The HCL-32: towards a self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatients
2005 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 88, no 2, 217-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Background: Bipolar disorders (BP) are frequently diagnosed and treated as pure depression initially; accurate diagnosis often being delayed by 8 to 10 years. In prospective studies, the presence of hypomanic symptoms in adolescence is strongly predictive of later bipolar disorders. As such, an instrument for self-assessment of hypomanic symptoms might increase the detection of suspected and of manifest, but under-treated, cases of bipolar disorders.
Methods: The multi-lingual hypomania checklist (HCL-32) has been developed and is being tested internationally. This preliminary paper reports the performance of the scale in distinguishing individuals with BP (N=266) from those with major depressive disorder (MDD; N= 160). The samples were adult psychiatry patients recruited in Italy (N= 186) and Sweden (N=240).
Results: The samples reported similar clinical profiles and the structure for the HCL-32 demonstrated two main factors identified as "active/elated" hypomania and "risk-taking/irritable" hypomania. The HCL-32 distinguished between BP and MDD with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 51%.
Limitations: Although the HCL-32 is a sensitive instrument for hypomanic symptoms, it does not distinguish between BP-1 and BP-11 disorders.
Conclusions: Future studies should test if different combinations of items. possibly recording the consequences of hypomania, can distinguish between these BP subtypes.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005. Vol. 88, no 2, 217-233 p.
hypomania, major depressive episodes, bipolar disorder, hypomania checklist, screening questionnaire
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120399DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.05.011ISI: 000232477100013PubMedID: 16125784OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-120399DiVA: diva2:935411