There are office area where is possible to work standing up and in the same time to work at the desk. Forthis purpose a hybrid heating system made by electric convectors and panel radiators is investigated. Two stepresponse tests of the hybrid heating system are performed at the laboratory of Umeå University. The first test isexecuted during the week, disturbances from heat sources degrading the quality of the results. The second test isperformed during week-end. The error analysis shows a maximum discrepancies of +0.6 °C between measuredand simulated data. However, a thermal time constant of the room can be deducted and use it for controlling purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlsruher, Germany: Karlsruhe, KIT, 2015
Keyword
Open office, Hybrid heating system, Step response test, Error analysis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109889 (URN)
Conference
EST, Energy Science Technology, International Conference & Exhibition, 20-22 May 2015, Karlsruhe, Germany
Available from: 2015-10-08 Created: 2015-10-08 Last updated: 2017-06-22Bibliographically approved
6. Transient model of a panel radiator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transient model of a panel radiator
2015 (English)In: Energy, Science and Technology 2015: Book of Abstracts. The energy conference for scientists and researchers / [ed] Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), Karlsruher, Germany: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT) , 2015, Vol. 1, 321-321 p.Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper shows a detailed transient model of a panel radiator considered as a system of multiple storageelements. The experiment records the temperature surface of the panel in the process of heating up. Thequalitative results of the experiment suggest the more appropriate technique for modelling this technology. The transient model performs the modelling with horizontal thermal capacitances connected in series. This modelcalculates the temperature of exhaust flow, heat emission towards indoor environment, temperature gradient onpanel surface, dead and balancing time identified numerically on the chart.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlsruher, Germany: Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), 2015
Keyword
Transient model, Multiple storage elements, Heat emission, Exhaust flow, Step response
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109888 (URN)
Conference
EST, Energy Science Technology, International Conference & Exhibition, 20-22 May 2015, Karlsruhe, Germany
Available from: 2015-10-08 Created: 2015-10-08 Last updated: 2017-06-22Bibliographically approved
7. Investigation of thermal parameters addressed to a building simulation model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of thermal parameters addressed to a building simulation model
2015 (English)In: Energy, Science and Technology 2015: Book of Abstracts. The energy conference for scientists and researchers / [ed] Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruher, Germany: Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT) , 2015, Vol. 1, 128- p.Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction The uncertainty of setting input parameters in a building model can have a major impact on the simulated output. The tolerance of thermal parameters is a necessary information that helps modeler to know the influence of eachfactors on the outcomes. This paper shows the allowable tolerance of thermal parameters in order to build anaccurate building model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlsruher, Germany: Karlsruher Institute of Technology (KIT), 2015
Keyword
Tolerance of thermal parameters, Hybrid model, Differential sensitivity analysis, Proportional control
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-109880 (URN)
Conference
EST, Energy Science Technology, International Conference & Exhibition, 20-22 May 2015, Karlsruhe, Germany
Available from: 2015-10-08 Created: 2015-10-08 Last updated: 2016-05-31Bibliographically approved

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