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Households, the omitted level in contextual analysis: disentangling the relative influence of households and districts on the variation of BMI about two decades in Indonesia
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 15, artikel-id 102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Resurstyp
Text
Abstract [en]

Background: Most of the research investigating the effect of social context on individual health outcomes has interpreted context in terms of the residential environment. In these studies, individuals are nested within their neighbourhoods or communities, disregarding the intermediate household level that lies between individuals and their residential environment. Households are an important determinant of health yet they are rarely included at the contextual level in research examining association between body mass index (BMI) and the social determinants of health. In this study, our main aim was to provide a methodological demonstration of multilevel analysis, which disentangles the simultaneous effects of households and districts as well as their associated predictors on BMI over time.

Methods: Using both two- and three-level multilevel analysis, we utilized data from all four cross-sections of the Indonesian Family life Survey (IFLS) 1993 to 2007-8.

Results: We found that: (i) the variation in BMI attributable to districts decreased from 4.3 % in 1993 to 1.5 % in 1997-98, and remained constant until 2007-08, while there was an alarming increase in the variation of BMI attributable to households, from 10 % in 2000 to 15 % in 2007-08; (ii) ignoring the household level did not change the relative variance contribution of districts on BMI, but ignoring the district level resulted in overestimation of household effects, and (iii) households' characteristics (socioeconomic status, size, and place of residence) did not attenuate the variation of BMI at the household-level.

Conclusions: Estimating the relative importance of multiple social settings allows us to better understand and unpack the variation in clustered or hieratical data in order to make valid and robust inferences. Our findings will help direct investment of limited public health resources to the appropriate context in order to reduce health risk (variation in BMI) and promote population health.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2016. Vol. 15, artikel-id 102
Nyckelord [en]
Body mass index, Multilevel modelling, Omitted level, Contextual effect, Households, Indonesian family life survey
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124508DOI: 10.1186/s12939-016-0388-7ISI: 000380105800001PubMedID: 27388459OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-124508DiVA, id: diva2:954230
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-22 Skapad: 2016-08-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: a mixed method approach exploring social and contextual determinants of malnutrition
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: a mixed method approach exploring social and contextual determinants of malnutrition
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Nutrition transition concerns the broad changes in the human diet that have occurred over time and space. In low- to middle-income countries such as Indonesia, nutrient transition describes shifts from traditional diets high in cereal and fibre towards Western pattern diets high in sugars, fat, and animal-source foods. This causes a swift increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity while undernutrition remains a great public health concern. Thus a double burden of malnutrition occurs in the population. The main aim of this investigation was to explore social and contextual determinants of malnutrition in Indonesia. The specific objectives were: (i) to examine body mass index (BMI) changes at the population level, and between and within socioeconomic groups; (ii) to estimate which context (i.e., household or district) has a greater effect on the variation of BMI; (iii) to assess the prevalence of double burden households (defined as the coexistence of underweight and overweight individuals residing in the same household) and its variation among communities as well as its determining factors; and (iv) to explore and understand what contributes to a double burden of malnutrition within a household by focusing on gender relations.

Methods

A mixed method approach was adopted in this study. For the quantitative analyses, nationally representative repeated cross-sectional survey data from four Indonesian Family Life Surveys (IFLS; 1993, 1997, 2000, 2007) were used. The IFLS contains information about individual-level, household-level and area-level characteristics. The analyses covered single and multilevel regressions. Data for the qualitative component were collected from sixteen focus group discussions conducted in Central Java and in the capital city Jakarta among 123 rural and urban men and women. Connell’s relational theory of gender and Charmaz’s constructive grounded theory were used to analyse the qualitative data.

Results

Greater increases in BMI were observed at higher percentiles compared to the segment of the population at lower percentiles. While inequalities in mean BMI decreased between socioeconomic groups, within group dispersion increased over time. Households were identified as an important social context in which the variation of BMI increased over time. Ignoring the household level did not change the relative variance contribution of districts on BMI in the contextual analysis. Approximately one-fifth of all households exhibited a double burden of malnutrition. Living in households with a higher socioeconomic status resulted in higher odds of double burden of malnutrition with the exception of women-headed households and communities with high social capital. The qualitative analysis resulted in the construction of three categories: capturing the significance of gendered power relations, the emerging obesogenic environment, and generational relations for child malnutrition.

Conclusion

At the population level, greater increases in within-group inequalities imply that growing inequalities in BMI were not merely driven by socioeconomic factors. This suggests that other under-recognised social and contextual factors may have a greater effect on the variation in BMI. At the contextual level, recognition of increased variation among households is important for creating strategies that respond to the differential needs of individuals within the same household. At the household level, women’s empowerment and community social capital should be promoted to reduce inequalities in the double burden of malnutrition across different socioeconomic groups. Ultimately community health and nutrition programmes will need to address gender empowerment and engage men in the fight against the emerging obesogenic environment and increased malnutrition that is evident within households, especially overweight and obesity among children.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Umeå: Umeå Universitet, 2017. s. 100
Serie
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1873
Nyckelord
Double burden of malnutrition, Child obesity, Body Mass Index, Gender relations, Social capital, Multilevel modelling, Grounded theory, Indonesian Family Life Surveys, Indonesia
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
folkhälsa
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-130552 (URN)978-91-7601-637-4 (ISBN)
Disputation
2017-02-17, Sal 135 Allmänmedicin, Byggnad 9A, ingång X5, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2017-01-27 Skapad: 2017-01-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-06-09Bibliografiskt granskad

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