Co-combustion of Industrial Biosludge and other Residual Streams in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed: Focusing on reduction of operating and technical problems by analyzing the ash transformation chemistry
Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Samförbränning av industriellt bioslam och andra restströmmar i en bubblande fluidiserande bädd : Med fokus på reduktion av drifttekniska problem genom att analysera askkemin (Swedish)
Today the use of resources in the industry are not complete to be considered as sustainable from the perspective of nutrient recovery. In the Swedish pulp and paper industry residual streams such as bark, fiber reject and sludge are returned for more sustainable use more frequently. Around 300 000-600 000 tons of sludge is generated every year from different cleaning processes in the pulp and paper industry. About 15 % of that sludge is so called biosludge that is a result from biological water treatment, where large amounts of phosphorus are used. After the cleaning process the total amount of biosludge generated in Sweden each year is estimated to contain approximately 2000 tons of phosphorus (P). The most common way to discard the biosludge today is by incineration, where aspects such as high content of moisture and ash have proven to be problematic. Besides phosphorus, other elements such as sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl) and calcium (Ca) are often found in the biosludge in larger amounts.
This study included co-combustion experiments of current residual streams from the pulp and paper mill SCA Obbola AB where the aim was to investigate how the ash transformation chemistry was affected. The residual streams comprised of bark, fiber reject and biosludge which were combusted together with stem wood in a bench scaled bubbling fluidized bed. To investigate if different ash related operating and technical problems could be reduced and if there was potential of phosphorus recycling from the ashes, produced ash and other samples were examined by SEM/EDS.
The fuel mix from SCA Obbola consisted of large amounts of Ca, S and P relative to more ordinary biomass fuels like stem wood. These elements originated from the biosludge and was confirmed by the fuel analysis. Analysis made on collected samples showed that Ca and P together formed phosphates that either stayed in the bed or was collected in the cyclone which indicated that there could be a potential for recovering phosphorus. Although, the Ca/P ratio in the ashes was too high, which probably leads to that phosphates unsuitable for nutrient recovery are formed.
The fiber reject from SCA Obbola contained large amounts of chlorine according to the fuel analysis which was indicated from the results later in the study. During the combustion most of the Cl left the bottom ash via volatilization. It was true for both the fuel blends with and without fiber reject. When larger amounts of biosludge was added to the fuel mix less of the corrosive compound potassium chloride (KCl) was found in depositions and collected fine particulate matter (PM). This was due to that more sulfur was added in the system when the amount of biosludge was increased which lead to that K reacted with SO2 instead of Cl and formed K2SO4. The observed reduction of KCl resulted in; 1) lower amounts of fine particulate matter which means less loaded particulate filters 2) less risk of high temperature corrosion on heat transfer surfaces.
The general conclusion that could be drawn from this study was that by increasing the amount of biosludge in the fuel blend at already high mixings of fiber reject, problems such as corrosion and fine particulate matter could be reduced. These advantages must be considered to the amount of lime stone needed to be added for reducing HCl from a cost perspective.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 38 p.
Co-combustion, biosludge, fluidized bed reactor, corrosion, nutrient recovery
Engineering and Technology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122491OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-122491DiVA: diva2:939246
Subject / course
Master of Science Programme in Energy Engineering
2016-05-25, TA305, Umeå, 09:30 (Swedish)
Skoglund, Nils, Doktor
Eklund, Robert, Universitetslektor