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Prevalence of multiple risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases and association with quality of life among adults aged 50+ in the two Sub Saharan African countries (Ghana, South Africa).
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
2016 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Objective:The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of multiple risk factors for NCDs and assess the association of different demographic, socioeconomic and health risk related behaviors with quality of life and subjective well-being among adults aged 50+ in the two Sub Saharan African countries (Ghana – South Africa).

Methods: This is a cross sectional study based on secondary analysis of data collected from wave 1 of a longitudinal Study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) conducted by WHO. The WHO SAGE used a multistage stratified cluster sampling design to select the respondents and face to face interviews with the respondents were used to collect information in the SAGE study using standardized survey questionnaires in both countries. The main dependant variable of this study is the overall score of WHOQoL while the indepndent variables included: demographic, socioeconomic charcteristics and health risk related behaviors. Statistical analysis was done using stata 13 software, univariate and multivariable linear regrssion models were used to assess the association between the independent variables and quality of life.

Results: The overall weighted mean of overall WHOQoL score among adults aged 50+ in South Africa is 60.65 while it is 58.18 in Ghana. In the univariate linear regression model, The regression results revealed that the independent determinants of statistically significant association with the overall score of QoL were, sex, place of residence, marital status, work history, wealth status, being underweight, low level of physical activity, number of chronic conditions in both countries. Furthermore, in Ghana, age, educational level, Body mass index (BMI), daily smoking, presence of all combined 6 risk factors showed also significant association while In South Africa, age group 80+, secondary or university education, being underweight, occasional smoking, Inadequate fruits and vegetables intake and presence of 4 risk factors. Multiple stepwise modelling was done with 3 multivariable regression models obtained. After adjusting for all indpendent variables included in the analysis, the results in Ghana for model 3 have shown sinificant associaion between overall WHOQoL with the following variables: sex, age groups “70-79”, “80+”, educational levels (Secondary school, university/higher), work history and wealth status, number of chronic conditions, being underweight or overweight, daily intake of fruits and vegetables and co-occurrence of number of risk factor among the same individual, while the same analysis in South Africa yielded a significant association with the following variables: marital status, educational levels (Secondary school, university/higher), work history, wealth status, low level of physical activity and number of chronic conditions.

 

Conclusion: This study have shown that education level, work history, wealth status and presence of any number of chronic conditions are an important determinants of quality of life among adults aged 50+ in both countries. Furthermore, age, sex, BMI, fruits and vegetables daily intake, level of physical activity and presence of a number of risk factors for NCDs have also shown a significant association with quality of life in Ghana while marital status has shown a significant association with quality of life in South Africa. Health policy in the two countries needs to address the needs and different implications of the above mentioned determinants to enhance quality of life among population.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. , 46 p.
Series
Centre for Public Health Report Series, ISSN 1651-341x ; 2016:7
Keyword [en]
Sub Saharan, prevalence, chronic non-communicable diseases, Ghana, South Africa
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124174OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-124174DiVA: diva2:949896
External cooperation
SAGE Data - Paul Kowal
Educational program
Master's Programme in Public Health
Presentation
2016-05-23, Umeå, 12:30 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-07-25 Last updated: 2017-02-15Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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