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The HCL-32: towards a self-assessment tool for hypomanic symptoms in outpatients
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9785-8473
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2005 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 88, no 2, 217-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed) PublishedText
Abstract [en]

Background: Bipolar disorders (BP) are frequently diagnosed and treated as pure depression initially; accurate diagnosis often being delayed by 8 to 10 years. In prospective studies, the presence of hypomanic symptoms in adolescence is strongly predictive of later bipolar disorders. As such, an instrument for self-assessment of hypomanic symptoms might increase the detection of suspected and of manifest, but under-treated, cases of bipolar disorders.

Methods: The multi-lingual hypomania checklist (HCL-32) has been developed and is being tested internationally. This preliminary paper reports the performance of the scale in distinguishing individuals with BP (N=266) from those with major depressive disorder (MDD; N= 160). The samples were adult psychiatry patients recruited in Italy (N= 186) and Sweden (N=240).

Results: The samples reported similar clinical profiles and the structure for the HCL-32 demonstrated two main factors identified as "active/elated" hypomania and "risk-taking/irritable" hypomania. The HCL-32 distinguished between BP and MDD with a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 51%.

Limitations: Although the HCL-32 is a sensitive instrument for hypomanic symptoms, it does not distinguish between BP-1 and BP-11 disorders.

Conclusions: Future studies should test if different combinations of items. possibly recording the consequences of hypomania, can distinguish between these BP subtypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005. Vol. 88, no 2, 217-233 p.
Keyword [en]
hypomania, major depressive episodes, bipolar disorder, hypomania checklist, screening questionnaire
National Category
Neurology Psychiatry
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-120399DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.05.011ISI: 000232477100013PubMedID: 16125784OAI: diva2:935411
Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2016-06-10Bibliographically approved

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