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Analyzing co-variation patterns between functional and multivariate ecological data – the functional co-inertia analysis
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Landskapsekologi)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. (Landskapsekologi)
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]
  1. Ecological phenomena are often better represented by mathematical functions than by discrete values. Examples include population trends, temperatures curves, functional responses of predators and seed size distributions. A collection of such functions describing the same phenomenon in different sites or at different points in time constitutes a functional data set. To facilitate the use of functional data sets, we develop a statistical method that allows for the analysis of co-variation between functional and multivariate data sets.
  2. We extend the multivariate co-inertia analysis framework for analyzing common variation structure between datasets to cases when one or both datasets consist of functional data. We use basis expansions of functions and weighted inner products to extend the concepts of inertia and co-inertia to functional data and present an extension of the RV-coefficient for quantifying the association between datasets. We then derive the functional co-inertia analysis (fCoIA) as a special case of the multivariate method. Using metrics derived from the functions in the basis expansion we express the fCoIA as a multivariate co-inertia analysis of basis expansion coefficients. The new approach is illustrated by coupling non-functional bryophyte species data with a functional dataset describing age-area distributions of young land-uplift islands.
  3. The technique efficiently summarizes the co-variation structure between the two datasets and provides quantifications and visualizations of the contributions from each data set to the co-variation..An important feature of the results is the graphical illustration of the common variation patterns through plots of approximations of cross-covariance function shapes describing the detailed co-variation of each variable in the multivariate data with the functional data.
  4. The methodology provides ecologists (potentially also evolutionary biologists) with a new tool for incorporating functional data into ordination analyses and considerably extends the realm of questions that can be addressed. In the future, the approach might be extended to other multivariate methods (e.g….) building on the co-inertia framework (e.g RLQ analysis) and we envision analyses matching environmental data to function valued species traits (e.g “reaction norms” of plastic phenotypic expressions).
Keyword [en]
functional data analysis, fCoIA, bryophytes, land uplift, co-inertia
National Category
Ecology Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Ecological Botany; Statistics
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121235OAI: diva2:932291
Swedish Research Council Formas, 215-2010-998
Available from: 2016-06-01 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2016-06-01
In thesis
1. Island biogeography of young land uplift islands - viewed through the lens of bryophytes in a northern Swedish archipelago
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Island biogeography of young land uplift islands - viewed through the lens of bryophytes in a northern Swedish archipelago
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Öbiogeografi hos unga landhöjningsöar - betraktad ur ett mossperspektiv.
Abstract [en]

Increasing habitat fragmentation and rapid global warming is changing the conditions for species populations and ecological communities around the world. This presents challenges for the maintenance of biodiversity and a dominant paradigm for conservation in fragmented habitats is given by island biogeography and metapopulation (or metacommunity) ecology.

In this thesis I approach key concepts (area, connectivity and community assembly) in island biogeography and metacommunity ecology within the context of a dynamic land uplift archipelago. The presented work consists of two interwoven themes: (i) A methodological theme in which statistical approaches are developed to deal with the complexities of multispecies dynamic systems, and (ii) an applied theme dealing with community assembly and island biogeography of bryophytes on young land uplift islands.

To describe island connectivity for entire species assemblages, an approach using functional principal component analysis (fPCA) on patch connectivity functions (the connectivity of an island as a continuous function of a variable representing the spatial scale of species dispersal capacities) was developed. In addition, a new statistical method, functional co-inertia analysis (fCoIA), for analyzing co-variation between multivariate species data and continuous functions was developed and applied to the relation between bryophyte species incidences and the island age/area-dynamics.

Primarily asexual bryophyte species are dispersal limited and presence probabilities are related to island connectivity. No such patterns were found for species, at least occasionally, producing spores. Our results suggest that bryophyte dispersal is regulated by the contribution of spores to a regional spore rain and that bryophyte species with low spore output at the landscape level may be extra vulnerable under habitat fragmentation and loss. Having specialized asexual propagules increases the presence probabilities on islands, partly compensating for the dispersal limitation in asexual species. This suggests a trade-off between dispersal and establishment capacity, but also points to the importance of local dispersal for maintaining populations under the succession driven spatial turnover of microsites on the islands. Bryophyte colonization is strongly limited by habitat availability when a given habitats is rare, but there seems to exist a threshold over which other processes (e.g. dispersal limitation) become more important. Species with more vagile life history strategies appear to be stronger affected by the area of available habitats than many perennial species

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University, 2016. 59 p.
functional data analysis, metacommunity, isolation, mosses, liverworts, sporophyte production, dispersal-establishment trade-off
National Category
Ecology Botany Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Ecological Botany; Conservation Biology; Statistics
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-121239 (URN)978-91-7601-495-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-09-23, Björken, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Swedish Research Council Formas, 215-2010-998
Available from: 2016-06-03 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2016-06-17Bibliographically approved

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