umu.sePublications
Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Mood and oxytocin blood levels in physically active women with and without oral contraceptive use in relation to seasonal daylight variation
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Immunology.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Sports and Exercise Medicine, ISSN 2469-5718, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

The aim is to provide normative data on oxytocin, and its seasonality in users and non-users of Oral Contraceptives (OC) in physically active women. Further, to elucidate the relationship between Oxytocin and Profile of Mood States (POMS) for further research to see if Oxytocin can be used as an additional diagnostic marker to detect overreaching/overtraining syndrome or other stress disorders.

Methods

Forty-eight women (18-35 years old), 19 with and 29 without OC use, physically active at least 3 times a week at > 13 on the Borg RPE scale. Thirty-three subjects completed the study, 15 with and 18 without OC use. The number of hours from sunrise to sunset averaged 10 h during the autumn, 6 h during the winter, and 15 h during the spring. Once a month, blood samples were taken, weight and the day of menstrual cycle was documented, the POMS questionnaire was filled out as well as a personal daily logbook recording exercise type, duration, and intensity. To evaluate seasonal variations in Oxytocin and Global POMS, repeated measures analysis of variance was used.

Results

A significant seasonal variation in Oxytocin levels within the groups with and without OC respectively and significant differences in Oxytocin levels between the groups at diverse seasons were found. No significant difference in seasonal variation of Global POMS within the groups and no significant differences in levels of Global POMS between the groups with and without OC were seen. Furthermore, no clear relationship between Oxytocin, Global POMS scores, and hours of daylight respectively were detected.

Conclusions

Due to seasonality, impact of OC use on oxytocin levels, methodological considerations, and no convincing relationship to Global POMS, oxytocin is not suggested to be an optimal, diagnostic marker alone or in combination with others to detect overreaching and overtraining syndrome in physically active women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 3, no 3, article id 058
Keywords [en]
Oxytocin, Profile of Mood State, oral contraceptive use, females, hormone, seasonal variation, daylight
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Physiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124822DOI: 10.23937/2469-5718/1510058OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-124822DiVA, id: diva2:955814
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Training and hormones in physically active women: with and without oral contraceptive use
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Training and hormones in physically active women: with and without oral contraceptive use
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: The number of women participating in sports has increased dramatically, though research in sports are often performed on men. Physical exercise is known to increase physical performance and improve well-being. Although exercise has beneficial health effects for most of the women, it is known that strenuous exercise may also have negative health consequences. Common are menstrual dysfunctions and the medical effects of a long-standing amenorrhea are serious. Moreover, strenuous exercise without adequate recovery may lead to overreaching (OR) /overtraining syndrome (OTS). An improved muscle strength are of great importance in many sports, hence an increased understanding on how to generate optimal strength training programs in women without negative side effects are essential. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the effects on strength and power of high frequency periodised leg resistance training to evaluate a training regime and moreover to investigate if the training was well accepted and without potential exercise-related negative consequences. Moreover, to provide normative data on oxytocin and cortisol to elucidate if these hormones could be one diagnostic marker in combination with others to monitor and diagnose female athletes that may be at risk to develop OR/OTS.

Methods: Fifty-nine women, participated in the four month intervention study. Two groups performed high frequency leg resistance training for two weeks of each menstrual/oral contraceptive (OC) cycle. The remaining part of the cycle they performed the leg training once a week. Group 1, trained with high frequency (5 times·w-1) during the first two weeks of each cycle, and group 2, during the last two weeks of each cycle. A control group performed regular (3 times·w-1) leg resistance training. Another 33 women participated in the observational study. The OC users and non-users, were followed over a nine-month period with monthly blood sampling of oxytocin and cortisol, and the Profile of Mood State (POMS) as a subjective measure of OR/OTS.

Results: The women who performed high frequency leg resistance training, 5 times·w-1, during the first two weeks of each cycle showed significant increase in jump height, peak torque values in hamstrings, increased lean body mass of the legs, and their experiences of the training were positive. These results were not found when the periodised training was performed during the last two weeks of each cycle. In the control group an increase in jump height, and peak torque (left hamstring) was observed. There were no evident differences in the training effects between women with or without OC use. Moreover, no exercise-related negative consequences were detected in any of the three groups. The women in the observational study showed seasonal variations in oxytocin and cortisol, with different pattern in OC users to non-users. No convincing relationships to POMS were found. 

Conclusions: The high frequency periodised leg resistance training during the first two weeks of the cycle is more beneficial to optimize resistance training, than the last two weeks. The high frequency periodised leg resistance training was not associated with exercise-related negative consequences and was well accepted when performed during the first two weeks of each cycle. Due to seasonality and impact of OC use, oxytocin and cortisol are not suggested to be optimal, diagnostic markers alone/in combination with others, to detect OR/OTS in physically active women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2016. p. 82
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1820
Keywords
female athletes, hormones, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptive cycle, resistance training, muscle strength, power, body composition, female athlete triad, overreaching, overtraining syndrome
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124842 (URN)978-91-7601-516-2 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Public defence
2016-09-23, Vårdvetarhuset, Aulan, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-02 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(723 kB)5 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 723 kBChecksum SHA-512
8d22b1c5bc4f68c6d3d4553e6522b87b0e1b7b91a666ff1eee4e083cddffcc3bc0c2e950452b341e193031d1da0438f71d231cafde7ac6c0cb3362e183834278
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full text

Authority records BETA

Wikström-Frisén, LisbethLarsson, PeterMincheva Nilsson, LuciaHenriksson-Larsén, Karin

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Wikström-Frisén, LisbethLarsson, PeterMincheva Nilsson, LuciaHenriksson-Larsén, Karin
By organisation
Sports medicineClinical Immunology
Sport and Fitness Sciences

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 5 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 372 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf