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Neurocognitive mechanisms of the "testing effect": a review
Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Radboud University, Behavioural Science Institute, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
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2016 (English)In: Trends in Neuroscience and Education, ISSN 2452-0837, E-ISSN 2211-9493, Vol. 5, no 2, 52-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Memory retrieval is an active process that can alter the content and accessibility of stored memories. Of potential relevance for educational practice are findings that memory retrieval fosters better retention than mere studying. This so-called testing effect has been demonstrated for different materials and populations, but there is limited consensus on the neurocognitive mechanisms involved. In this review, we relate cognitive accounts of the testing effect to findings from recent brain-imaging studies to identify neurocognitive factors that could explain the testing effect. Results indicate that testing facilitates later performance through several processes, including effects on semantic memory representations, the selective strengthening of relevant associations and inhibition of irrelevant associations, as well as potentiation of subsequent learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 5, no 2, 52-66 p.
Keyword [en]
Testing effect, Retrieval, Test-potentiated learning, fMRI, Semantic elaboration, Search set restriction
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122415DOI: 10.1016/j.tine.2016.05.001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-122415DiVA: diva2:938639
Available from: 2016-06-17 Created: 2016-06-17 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved

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Wiklund-Hörnqvist, CarolaKarlsson Wirebring, LinneaNyberg, Lars
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Department of PsychologyUmeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI)Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB)Department of Radiation Sciences
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Trends in Neuroscience and Education
Psychology

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