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  • 1.
    Akoglu, Canan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    The relationship between industrial design and interaction design in product development activities2012In: Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) International Conference, Austin, TX, USA, May 5-10, 2012 (on DVD), Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Almgren, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Winbäck, Hannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Användbarhet inom människa-datorinteraktion i praktiken: En kartläggning av utvärderingsmetoder2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att kartlägga yrkesverksammas preferenser och användning av utvärderingsmetoder för användbarhet inom människa-datorinteraktion. En webbenkät distribuerades via epost till företag med minst en anställd som arbetar med användbarhet samt via sociala medier genom intresseorganisationen STIMDI och företaget Inuse. Totalt erhölls 104 svarande varav en räknades som bortfall då den ansågs vara en dubblett. Resultaten visar att ingen enskild eller kombination av metoder används oftast och rankas ge högst effekt på användbarhet. Angående vilka utvärderingsmetoder som används är intervju och tänka högt med användare de två metoder som nämns av flest deltagare. Resultaten visar även att nästan 80 % skattar användning av utvärderingsmetoder och involvering av användare i deras arbete som mycket viktigt. En tydlig preferens för att involvera användare och arbeta med kombinationer av metoder framgår i denna kartläggning. Forskning bör möjligtvis fokusera mer på hur användandet av utvärderingsmetoder sker i kombination. 

  • 3.
    Alpay, Aylin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Untangling Road Trip Experiences with Conected Car: Planning and bringing it to the car2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With developing technologies and growing infrastructures, connected experiences are expanding their realms towards various devices and scenarios in our lives. One of the areas, which is going under a big change due to this connectivity is the car related experiences. As connectivity is intrinsically enabler of different experiences and services, it is foreseen that it will bring a different dimension to car and driving related experiences as well.By investigating the future trends and possibilities that connectivity can provide to car and driving related experiences, this thesis aims for imagining the near future scenarios with an explorative approach, focusing on one and addressing to the rising issues with a design proposal that is meaningful to both users and the industry.The result, Tripcloud, contributes to the future scenario of having a road trip with the car, with a new digital platform that aims for supporting the users throughout the planning and bringing the plans into the car experience seamlessly and safely. It aims for reducing today’s existing complexity in terms of interaction and cognition to provide a better experience and avoid driver distraction. With providing organised information pieces, information exchange between people and automated links with mobile devices and car, Tripcloud offers easier an more convenient alternative for road trip planing and bringing the plans into car experiences for the near future.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Enhancing content discovery in Video on Demand services for children2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The media landscape is changing and Internet-based streaming services for children are becoming increasingly popular. The concept of online streaming extends freedom and control over content selection but discovering new content is often experienced as troublesome. The objective of this thesis is to identify parameters to make it easier for users of streaming services for children to discover and watch unfamiliar programs. Guidelines are formed based on literature studies, interviews, observations, a survey, a benchmark, data analysis with Adobe Analytics, a workshop and finally user tests with prototypes. These guidelines conclude that content should be categorized, dynamicized, highlighted and socially engaging. Categorization based on age is primarily important but interests and genres can also be used to make children more interested in a title. Content should be dynamic, customizable and personal to each user to give more accurate recommendations based on age and interests. Making one alternative more visually prominent will make this alternative more interesting especially for younger children and social features with information about other users opinions can motivate a decision to discover new content among older children. 

  • 5.
    Ataei, Mehrnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    ME|EMO: Application concept for sharing emotions through non-verbal communication2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ME|EMO provides a method to help users to express, visualize and share emotions through digital nonverbal communication. This application will enable the users to map their emotions to colors and encourage users to paint their feelings. A canvas with uncolored images and a color palette with color coded emotions creates an environment for expressing and visualizing the feelings. The result is an image file in the form of a simple piece of modern art with the possibility of sharing it through social networks, or to record the emotions and save precious moments of life. Technology development, new ways of communication, digital tools, apps, social media, have helped people to have a better life by giving people the opportunity to communicate easier with loved ones and friends. ME|EMO tries to enhance the way of modern communication (digital text-based) such as social networks or modern healthcare systems, by supporting the emotional side of communications. 

  • 6.
    Augustian, Midhumol
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    ur Réhman, Shafiq
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Sandvig, Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    Kotikawatte, Thivra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience.
    Yongcui, Mi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Evensmoen, Hallvard Røe
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway.
    EEG Analysis from Motor Imagery to Control a Forestry Crane2018In: Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018) / [ed] Karwowski, Waldemar, Ahram, Tareq, 2018, Vol. 722, p. 281-286Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems can provide people with ability to communicate and control real world systems using neural activities. Therefore, it makes sense to develop an assistive framework for command and control of a future robotic system which can assist the human robot collaboration. In this paper, we have employed electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded by electrodes placed over the scalp. The human-hand movement based motor imagery mentalization is used to collect brain signals over the motor cortex area. The collected µ-wave (8–13 Hz) EEG signals were analyzed with event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) quantification to extract a threshold between hand grip and release movement and this information can be used to control forestry crane grasping and release functionality. The experiment was performed with four healthy persons to demonstrate the proof-of concept BCI system. From this study, it is demonstrated that the proposed method has potential to assist the manual operation of crane operators performing advanced task with heavy cognitive work load.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Lenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Exploring HCI-issues within error- sensitive intensive healthcare systems: An Ethnographic case study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People are used to working routines that are taught and transferred from one to another, routines such as how to interact with an information system and how to use it in a specific context. While user experience and usability have been two issues of interest within the field of HCI, there is a lack of research exploring usage and behavior while interacting with complex error-sensitive systems, in so much as an action that couldn’t be undone once performed. This thesis explores the error-sensitive aspects of complexity within interactions of the administering of medical prescription activities at an intensive healthcare unit. The aim is to investigate the interactions of computer-supported cooperative work environments used for information transformation activities for medical prescriptions. The results reveal a number of HCI-related issues in which clinicians socially bypass system interactions by making incomplete data inputs while assuming a given level of understanding of other employees. 

  • 8.
    Backman, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Bodin, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Bucht, Gösta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Janlert, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Maxhall, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Pederson, Thomas
    Innovative Communication Group, IT University of Copenhagen.
    Sjölie, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Sondell, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Surie, Dipak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    easyADL – Wearable Support System for Independent Life despite Dementia2006In: ACM CHI 2006 Workshop onDesigning Technology for People with Cognitive Impairments, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This position paper outlines the easyADL project, a two-year project investigating the possibility of using wearable technology to assist people suffering the dementia disease in performing Activities of Daily Living (ADL). An introduction to the egocentric interaction modeling framework is provided and the virtual reality based development methodology is discusssed.

  • 9. Ballesteros, S
    et al.
    Peter, C
    Waterworth, Eva L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Waterworth, John A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The role of ICT and networking in healthy ageing2012In: PETRA 2012: 5th Workshop on Affect and Behaviour Related Assistance, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the results from the psychologicalassessment conducted using a test battery composed of cognitiveand social wellbeing tests and questionnaires performed by usersand controls that participated in the AGNES project in Spain,Sweden and Greece at the beginning of the study and after thedeployment of the first prototype. The project carries out noveltechnological interventions in an emerging area in ageingresearch. The main innovation is the integration of differenttechnological components and social networking to provide anovel solution to the ageing population living at home. Themotivation was based on relevant findings on the psychology ofageing and the need for technologies to support the ageingpopulation. End-users have been heavily involved, providingdesign input, continuum evaluation and feedback. Theprojectfocuses on improving the mental and physical wellbeing ofelderly people living at home, who often suffer the effects ofsocial and physical isolation including cognitive decline, lowactivity levels and poor mood states. The main results were thatthe users but not the control participants improved cognitiveperformance andthe feeling of being treated with respect, beingindependent, self-realization and greater achievement.

  • 10.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Janols, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Multipurpose Goal Model for Personalised Digital Coaching2017In: A2HC@AAMAS/A-HEALTH@PAAMS 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10685Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting human actors in daily living activities for improving health and wellbeing is a fundamental goal for assistive technology. The personalisation of the support provided by assistive technology in the form of digital coaching requires user models that handle potentially conflicting goals and motives. The aim of this research is to extend a motivational model implemented in an assistive technology, into a multipurpose motivational model for the human actor who is to be supported, which can be translated into a multipurpose goal model for a team of assistive agents. A team of assistive agents is outlined with supplementary goals following the human’s different properties. A method for generating multipurpose arguments relating to different motives were developed, and implemented in a human-agent dialogue system. The results are exemplified based on a use case from an earlier pilot user study of the assistive technology. Future work includes user studies to validate the model.

  • 11.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Human-Agent Dialogues and Their Purposes2017In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 101-104Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Instrument-Oriented Approach to Detecting and Representing Human Activity for Supporting Executive Functions and Learning2017In: Proceedings of the European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2017, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 105-112Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bensch, Suna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Drewes, FrankUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Proceedings of Umeå's 16th student conference in computing science: USCCS 20132013Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bensch, Suna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, ThomasUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Proceedings of Umeå's 18th student conference in computing science: USCCS 2014.12014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bensch, Suna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards Proactive Robot Behavior Based on Incremental Language Analysis2014In: MMRWHRI '14 Proceedings of the 2014 Workshop on Multimodal, Multi-Party, Real-World Human-Robot Interaction / [ed] Mary Ellen Foster, Manuel Giuliani, Ronald P. A. Petrick, 2014, p. 21-22Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes ongoing and planned work on incremental language processing coupled to inference of expected robot actions. Utterances are processed word-by-word, simultaneously with inference of expected robot actions, thus enabling the robot to prepare and act proactively to human utterances. We believe that such a model results in more natural human-robot communication since proactive behavior is a feature of human-human communication.

  • 16.
    Berg, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Improving reading experience in digital newspapers2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reading news on mobile devices has during the past decade transcended into an every- day activity, which induce greater demands on design and presentation of news. Several researchers have examined essential components in the area of digital newspapers, despite this, there are few newspapers that have switched to a reader-friendly format.

    The objective of this thesis is to evaluate how the reading experience in digital newspa- pers can be improved by abandoning the traditional structure of today’s printed newspapers. Based on numerous tests and studies, as well as support from literature, a set of guidelines has been produced as a result of this thesis.

    The design guidelines contain recommendations for optimal line size, typeface, point size, appearance, functionality, placement, recognition factor and packaging. To ensure quality, all guidelines were validated in order to prove that the reading experience had increased. An evaluation was performed that attempted to determine that.

    The statistic result of this thesis showed a significant difference in both reading speed and the subjective experience. However no significant difference could be seen regarding the reading comprehension. The conclusions made was that structure and design of content can influence both reading speed and reading experience.

    All design guidelines can be used as guidance when developing templates for digital newspapers. 

  • 17.
    Bergvik, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing experiences for virtual reality, in virtual reality: A design process evaluation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Creating immersive experiences for virtual reality (VR) presents new design opportunities and challenges that do not appear when creating experiences on a screen. Creating prototypes and exploring concepts in VR is today limited to professionals with previous knowledge in 3D application development, and testing 3D experiences requires the usage of an Head-Mounted Display (HMD), which forces professionals to switch medium from the computer to an HMD. With new advances in this field, there have to be new solutions to these challenges. The goal of this thesis is to explore how VR technology can be utilized in the experience design process for VR. This is achieved through a literature study and conducting expert interviews, followed by a hardware evaluation of different HMDs and concept creation using rapid prototyping. From the interviews, a number of issues could be identified that correlates with the research from the literature study. Based on these findings, two phases were identified as suitable for further improvements; Concept prototyping and testing/tweaking of a created experience. Lo-fi and hi-fi prototypes of a virtual design tool were developed for HTC Vive and Google Daydream, which were selected based on the hardware evaluation. The prototypes are designed and developed, then tested using a Wizard of Oz approach. The purpose of the prototypes is to solve some of the issues when designing immersive experiences for HMDs in the suitable experience design phases that were identified by analyzing the interview results. An interactive testing suite for HTC Vive was developed for testing and evaluation of the final prototype, to verify the validity of the concept. Using Virtual Reality as a medium for designing virtual experiences is a promising way of solving current issues within this technological field that are identified in this thesis. Tools for object creation and manipulation will aid professionals when exploring new concepts as well as editing and testing existing immersive experiences. Furthermore, using a Wizard of Oz approach to test VR prototypes significantly improves the prototype quality without compromising the user experience in this medium. 

  • 18.
    Bertheim, Jane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Designing Digital Nudges to Encourage Sustainable Decisions: Developing and Testing a Framework2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The awareness of environmental impacts lead to that organizations are starting to work towards UN's global sustainability goals. To influence customers into a more sustainable behaviour, organizations have the potential to look at nudging as a tool. A nudge is a way to alter peoples behaviour into taking a certain decision. However, since many organizations offer their service or product in the digital environment, such as websites or apps, increased knowledge of digital nudging is required. This thesis aims to establish a framework for how nudges should be designed and used on digital platforms to encourage sustainable decisions. The purpose is to enlighten designers of digital environment of the potential of nudges, pitfalls to avoid, and a general design process to follow. The framework is based on a literature study and interviews with people familiar with the concept of nudging. To examine how the framework works a case study is performed, this includes a workshop, performing a user research, developing prototypes and finally, conduct user tests. By testing the framework further methods could be found, this meant that more practical steps could be included in the framework. The result of this thesis shows that the framework proved to be useful and functional to use when designing digital nudges to encourage sustainable decisions.

  • 19.
    Billing, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Cognition reversed: Robot learning from demonstration2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis investigates techniques for learning from demonstration (LFD). LFD is a well established approach to robot learning, where a teacher demonstrates a behavior to a robot pupil. This thesis focuses on LFD where a human teacher demonstrates a behavior by controlling the robot via teleoperation. The robot should after demonstration be able to execute the demonstrated behavior under varying conditions.

    Several views on representation, recognition and learning of robot behavior are presented and discussed from a cognitive and computational perspective. LFD-related concepts such as behavior, goal, demonstration, and repetition are defined and analyzed, with focus on how bias is introduced by the use of behavior primitives. This analysis results in a formalism where LFD is described as transitions between information spaces. Assuming that the behavior recognition problem is partly solved, ways to deal with remaining ambiguities in the interpretation of a demonstration are proposed.

    A total of five algorithms for behavior recognition are proposed and evaluated, including the dynamic temporal difference algorithm Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL). PSL is model-free in the sense that it makes few assumptions of what is to be learned. One strength of PSL is that it can be used for both robot control and recognition of behavior. While many methods for behavior recognition are concerned with identifying invariants within a set of demonstrations, PSL takes a different approach by using purely predictive measures. This may be one way to reduce the need for bias in learning. PSL is, in its current form, subjected to combinatorial explosion as the input space grows, which makes it necessary to introduce some higher level coordination for learning of complex behaviors in real-world robots.

    The thesis also gives a broad introduction to computational models of the human brain, where a tight coupling between perception and action plays a central role. With the focus on generation of bias, typical features of existing attempts to explain humans' and other animals' ability to learn are presented and analyzed, from both a neurological and an information theoretic perspective. Based on this analysis, four requirements for implementing general learning ability in robots are proposed. These requirements provide guidance to how a coordinating structure around PSL and similar algorithms should be implemented in a model-free way.

  • 20.
    Billing, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Representing behavior: Distributed theories in a context of robotics2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research within the field of intelligent robotics argues for a view of intelligence drastically different from classical artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The holistic and embodied ideas expressed by this research sees emergence as the springing source for intelligence. Similar perspectives, where numerous interactions within the system lead to emergent properties and cognitive abilities beyond that of the individual parts, can be found within many scientific fields. With the goal of understanding how behavior may be represented in robots, the present review tries to grasp what this notion of emergence really means and compare it with a selection of theories developed for analysis of human cognition. These theories reveal a view of intelligence where common notions of objects, goals and reasoning have to be rethought. A view where behavior, as well as the agent as such, is in the eye of the observer rather than given. Structures in the environment is achieved by interaction rather than recognized. In such a view, the fundamental question is how emergent systems appear and develop, and how they may be controlled.

  • 21.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A formalism for learning from demonstration2010In: Paladyn Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, 2081-4836 (e-version), Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes and formalizes the concepts and assumptions involved in Learning from Demonstration (LFD), a common learning technique used in robotics. LFD-related concepts like goal, generalization, and repetition are here defined, analyzed, and put into context. Robot behaviors are described in terms of trajectories through information spaces and learning is formulated as mappings between some of these spaces. Finally, behavior primitives are introduced as one example of good bias in learning, dividing the learning process into the three stages of behavior segmentation, behavior recognition, and behavior coordination. The formalism is exemplified through a sequence learning task where a robot equipped with a gripper arm is to move objects to specific areas. The introduced concepts are illustrated with special focus on how bias of various kinds can be used to enable learning from a single demonstration, and how ambiguities in demonstrations can be identified and handled.

  • 22.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Formalising learning from demonstration2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes and formalizes the concepts and assumptions involved in Learning from Demonstration (LFD), a common learning technique used in robotics. Inspired by the work on planning and actuation by LaValle, common LFD-related concepts like goal, generalization, and repetition are here defined, analyzed, and put into context. Robot behaviors are described in terms of trajectories through information spaces and learning is formulated as the mappings between some of these spaces. Finally, behavior primitives are introduced as one example of useful bias in the learning process, dividing the learning process into the three stages of behavior segmentation, behavior recognition, and behavior coordination.

  • 23.
    Björnfot, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Farshidi, Azadeh
    Umeå University.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    Umeå University.
    Employing the secondary task technique for measuring MRP pilots' cognitive load2018In: Proceedings of the 10th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, ACM Press, 2018, p. 706-710Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile Remote Presence (MRP) technologies make it possible for the user to be mobile in a remote environment, which opens up new possibilities for interaction. However, this new functionality comes at a cost. The need for MRP system users to pay attention to both telecommunication and device navigation increases their cognitive load. Assessing the cognitive load of MRP system users is a timely research issue, which is addressed in this paper both conceptually and empirically. We argue that Secondary Task (ST) techniques have certain advantages over existing Subjective Rating Scales (SRS) instruments, and report a study, in which a particular ST technique, a visual monitoring task, was employed to assess MRP pilot’s cognitive load. The empirical evidence from the study indicates that the method provides additional valuable insights into MRP pilots’ user experience.

  • 24.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Older adults co-creating meaningful individualized social activities online for healthy ageing2018In: Building continents of knowledge in oceans of data: The future of co-created eHealth / [ed] Adrien Ugon, Daniel Karlsson, Gunnar O. Klein, Anne Moen, IOS Press, 2018, Vol. 247, p. 775-779Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social isolation and loneliness among older people is a growing problem with negative effects on physical and mental health. In co-creation with older adults individualized social activities were designed where older adults through computer mediated communication were able to participate in social activities without leaving their homes. Four types of activities were designed; outdoor activity, music event, visiting a friend and leisure activity. A participatory action research design was applied, where end users together with scientists from two research fields developed, tested and evaluated online participation in the activities. Usability and safety of the systems were major concerns among older adults. The evaluation pointed out that level of simplicity, usability and audio-video quality determined the level of satisfaction with the human interaction during the activity, thereby affecting the meaningfulness of the activity. The research presented in this paper constitutes the first step in a long-term research process aiming at developing a digital coaching system that gives older adults personalized support for increasing participation in meaningful social activities.

  • 25.
    Bodin, Tora
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Expected later information access invites shorter reading time and possible comprehension loss2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased use of technology in society, there are concerns about how reading is affected by the constant access to an incessantly increasing amount of information. The present study examined how reading strategies and resulting memory and comprehension is affected by the belief that information to be remembered would continue to be available. In a within- participant experiment, twenty-seven participants were instructed to read six texts, and led to believe that they would have access to some of the texts while later answering comprehension questions. The results showed that participants spent significantly longer time reading texts they believed would not be accessible later, compared to those they believed they would have access to (p= .0007, d = 0.47). The participants did achieve slightly higher scores on the comprehension questions for the texts they believed they would not have access to, compared to the other condition, but the effect was not significant. The findings have implications for potential changes to reading strategies in response to increased use of technology as an external memory and information storage. I discuss how these strategies could have affected the raise of Fake News, inasmuch as increased information load from the Internet leads to a less meticulous reading style.

  • 26.
    Bodén, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Wiberg, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    iBalance - a cross-media service platform2007In: CMID'07 / [ed] Wiberg, C. & Wiberg M., 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Bonemark, Oscar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Success factors for e-sport games2013In: Proceedings of Umeå's 16th student conference in computing science: USCCS 2013 / [ed] Suna Bensch & Frank Drewes, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2013, p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some multiplayer video games rise to become successful inthe field of e-sports. This paper tries to find out why this is the case.We compare a set of seven video game properties with six establishede-sport games in an attempt to find out whether there are propertiesof multiplayer video games that all established e-sport games have incommon.

  • 28.
    Bratteteig, Tone
    et al.
    Design av informasjonssystemer, Universitet i Oslo.
    Wagner, Ina
    Institut für Gestaltungs- und Wirkungsforschung ,Technische Universität Wien.
    Morrison, Andrew
    Intermedia, Universitetet i Oslo.
    Stuedahl, Dagny
    Institutt for medier og kommunikasjon, Universitetet i Oslo.
    Mörtberg, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Design av informasjonssystemer, Universitet i Oslo.
    Research practices in digital design2010In: Exploring digital design: multi-disciplinary design practices / [ed] Wagner, Ina, Bratteteig, Tone, Stuedahl, Dagny, London: Springer London, 2010, p. 17-54Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the twenty-first century, we are literally surrounded by digital things and things that turn out to be digital – or have some digital parts or are parts of a larger system in which there are digital elements. We carry around mobile phones and watches; many also have additional music players, PDAs or PCs. We live in houses filled with digital networks and artefacts; we depend on infrastructures that are partly digital and have digital systems attached to them; we use public and private services that are digital, are based on digital infrastructures and have other digital systems attached to them; and we experience embedded, ubiquitous computing as we live in digitally enhanced environments that support our activities with or without our conscious control. The digital layer(s) in the world constitute a real world.

  • 29.
    Brändström, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Dueso Tejero, Albert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    How to encourage stretching and breaks at work: Understanding long term usage of a behaviour change support system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We are spending more and more time seated at work, which increases the risk for health problems. Behaviour change support systems that encourage breaks and stretching at work have been used as interventions to try to reduce these problems. No previous studies had looked at how these systems were used for long periods of time. In this qualitative study based on ten interviews, we aimed for expanding our understanding of long-term usage of such systems by studying one called ‘Efons’. The results indicate that the main factors influencing long-term usage are timely reminders, the impact that the stretching exercises has on the users’ health and the education of the user about health recommendations. We also found elements we argue have the ability to influence long-term usage and currently do not exist in the system studied or its context of use, such as adapt the system to the needs of the user or provide education about why these systems are useful.

  • 30.
    Brügger, Annina
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    How does navigation system behavior influence human behavior?2019In: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, E-ISSN 2365-7464, Vol. 4, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation systems are ubiquitous tools to assist wayfinders of the mobile information society with various navigational tasks. Whenever such systems assist with self-localization and path planning, they reduce human effort for navigating. Automated navigation assistance benefits navigation performance, but research seems to show that it negatively affects attention to environment properties, spatial knowledge acquisition, and retention of spatial information. Very little is known about how to design navigation systems for pedestrian navigation that increase both navigation performance and spatial knowledge acquisition. To this end, we empirically tested participants (N = 64) using four different navigation system behaviors (between-subject design). Two cognitive processes with varying levels of automation, self-localization and allocation of attention, define navigation system behaviors: either the system automatically executes one of the processes (high level of automation), or the system leaves the decision of when and where to execute the process to the navigator (low level of automation). In two experimental phases, we applied a novel empirical framework for evaluating spatial knowledge acquisition in a real-world outdoor urban environment. First, participants followed a route assisted by a navigation system and, simultaneously, incidentally acquired spatial knowledge. Second, participants reversed the route using the spatial knowledge acquired during the assisted phase, this time without the aid of the navigation system. Results of the route-following phase did not reveal differences in navigation performance across groups using different navigation system behaviors. However, participants using systems with higher levels of automation seemed not to acquire enough spatial knowledge to reverse the route without navigation errors. Furthermore, employing novel methods to analyze mobile eye tracking data revealed distinct patterns of human gaze behavior over time and space. We thus can demonstrate how to increase spatial knowledge acquisition without harming navigation performance when using navigation systems, and how to influence human navigation behavior with varying navigation system behavior. Thus, we provide key findings for the design of intelligent automated navigation systems in real-world scenarios.

  • 31.
    Ciolfi, L.
    et al.
    University of Limerick.
    Deshpande, Parag
    University of Limerick.
    Bannon, L.J.
    University of Limerick.
    Understanding Place as Experience: Augmenting Human Activities in Context2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32. Ciolfi, L.
    et al.
    Fernstrom, M.
    Bannon, L.J.
    Deshpande, Parag
    Gallagher, P.
    McGettrick, C.
    Quinn, N.
    Shirley, S.
    The Shannon Portal Installation: Interaction Design for public spaces2007In: IEEE Computer Society, ISSN 1051-4651, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 64-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The portal dolmen project at Ireland's Shannon airport tackled the challenges of a public exhibition and revealed the importance of focusing on situated activities as well as the crucial need for incorporating physical and aesthetic concerns into the design.

  • 33. Ciolfi, L.
    et al.
    Fernström, M.
    Bannon, L.J.
    Deshpande, P.
    Gallagher, P.
    McGettrick, C.
    Quinn, N.
    Shirley, S.
    The Shannon Portal Installation: An Example of Interaction Design for Public Places2007In: IEEE Computer Society, ISSN 1051-4651, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The portal dolmen project at Ireland's Shannon airport tackled the challenges of a public exhibition and revealed the importance of focusing on situated activities as well as the crucial need for incorporating physical and aesthetic concerns into the design.

  • 34. Clemmensen, Torkil
    et al.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nardi, Bonnie
    Making HCI theory work: an analysis of the use of activity theory in HCI research2016In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 608-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a study of the use of activity theory in human-computer interaction (HCI) research. We analyse activity theory in HCI since its first appearance about 25 years ago. Through an analysis and meta-synthesis of 109 selected HCI activity theory papers, we created a taxonomy of 5 different ways of using activity theory: (1) analysing unique features, principles, and problematic aspects of the theory; (2) identifying domain-specific requirements for new theoretical tools; (3) developing new conceptual accounts of issues in the field of HCI; (4) guiding and supporting empirical analyses of HCI phenomena; and (5) providing new design illustrations, claims, and guidelines. We conclude that HCI researchers are not only users of imported theory, but also theory-makers who adapt and develop theory for different purposes.

  • 35. Dalton, Nicholas S
    et al.
    Schnädelbach, HolgerWiberg, MikaelUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.Varoudis, Tasos
    Architecture and interaction: human-computer interaction in time and place2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Dam Roadley-Battin, Nikolaj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Educational VR: An exploration of educational VR for professional users2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores Virtual Reality (VR) as a digital medium for teaching in a professional context. In collaboration with ABB, a pioneering technology leader, the thesis questions whether VR could be the future medium for training ABB service personnel. 

    The research discusses how you can design for VR, by drawing parallels to traditional mediums; Moreover, the research covers insights into the ABB education and VR explorations. 

    Three experience prototypes were designed as the final concept. These experience prototypes aim to highlight educational use cases through VR, covering collaborative work, safety guidelines and various utilities. The goal of the final experience prototypes is to engage potential users and designers in a dialog concerning VR as an educational medium of the future.

  • 37.
    Davoli, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Kuenen, Christoffel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    New participative tools require new foundations2013In: 10th European Academy of Design Conference - Crafting the Future Göteborg April 17th - 19th, 2013 / [ed] EAD, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The radical changes of our environment under the influence of information technology require an adaptive approach between programmers and designers to enable lay participation and interaction with it. Satin is an application builder for mobile devices that enables end-users without programming skills to create and share their own apps (http://www.satinproject.eu/). Using shortcomings discovered in its design and development as a basis, we use the foundational principles and process behind the design of the Satin interface to illustrate that apart from following user centered design, designers also need to consider the constraints and influences of the design space they operate within. When designing a product, the systems and paradigms within which designers act, in this case information infrastructure and work practices, inevitably affect the solution space in which the final designs and products will be searched for. This often results in a limited impact or intelligibility of the initial goals. The design of innovative, collaborative user centered solutions requires designers to work not only on the final product, but also to challenge and evolve the foundations and underlying infrastructures that determine the possibilities of that specific design space. We conclude the paper by emphasizing the need for development of ways of working on the design of interactive systems that are informed by a holistic stance based on day-to-day experience and behavior as a guiding principle for technological development.

  • 38.
    Deshpande, Parag
    University of Limerick.
    Bringing an interactive artefact into being: Examining the use of an architectural design model in interaction design2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the use of an architectural design model in interaction design and provides a detailed and concrete account of bringing an interactive artefact, the Recipe Station, into being.

    The model of architectural design, with its view of the activity of design as envisioning and making incorporates a number of design traditions that allows architects to deal with novel challenges in an effective and efficient manner. It is argued that the prevalent model of architectural design can provide a more coherent and richer framework for the activity of interaction design than is currently the case.

    This model of architectural design is illuminated by the author’s reflection on design research carried out in traditional design disciplines as well as his own experience in the professional practice of architecture. The model of architectural design, thus illuminated, is then evaluated by applying it to bring an interactive artefact, the Recipe Station, into being.

    This thesis demonstrates that the model of architectural design offers a number of advantages for interaction design activity.

    The account of bringing an interactive artefact discussed in this thesis illustrates a process or morphology of the activity of reflective design that can be applied to interaction design (Schön, 1983).

    The thesis also illuminates a number of design traditions associated with a architectural design practice, such as, study of design cases, a solution-focused approach to the process of problem formulation, and a ‘design by drawing’ approach, that can offer significant advantages for the activity of interaction design.

    This thesis, thus, introduces a way of thinking about the activity of design which is driven by the design skills of the designer and makes contributions to interaction design research.

  • 39.
    Deshpande, Parag
    University of Limerick.
    Understanding “Places” for Design of Interactive Environments in Public Spaces: Towards a Methodology2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Deshpande, Parag
    et al.
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Bannon, L.J.
    Designing and deploying interactive installations in urban public spaces: the case of the Market Recipe Station2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Desurivre, Heather
    et al.
    Cinematic Arts, Game Studies Playability/Usability Specialist, Marina del Rey, CA 90292 USA.
    Wiberg, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Game Usability Heuristics (PLAY) For Evaluating and Designing Better Games: the Next Iteration2009In: Online communities and social computing: third international conference, OCSC 2009, held as part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 : proceedings / [ed] A Ant Ozok; Panayiotis Zaphiris, Berlin: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 557-566Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Desurvire, Heather
    et al.
    Usability/Playability Specialist, Behavioristics, Venice, California USA.
    Wiberg, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Evaluating user experience and other lies in evaluating games2008In: CHI'08: Workshop on Evaluating User Experiences in Games, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Desurvire, Heather
    et al.
    Wiberg, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Master of the Game: The Crusial Role of Accessibility in Future Game Design2007In: CMID'07: The first international conference on crossmedia interaction design., 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Desurvire, Heather
    et al.
    Behavioristics Inc., Marina del Rey, CA, USA.
    Wiberg, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    User Experience Design for Inexperienced Gamers: GAP - Game Approachability Principles2010In: Evaluating User Experience in Games: Concepts and Methods / [ed] Regina Bernhaupt, London: Springer London, 2010, p. 131-147Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Game Approachability Principles (GAP) is proposed as a set of useful guidelines for game designers to create better tutorials and first learning levels especially for the casual gamer. Developing better first learning levels can be a key step to ease the casual garner into play proactively - at the conceptual design phase before it is too costly or cumbersome to restructure the tutorials, as would be the case later in the development cycle. Thus, Game Approachability, in the context of game development, is defined as making games initially more friendly, fun, and accessible for those players who have the desire to play, yet do not always follow through to actually playing the game. GAP has evolved through a series of stages assessing accessibility(1) as a stand-alone, heuristic-based approach versus one-on-one usability testing. Outcomes suggest potential for GAP as (I) effective Heuristic Evaluation, (2) adjunct to Usability Testing, and (3) proactive checklist of principles in beginning conceptual and first learning level tutorial design to increase Game Approachability for all levels of garners.

  • 45.
    Dijk, van, Jelle
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Moussette, Camille
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Kuenen, Christoffel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Hummels, Caroline
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Radical Calshes: What Tangible Interaction is Made of2013In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction - TEI '13, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2013, p. 323-326Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by a critique of Ishii et al’s recent vision of Radical Atoms we call for a debate on the different conceptual paradigms underlying the TEI community and its activities. TEI was initiated to share and connect different perspectives, but we feel conceptual debate is lacking. To fuel this debate, we start with comparing two paradigms by examining the Radical Atoms proposal and balance it from our design-led perspective. Our aim with this paper is to revive the richness of TEI’s multidisciplinary approach.

  • 46.
    DiSalvo, Carl
    et al.
    Georgia Institute of Technology.
    Redström, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Watson, Matt
    University of Sheffield.
    Commentaries on the special issue on practice-oriented approaches to sustainable HCI2013In: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, ISSN 1073-0516, E-ISSN 1557-7325, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 26-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Drugge, Niclas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Evaluating the use of mobile Augmented Reality as a digital communication tool2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For over a century, mankind has been dreaming about technologies that combined reality with the wonders of the virtual world. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR) is doing just that, and with an emergence of AR in many new fields, there is reason to believe that it will be a widely used communication tool in the future. However, it is important to know what the benefits and disadvantages of AR is, not just from a user perspective, but also from a developer perspective. Therefore, a literature study on human communication and AR was performed in this thesis, along with the development of a mobile AR application, and also two surveys inquiring about the attitudes regarding AR present in people in the communications industry. The literature study showed that AR can help people process information by increasing the visualization aspect, and that it is a durable technology to the changes that languages go through. There is, however, a risk that AR can be an excluding technology, especially for older people, and the application development process also showed that there are compatibility issues to consider before developing.

  • 48.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    That voice sounds familiar: factors in speaker recognition2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have the ability to recognize other humans by voice alone. This is important both socially and for the robustness of speech perception. This Thesis contains a set of eight studies that investigates how different factors impact on speaker recognition and how these factors can help explain how listeners perceive and evaluate speaker identity. The first study is a review paper overviewing emotion decoding and encoding research. The second study compares the relative importance of the emotional tone in the voice and the emotional content of the message. A mismatch between these was shown to impact upon decoding speed. The third study investigates the factor dialect in speaker recognition and shows, using a bidialectal speaker as the target voice to control all other variables, that the dominance of dialect cannot be overcome. The fourth paper investigates if imitated stage dialects are as perceptually dominant as natural dialects. It was found that a professional actor could disguise his voice successfully by imitating a dialect, yet that a listener's proficiency in a language or accent can reduce susceptibility to a dialect imitation. Papers five to seven focus on automatic techniques for speaker separation. Paper five shows that a method developed for Australian English diphthongs produced comparable results with a Swedish glide + vowel transition. The sixth and seventh papers investigate a speaker separation technique developed for American English. It was found that the technique could be used to separate Swedish speakers and that it is robust against professional imitations. Paper eight investigates how age and hearing impact upon earwitness reliability. This study shows that a senior citizen with corrected hearing can be as reliable an earwitness as a younger adult with no hearing problem, but suggests that a witness' general cognitive skill deterioration needs to be considered when assessing a senior citizen's earwitness evidence. On the basis of the studies a model of speaker recognition is presented, based on the face recognition model by V. Bruce and Young (1986; British Journal of Psychology, 77, pp. 305 - 327) and the voice recognition model by Belin, Fecteau and Bédard (2004; TRENDS in Cognitive Science, 8, pp. 129 - 134). The merged and modified model handles both familiar and unfamiliar voices. The findings presented in this Thesis, in particular the findings of the individual papers in Part II, have implications for criminal cases in which speaker recognition forms a part. The findings feed directly into the growing body of forensic phonetic and forensic linguistic research.

  • 49.
    Fagertun, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Real time voice feedback: a study on running intensity2014In: Proceedings of Umeå's 18th student conference in computing science: USCCS 2014.1 / [ed] Suna Bensch, Thomas Hellström, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2014, p. 25-38Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Fahlquist, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Creating new experience for zoo visitors by using media techniques2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2008, the EU project “Digital Djurpark” (Digital Zoo) started as a cooperation between the digital media lab at the department of Applied Physics and Electronics (TFE) at Umeå University and Lycksele Zoo. The technology behind the Digital Zoo project is a wireless sensor network that is placed in the park. This wireless sensor network collects information from the park and is able to save data for the future but also send live data outside the park. The idea behind the project Digital Zoo was to give zoo-visitors new experiences during their visit and let them be able to interact with the zoo and to give the visitor a chance to get to know the animals in a more personal way.

    The objective of this thesis is to create new experiences by using media techniques and the application environment is Digital Zoo. The work can be seen as applied research because of the focus on an actual case, Digital Zoo. The major scientific challenge with this work is to use media techniques so the experience for the visitor feels like a new experience. The overall research question is: How is it possible to give the zoo visitors new experience by using media techniques? This overall question is broken down into three sub-questions: (1) How is it possible to let the visitors feel involved in the experience by using media techniques?; (2) How is it possible to adapt the experience to the visitor by using media techniques?; (3) How is it possible to integrate the experience in both the digital and the physical world by using media techniques?

    To create new experience for a zoo visitor it is necessary to understand the visitor better, therefore this work become interdisciplinary, touching on aspects and approaches such as interaction, media technology, social science, and marketing. To investigate different ways to enhance the visitors experience regarding the Digital Zoo interaction, the following research methods were used: case study, surveys, interviews, prototyping, and user tests. Participants in these studies were representatives from Swedish zoos, visitor in Lycksele Zoo, and children from school classes in Umeå.

    It is of importance to recognize that this work will not give a general result on how to create experiences for users. However, since this work has been based on a real case, Digital Zoo, it is most certainly possible to find results that can be applied in similar cases, e.g. in the tourist attraction section. The results are practical examples on how to create experiences using media technology within a tourist attraction. The studies resulted in applications with social media, user generated content, and Proxemic dimensions in focus. These practical examples might form a basis for influencing a future concept for tourist attractions to use.

    Finally a social media game concept is proposed, the concept is combining ubiquitous information, social media and a game application. This social media game concept shows how it would be possible to integrate the experience in both the digital and the physical world involving more than one person. The participants in the game are visitors both inside and outside the zoo. The media game concept creates a new enhancing experience by using media techniques such as a wireless sensor network, social media, and applications used both on smartphones and computers.

    The contribution of this work is the idea of using a game concept to create new experiences in a tourist attraction. This work shows how a game concept could combine the physical and digital worlds. The concept suggest that to create experiences for different visitors, the information should adapt to the visitors as well as letting visitors become part of the experience with, e.g., user generated content. This concept would make it possible for zoos and visitors to expand the user experience-timespan to include the time before, during, and after the visit. 

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