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  • 1. Abafe, Ovokeroye A.
    et al.
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buckley, Chris
    Stark, Annegret
    Pietruschka, Bjoern
    Martincigh, Bice S.
    LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, p. 660-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

  • 2. Abdoullaye, Doukary
    et al.
    Acevedo, I
    Adebayo, Abisola A
    Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca
    Benjamin, RC
    Bock, Dan G
    Born, Celine
    Brouat, Carine
    Caccone, Adalgisa
    Cao, Ling-Zhen
    Casadoamezua, P
    Cataneo, J
    Correa-Ramirez, MM
    Cristescu, Melania E
    Dobigny, Gauthier
    Egbosimba, Emmanuel E
    Etchberger, Lianna K
    Fan, Bin
    Fields, Peter D
    Forcioli, D
    Furla, P
    de Leon, FJ Garcia
    Garcia-Jimenez, R
    Gauthier, Philippe
    Gergs, Rene
    Gonzalez, Clementina
    Granjon, Laurent
    Gutierrez-Rodriguez, Carla
    Havill, Nathan P
    Helsen, P
    Hether, Tyler D
    Hoffman, Eric A
    Hu, Xiangyang
    Ingvarsson, Pär K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ishizaki, S
    Ji, Heyi
    Ji, XS
    Jimenez, ML
    Kapil, R
    Karban, R
    Keller, Stephen R
    Kubota, S
    Li, Shuzhen
    Li, Wansha
    Lim, Douglas D
    Lin, Haoran
    Liu, Xiaochun
    Luo, Yayan
    Machordom, A
    Martin, Andrew P
    Matthysen, E
    Mazzella, Maxwell N
    McGeoch, Melodie A
    Meng, Zining
    Nishizawa, M
    O'Brien, Patricia
    Ohara, M
    Ornelas, Juan Francisco
    Ortu, MF
    Pedersen, Amy B
    Preston, L
    Ren, Qin
    Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto
    Sackett, Loren C
    Sang, Qing
    Sawyer, GM
    Shiojiri, K
    Taylor, Douglas R
    van Dongen, S
    van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen
    Vandewoestijne, S
    Wang, H
    Wang, JT
    Wang, Le
    Xu, Xiang-Li
    Yang, Guang
    Yang, Yongping
    Zeng, YQ
    Zhang, Qing-Wen
    Zhang, Yongping
    Zhao, Y
    Zhou, Yan
    Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 August 2009 - 30 September 20092010In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 232-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides.

  • 3.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 4. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 5. Aeppli, Christoph
    et al.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Holmstrand, Henry
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Use of Cl and C Isotopic Fractionation to Identify Degradation and Sources of Polychlorinated Phenols: Mechanistic Study and Field Application2013In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 790-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of chlorinated phenols (CPs) as a wood preservative has led to numerous contaminated sawmill sites. However, it remains challenging to assess the extent of in situ degradation of CPs. We evaluated the use of compound-specific chlorine and carbon isotope analysis (Cl- and C-CSIA) to assess CP biotransformation. In a laboratory system, we measured isotopic fractionation during oxidative 2,4,6-trichlorophenol dechlorination by representative soil enzymes (C. fumago chloroperoxidase, horseradish peroxidase, and laccase from T. versicolor). Using a mathematical model, the validity of the Rayleigh approach to evaluate apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIE) was confirmed. A small but significant Cl-AKIE of 1.0022 ± 0.0006 was observed for all three enzymes, consistent with a reaction pathway via a cationic radical species. For carbon, a slight inverse isotope effect was observed (C-AKIE = 0.9945 ± 0.0019). This fractionation behavior is clearly distinguishable from reported reductive dechlorination mechanisms. Based on these results we then assessed degradation and apportioned different types of technical CP mixtures used at two former sawmill sites. To our knowledge, this is the first study that makes use of two-element CSIA to study sources and transformation of CPs in the environment.

  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Gunnel
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolution (Limnology), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Goedkoop, Willem
    Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fatty Acid Ratios in Freshwater Fish, Zooplankton and Zoobenthos - Are There Specific Optima?2009In: Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Martin Kainz, Michael T. Brett, Michael T. Arts, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, p. 147-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), termed omega-3 and omega-6 in food (or here as n-3 and n-6 PUFA, respectively), are essential for all vertebrates and probably also for nearly all invertebrates. The absolute concentrations of the different PUFA are important, as is an appropriate balance between the two. The optimal ratio of n-3/n-6 is not known for most organisms but is anticipated to be more or less species-specific (Sargent et al. 1995). The three most important PUFA in vertebrates are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6). Both EPA and ARA are precursors for biologically active eicosanoids that are vital components of cell membranes and play many dynamic roles in mediating and controlling a wide array of cellular activities (Crawford et al. 1989; Harrison 1990; Henderson et al. 1996; see Chap. 9). Since n-3 and n-6 PUFA cannot be synthesized de novo by most metazoans, they must be included in the diet, either as EPA, DHA and ARA, or as their precursors, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, precursor of EPA and DHA) and linoleic acid (LIN, 18:2n-6, precursor of ARA) (Bell et al. 1986; Sargent et al. 1995). Both ALA and LIN are produced in the thylacoid membranes of algae and plants with chlorophyll (Sargent at al. 1987).

  • 7.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Omstedt, Anders
    Rolff, Carl
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea2017In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 170, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia and oxygen deficient zones are expanding worldwide. To properly manage this deterioration of the marine environment, it is important to identify the causes of oxygen declines and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Here, we provide a study aiming to explain the declining oxygen levels in the deep waters of the Bothnian Sea over the past 20 years by investigating data from environmental monitoring programmes. The observed decline in oxygen concentrations in deep waters was found to be primarily a consequence of water temperature increase and partly caused by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater (R-Adj(2). = 0.83) as well as inflow from the adjacent sea basin. As none of the tested eutrophication-related predictors were significant according to a stepwise multiple regression, a regional increase in nutrient inputs to the area is unlikely to explain a significant portion of the oxygen decline. Based on the findings of this study, preventing the development of anoxia in the deep water of the Bothnian Sea is dependent on the large-scale measures taken to reduce climate change. In addition, the reduction of the nutrient load to the Baltic Proper is required to counteract the development of hypoxic and phosphate-rich water in the Baltic Proper, which can form deep water in the Bothnian Sea. The relative importance of these sources to oxygen consumption is difficult to determine from the available data, but the results clearly demonstrate the importance of climate related factors such as temperature, DOC and inflow from adjacent basins for the oxygen status of the sea.

  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Rolff, Carl
    Stockholms universitet.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Omstedt, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Orsaker till minskande syrehalter i Bottenhavet2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultat från den nationella miljöövervakningen visar att syrehalterna i Bottenhavet har minskat sedan 1970-talet, en minskning som accelererat från 1990. För att ha möjlighet att på något sätt kunna åtgärda denna försämring av den marina miljön är det nödvändigt att identifiera orsakerna till denna syreminskning, eftersom olika orsaker kan kräva olika former av åtgärder. Om orsaken till exempel är ökad syreförbrukning beroende på regional övergödning, skulle detta innebära ökat behov av regionala reningsåtgärder. Målsättningen med projektet var därmed att ge en tillförlitlig förklaring till de sjunkande syrehalterna i Bottenhavet under de senaste 20 åren genom att använda data från de nationella miljöövervakningsprogrammen. De huvudhypoteser som undersöktes som orsaker till de sjunkande syrehalterna var:  • Ökad regional gödning av Bottenhavet och därmed ökad produktion.  • Tillförsel av syrefattigt och fosfatrikt från Egentliga Östersjön.  • Starkare haloklin och försämrad ventilation av Bottenhavets djupvatten.  • Ökad temperatur och ökad tillförsel av löst organiskt kol. Analys av tidsserier och modellanalyser utifrån miljöövervaknings- och forskningsdata visade att den observerade syrehaltsminskningen i Bottenhavets djupvatten främst beror på en ökning av vattentemperaturen och delvis på en ökning av löst organiskt kol i vattnet, samt tillflöde från Egentliga Östersjön. Dataanalysen visade däremot inget tydligt stöd för att ökad produktion av biomassa i Bottenhavet orsakat de minskande syrehalterna. Detta gäller indikatorer för växtplankton, sedimentation och bakterieplankton som alla förväntas öka vid ökad produktion och det finns således inga direkta indicier för att stödja hypotesen om ökad gödning av Bottenhavet.  Sammantaget visar de analyser som gjorts inom projektet att Bottenhavets framtida hälsa främst gynnas av en kombination av åtgärder för att motverka globala klimatförändringar, samt åtgärder för att förbättra vattenkvaliteten i Egentliga Östersjön. Näringstillförsel från Bottenhavets avrinningsområden bedöms främst ha haft betydelse för syresituationen i kustnära vattenförekomster. Den bedöms därför inte i betydande omfattning ha orsakat de minskande syrehalterna i Bottenhavets utsjöområden.  

  • 9.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Biologisk inventering av havsbottnar kring Örefjärden, Snöan och Bonden: Marinbiologisk inventering och naturvärdesbedömning av planerat marint naturreservat2009Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Miljöövervakning i Gaviksfjärden, Västernorrlands län: sammanställning och resultatanalys2014Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Undervattensvegetation i Holmöarnas naturreservat: Inventeringar och miljöövervakningar genomförda under åren 1997, 2004 och 20072008Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Albertsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Övervakning av makrovegetation i Bottniska viken: En utvärdering av pågående undersökningar och underlag för vidareutveckling2014Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Albrectsen, Benedicte R
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Witzell, Johanna
    Robinson, Kathryn M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Wulff, Sören
    Luquez, Virginia MC
    Ågren, Rickard
    Jansson, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Large scale geographic clines of parasite damage to Populus tremula L2010In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 483-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conclusion, clines of Phyllocnistis were stronger and more persistent compared to Melampsora, which showed contrasting clines of varying strength. Our data thus support the assumption of the GMTC model that clines exist in the border between hot and cold spots and that they may be less persistent for parasites with an elevated gene flow, and/or for parasites which cover relatively larger hot spots surrounded by fewer cold spots.

  • 14. Allan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Le Roux, Gael
    De Vleeschouwer, Francois
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Piotrowska, Natalia
    Sikorski, Jaroslaw
    Fagel, Nathalie
    High-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium2013In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 178, p. 381-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5-50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years.

    (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Allegrini, Elisa
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Boldrin, Alessio
    Tech Univ Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundtorp, Kasper
    Babcock & Wilcox Vølund A/S, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fruergaard Astrup, Thomas
    Technical University of Denmark, Department of Environmental Engineering.
    Quality and generation rate of solid residues in the boiler of a waste-to-energy plant2014In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 270, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Danish waste management system relies significantly on waste-to-energy (WtE) plants. The ash produced at the energy recovery section (boiler ash) is classified as hazardous waste, and is commonly mixed with fly ash and air pollution control residues before disposal. In this study, a detailed characterization of boiler ash from a Danish grate-based mass burn type WtE was performed, to evaluate the potential for improving ash management. Samples were collected at 10 different points along the boiler's convective part, and analysed for grain size distribution, content of inorganic elements, polychlorinated dibenzo-. p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF), and leaching of metals. For all samples, PCDD and PCDF levels were below regulatory limits, while high pH values and leaching of e.g. Cl were critical. No significant differences were found between boiler ash from individual sections of the boiler, in terms of total content and leaching, indicating that separate management of individual ash fractions may not provide significant benefits. 

  • 16. Anderssen, C.
    et al.
    Lindgren, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Carvalho, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Malmborg, V.
    Ahlberg, E.
    García-López, N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Eriksson, A.
    Kristensen, T.B.
    Svenningsson, B.
    Boman, C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pagels, J.
    SOA Formation and Particle Characteristics in the Emissions from Biomass Cook Stoves Used in the Developing Countries2017In: SOA Formation and Particle Characteristics in the Emissions from Biomass Cook Stoves Used in the Developing Countries, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Hansen, Wenche
    Länsstyrelsen Västernorrland.
    Wänstrand, Ingrid
    Länsstyrelsen Gävleborg.
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Strategi för kontrollerande övervakning av Bottenhavets vattendistrikt2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett pelagialprogram har tagits fram för övervakning i relativt opåverkade referensområden i kustvattentyperna 16 t.o.m.19 i Bottemhavet. Programmet bör kunna ligga till grund för uppföljning av internationella, nationella och regionala miljömål samt följa upp ekologisk status. Den rumsliga variationen samt mellanårsvariationen hos pelagiala variabler i Bottenhavsområdet har använts som utgångspunkt för att beräkna provtagningsbehovet. Det föreslagna programmet innebär att mellan 48 och 60 provtagningar årsperiod, varefter ekologisk status kan bedömas. Designen gör det möjligt att med 80 % säkerhet bedöma ekologisk status med mätdata som ligger minst 20 % från klassgränserna. Mätprogrammet är designat för provtagningar -årsperiod. Stationer har slumpats ut i de olika typerna, och förslag på årliga provtagningslokaler anges i rapporten. Eftersom djupet vid de olika stationerna varierar, bör de flesta pelagiala variablerna provtas vid ett diskret djup i övre delen av vattenmassan, t.ex. 1 m djup. Av vetenskapliga och ekonomiska skäl är det viktigt att pelagialprogrammet samordnas för hela Bottenhavet.

    För mjukbottenfauna bedöms det befintliga integrerade programmet för trendanalys i Bottenhavet kunna tillgodose Vattendirektivets behov för kontrollerande övervakning i distriktet. Detta under förutsättning att Sundsvallsbuktens program fortsätter och att de nya nationella och regionala provtagningsområdena i södra Bottenhavet (Gräsö) etableras och drivs. Dimensioneringen av nuvarande nationellt och regionalt bottenfaunaprogram och områdesövervakning men har även visat sig vara väl anpassat för bedömningar inom ramen för Vattendirektivet. Enligt bedömningsgrunden bör minst 5 stationer användas för klassning av ekologisk status. Dessa stationer måste dock inte ligga inom samma vattenförekomst, utan kan vara lokaliserade i angränsande vattenförekomster. Den ekologiska statusen för mjukbottenfauna i enskilda vattenförekomster klassas genom extrapolering med hjälp av data från närbelägna områden med liknande bottenmiljö och påverkansgrad.

    Befintlig fiskebeståndsövervakning föreslås fortlöpa för att möjliggöra uppföljning av förändringar. En utökning av antalet övervakningsområden föreslås dock för att upprätta minst ett referensområde per inre och yttre kustvattentyp. En kombination av stratifierad och slumpmässig övervakning av fiskebestånden enligt nuvarande strategi föreslås, där djupintervallen stratifieras medan stationerna slumpas ut i respektive djupintervall.

    Provfiske och provtagning för miljögiftsanalys av fisk bör samordnas till samma provtagningstillfälle. Vidare bör den modell för samfinansiering och samordning som idag tillämpas av kustlänen i Bottniska viken för övervakning av fiskbestånd, samt och miljögiftsövervakning av fisk, fortlöpa även framöver.

    De ämnen som ingår i det pågående nationella programmet för miljögifter i fisk bör mätas även i de nya föreslagna områdena. När EU:s dotterdirektiv för prioriterade ämnen är beslutat och Vattenmyndigheterna fastställt miljökvalitetsnormer för särskilda förorenande ämnen, bör en översyn göras och ytterligare ämnen som är aktuella för Bottenhavet införlivas i övervakningsprogrammet. Miljögiftsövervakning i fisk bedöms kunna mätas med ett maximalt avstånd på 75 km mellan stationsområdena. Bedömning och extrapolera mätvärdena.

    För samtliga delprogram har en grova uppskattningar av kostnader för genomförandet gjorts.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Höglander, Helena
    Mer fosfor ger mer cyanobakterier i norra Östersjön2013In: Havet, p. 51-54Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I flera områden i norra Östersjön har cyanobakterierna ökat under de senaste tio till femton åren. I Bottenhavets och Egentliga Östersjöns kustområden ökar de kvävefixerande cyanobakterierna. I Bottenvikens utsjö är det den småcelliga och kolonibildande gruppen Chroococcales som blir fler. Förändringarna beror i flera fall på ökande halter av fosfor.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meier, H.E. Markus
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Eilola, Kari
    Legrand, Catherine
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Suppl 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effectson the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2–4 Cwarming and 50–80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100.Precipitation may increase *30 % in the north, causingincreased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter(AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity.Coupled physical–biogeochemical models indicate that, inthe south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing codrecruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release,thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north,heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, whilephytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophiclevels in the food web may increase energy losses andconsequently reduce fish production. Future managementof the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climatechange on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as wellas the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load.Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassingboth autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g.,bacterial) processes.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Tamminen, Timo
    Lehtinen, Sirpa
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Viitasalo, Markku
    The pelagic food web2017In: Biological oceanography of the Baltic sea / [ed] Pauline Snoeijs, Hendrik Schubert, Teresa Radziejewska, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2017, p. 281-332Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Environmental drivers and food web structure in the pelagic zone vary from south to north in the Baltic Sea. 
    2. While nitrogen is generally the limiting nutrient for primary production in the Baltic Sea, phosphorus is the limiting nutrient in the Bothnian Bay. 
    3. In the Gulf of Bothnia the food web is to a large extent driven by terrestrial allochthonous material, while autochthonous production dominates in the other parts of the Baltic Sea. 
    4. Changes in bacterioplankton, protist and zooplankton community composition from south to north are mainly driven by salinity. 
    5. Bacteria are crucial constituents of the pelagic food web (microbial loop) and in oxygen-poor and anoxic bottom waters where they mediate element transformations. 
    6. Diatoms and dinoflagellates are the major primary producers in the pelagic zone. Summer blooms of diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) filamentous cyanobacteria are typical of the Baltic Sea, especially in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland. 
    7. The mesozooplankton (mainly copepods and cladocerans) channel energy from primary producers and the microbial food web to fish and finally to the top predators in the pelagic system (waterbirds and mammals). 
    8. Herring and sprat populations are affected by the foraging intensity of their main predator (cod), and therefore the environmental conditions that affect cod may also influence mesozooplankton due to food web effects "cascading down the food web". 
    9. Anthropogenic pressures, such as overexploitation of fish stocks, eutrophication, climate change, introduction of non-indigenous species and contamination of top predators by hazardous substances, cause changes in the pelagic food web that may have consequences for the balance and stability of the whole ecosystem.
  • 21.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Klimatförändringar kan leda till mindre fisk i havet2016In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i i svenska havsområden. 2015/2016, Göteborg: Havs- och vattenmyndigheten , 2016, p. 25-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Adaptation to climate change?: Why business-as-usual remains the logical choice in Swedish forestry2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 48, p. 76-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest IPCC assessment reports have concluded that knowledge is not sufficient for inducing action on climate change. This study problematizes the issue of going beyond business-as-usual through a study of the forestry sector in Sweden, which is a large economic sector and could be expected to be an early adapter, given that newly planted forest may stand some 70-90 years into the future. Therefore resources, economic motivation in the longer term and environmental foundations for early adaptation action could be expected to exist. This study draws upon the Foucauldian conceptualization of governmentality to explain the particular institutional logics that nevertheless lead to business-as-usual arguments dominating discussion on adaptation in the case of Swedish forestry. The study emphasizes that adaptation must be seen as steered and limited by existing institutional, social system logics, rather than by externally defined "rational" motivations. Efforts on adaptation to climate change must thus be considered in relation to, and seek to change, existing institutionally based motivational and incentive structures, and must thus be conceived through social rather than environmental logics. In fact, social logics may even define the types of actions that may be regarded as adaptations.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Simone
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Environmental Communication for sustainable development in Kenya: A qualitative study focusing on solid and liquid waste2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research has investigated how environmental communication is reaching out in urban Kenya and what knowledge and attitude exists. Key aim was finding what perception stakeholders had on effective ways to communicate to reach goals of a sustainable development. Focus laid on solid and liquid waste, because of great improvements needed in infrastructure and behavior. In addition, comparison was made to current sustainability goals. Qualitative interviews with semi structured questions were conducted in Kitengela (Kajiado county) and Machakos Town (Machakos county), with six different target groups each and a total of 48 respondents. General knowledge of possibilities to reuse and recycle solid waste was quite high, but sewage is not very common to refer to as a resource. The sensitization today on the issues was mainly through schools and media. A perception was that people don’t care or know, but there are conversations about the menace of litter and sometimes dirty water. Nearly 75 % said service of clean water and environment would be worth almost any price. Many expressed frustrations on the lack of management and implications that follow when wanting to act well or create awareness, but no system to support a sustainable behavior. Suggestions of communicative methods had emphasis on reaching all age groups where people gather, like schools and churches/mosques. The approach should be positive with concrete feedback on profits of sustainable living, while presenting a vivid vision for everyone to work towards.  

  • 24. Angelstam, Per
    et al.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Axelsson, Robert
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Dahlberg, Anders
    Degerman, Erik
    Eggers, Sönke
    Esseen, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    Johansson, Therese
    Müller, Jörg
    Paltto, Heidi
    Snäll, Tord
    Soloviy, Ihor
    Törnblom, Johan
    Evidence-Based Knowledge Versus Negotiated Indicators for Assessment of Ecological Sustainability: The Swedish Forest Stewardship Council Standard as a Case Study2013In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 229-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing ecological sustainability involves monitoring of indicators and comparison of their states with performance targets that are deemed sustainable. First, a normative model was developed centered on evidence-based knowledge about (a) forest composition, structure, and function at multiple scales, and (b) performance targets derived by quantifying the habitat amount in naturally dynamic forests, and as required for presence of populations of specialized focal species. Second, we compared the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification standards' ecological indicators from 1998 and 2010 in Sweden to the normative model using a Specific, Measurable, Accurate, Realistic, and Timebound (SMART) indicator approach. Indicator variables and targets for riparian and aquatic ecosystems were clearly under-represented compared to terrestrial ones. FSC's ecological indicators expanded over time from composition and structure towards function, and from finer to coarser spatial scales. However, SMART indicators were few. Moreover, they poorly reflected quantitative evidence-based knowledge, a consequence of the fact that forest certification mirrors the outcome of a complex social negotiation process.

  • 25. Antoniou, Maria G.
    et al.
    Hey, Gerly
    Rodriguez Vega, Sergio
    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansen, Jes La Cour
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Variability in required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents2013In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology / [ed] Lekkas, TD, Global Nest, Secretariat , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality originating from different wastewater treatment processes. Methods. Secondary effluents from six Swedish wastewater treatment plants (VWVTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1pg/L) and treated with different 03 doses (0.5-12.0 mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments (Antoniou et al, 2012). Concentrations of APIs were measured by SPE extraction using OASIS HLB cartridges followed by quantification using LC-MS-MS (Grabic et al, 2012).. Results. For each wastewater effluent a profile of sensitivity of each API to a range of ozone doses were generated as shown in Figure 1.

  • 26.
    Arnoldsson, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Norman Haldén, L
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Retention and maternal transfer of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in zebrafish (DANIO RERIO) 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Arnqvist, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sjöstedt de Luna, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Functional clustering of varved lake sediment to reconstruct past seasonal climate2016In: Environmental and Ecological Statistics, ISSN 1352-8505, E-ISSN 1573-3009, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 513-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually laminated (varved) lake sediments constitutes excellent environmental archives, and have the potential to play an important role for understanding past seasonal climate with their inherent annual time resolution and within-year seasonal patterns. We propose to use functional data analysis methods to extract the relevant information with respect to climate reconstruction from the rich but complex information in the varves, including the shapes of the seasonal patterns, the varying varve thickness, and the non-linear sediment accumulation rates. In particular we analyze varved sediment from lake Kassjon in northern Sweden, covering the past 6400 years. The properties of each varve reflect to a large extent weather conditions and internal biological processes in the lake the year that the varve was deposited. Functional clustering is used to group the seasonal patterns into different types, that can be associated with different weather conditions. The seasonal patterns were described by penalized splines and clustered by the k-means algorithm, after alignment. The observed (within-year) variability in the data was used to determine the degree of smoothing for the penalized spline approximations. The resulting clusters and their time dynamics show great potential for seasonal climate interpretation, in particular for winter climate changes.

  • 28. Arp, Hans Peter H.
    et al.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    Cornelissen, Gerard
    Enell, Anja
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Native Oxy-PAHs, N-PACs, and PAHs in historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France: their soil-porewater partitioning behavior, bioaccumulation in Enchytraeus crypticus, and bioavailability2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 19, p. 11187-11195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil quality standards are based on partitioning and toxicity data for laboratory-spiked reference soils, instead of real world, historically contaminated soils, which would be more representative. Here 21 diverse historically contaminated soils from Sweden, Belgium, and France were obtained, and the soil-porewater partitioning along with the bioaccumulation in exposed worms (Enchytraeus crypticus) of native polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were quantified. The native PACs investigated were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and, for the first time to be included in such a study, oxygenated-PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and nitrogen containing heterocyclic PACs (N-PACs). The passive sampler polyoxymethylene (POM) was used to measure the equilibrium freely dissolved porewater concentration, C-pw, of all PACs. The obtained organic carbon normalized partitioning coefficients, K-TOC, show that sorption of these native PACs is much stronger than observed in laboratory-spiked soils (typically by factors 10 to 100), which has been reported previously for PAHs but here for the first time for oxy-PAHs and N-PACs. A recently developed K-TOC model for historically contaminated sediments predicted the 597 unique, native K-TOC values in this study within a factor 30 for 100% of the data and a factor 3 for 58% of the data, without calibration. This model assumes that TOC in pyrogenic-impacted areas sorbs similarly to coal tar, rather than octanol as typically assumed. Black carbon (BC) inclusive partitioning models exhibited substantially poorer performance. Regarding bioaccumulation, C-pw combined with liposome-water partition coefficients corresponded better with measured worm lipid concentrations, C-lipid (within a factor 10 for 85% of all PACs and soils), than C-pw combined with octanol-water partition coefficients (within a factor 10 for 76% of all PACs and soils). E. crypticus mortality and reproducibility were also quantified. No enhanced mortality was observed in the 21 historically contaminated soils despite expectations from PAH spiked reference soils. Worm reproducibility weakly correlated to C-lipid of PACs, though the contributing influence of metal concentrations and soil texture could not be taken into account. The good agreement of POM-derived C-pw with independent soil and lipid partitioning models further supports that soil risk assessments would improve by accounting for bioavailability. Strategies for including bioavailability in soil risk assessment are presented.

  • 29. Asplund, Johan
    et al.
    Johansson, Otilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nybakken, Line
    Palmqvist, Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gauslaa, Yngvar
    Simulated nitrogen deposition influences gastropod grazing in lichens2010In: Ecoscience, ISSN 1195-6860, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lichens are often important photosynthetic organisms in oligotrophic environments where high-quality fodder plants are rare. A strong herbivore defence and/or low nutritional quality allows the accumulation of a high lichen biomass in such areas. However, it is not known how N deposition influences lichen palatability. This study analyzes possible changes in gastropod grazing preference after 3 months simulated N deposition on 3 foliose (Lobaria scrobiculata, Platismatia glauca, and Xanthoria aureola) and 1 pendulous lichen species (Alectoria sarmentosa). Lichens were daily irrigated in the field with rainwater containing 1.625 mM NH4NO3 from June to September, equivalent to a deposition of 50 kg N·ha-1·y-1. Irrigations applied at night, morning, or noon simulated different C-gain regimes. Afterwards in the lab, we offered 2 common lichen-feeding gastropods the choice between N-fertilized thalli and control thalli irrigated with artificial rainwater. The gastropods clearly preferred the unfertilized thalli of the 3 foliose species. For the pendulous A. sarmentosa, the gastropods preferred N-enriched thalli (irrigated at night) to controls. In conclusion, N-enrichment changes the palatability of lichens in species-specific ways.

  • 30. Atkinson, Lindsey J
    et al.
    Campbell, Catherine D
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Zaragoza-Castells, Joana
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Atkin, Owen K
    Impact of growth temperature on scaling relationships linking photosynthetic metabolism to leaf functional traits2010In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 1181-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Scaling relationships linking photosynthesis (A) to leaf traits are important for predicting vegetation patterns and plant-atmosphere carbon fluxes. Here, we investigated the impact of growth temperature on such scaling relationships.

    2. We assessed whether changes in growth temperature systematically altered the slope and/or intercepts of log-log plots of A vs leaf mass per unit leaf area (LMA), nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations for 19 contrasting plant species grown hydroponically at four temperatures (7, 14, 21 and 28 degrees C) in controlled environment cabinets. Responses of 21 degrees C-grown pre-existing (PE) leaves experiencing a 10 day growth temperature (7, 14, 21 and 28 degrees C) treatment, and newly-developed (ND) leaves formed at each of the four new growth temperatures, were quantified. Irrespective of the growth temperature treatment, rates of light-saturated photosynthesis (A) were measured at 21 degrees C.

    3. Changes in growth temperature altered the scaling between A and leaf traits in pre-existing (PE) leaves, with thermal history accounting for up to 17% and 31% of the variation on a mass and area basis, respectively. However, growth temperature played almost no role in accounting for scatter when comparisons were made of newly-developed (ND) leaves that form at each growth temperature.

    4. Photosynthetic nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiency (PNUE and PPUE, respectively) decreased with increasing LMA. No systematic differences in temperature-mediated reductions in PNUE or PPUE of PE leaves were found among species.

    5. Overall, these results highlight the importance of leaf development in determining the effects of sustained changes in growth temperature on scaling relationships linking photosynthesis to other leaf traits.

  • 31.
    Augulyte, Lijana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Use and Development of Diffusive Samplers to Analyse the Fate of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Pharmaceuticals in Wastewater Treatment Processes2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of wastewater treatment systems is commonly measured by the reductions of parameters such as biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) and/or reductions in levels of selected macro compounds (e.g. long-chained hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds). Less attention has generally been paid to micropollutants with high potential toxic effects, such as polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including unsubstituted and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dibenzothiophenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), human pharmaceuticals and by-products formed during the treatment process. These organic micropollutants occur in wastewaters at trace and ultra-trace levels, therefore their detection requires advanced, costly analyses and large sample volumes. Furthermore, concentrations of micropollutants can fluctuate widely both diurnally and between days. Thus, in order to understand the fate of micropollutants in wastewaters there is a need to develop sampling techniques that allow representative samples to be readily collected.

    In the work underlying this thesis two types of diffusive passive samplers, semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs), were used to monitor non-polar and polar organic micropollutants in wastewaters subjected to various treatment processes. The pollutants sequestered in these samplers represent micropollutants in the dissolved phase that are available for aquatic organisms. Further, since they collect pollutants in an integrative manner, i.e. they sample continuously during the selected exposure time (usually approx. one to ca. three weeks), the results provide time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations. In addition, the effects of various environmental factors on the uptake of analyzed micropollutants in POCISs and SPMDs were investigated using laboratory calibration and in situ calibration with performance reference compounds (PRCs).

    The results confirm that SPMDs are good sampling tools for investigating the efficacy of wastewater treatment processes for removing non-polar PACs and PCBs, and the effects of varying the process settings. In addition, analyses of process streams in municipal sewage treatment plants demonstrated that conventional sewage treatment processes are not optimized for removing dissolved four-ringed PAHs, some of the five-ringed PAHs, and tri- to hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. The removal of bioavailable PACs was enhanced by adding sorbents with high sorption capacities to the sludge used in the activated sludge treatment step, and a biologically activated carbon system was designed that robustly removed bioavailable PACs, with removal efficiencies of 96.9-99.7 percent across the tested ranges of five varied process parameters.

    In situ SPMD calibration data acquired show that uptake of PACs, described by SPMD sampling rates (Rs), were four to eight times higher than published laboratory calibrated Rs values, mainly due to strong (bio)fouling and turbulence effects. In addition, the laboratory calibration study demonstrated that temperature affects the POCIS uptake of pharmaceuticals. The uptake of four pharmaceuticals was higher, by 10-56 percent, at 18 °C compared to 5 °C. For two of the pharmaceuticals our data indicate that the uptake was lower by 18-25 percent at 18 °C. Our results also indicate that uptake of the studied pharmaceuticals was in the linear phase throughout the 35 day exposure period at both temperatures. Finally, calibration studies enabled aqueous concentrations of micropollutants to be more accurately estimated from amounts collected in the passive samplers.

  • 32.
    Augulyte, Lijana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kliaugaite, Daina
    Racys, Viktoras
    Jankunaite, Dalia
    Zaliauskiene, Audrone
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Multivariate analysis of a biologically activated carbon (BAC) system and its efficiency for removing PAHs and aliphatic hydrocarbons from wastewater polluted with petroleum products2009In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 170, no 1, p. 103-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of a biologically activated carbon system for treating wastewater polluted with petroleum products was examined and the effects of process parameters on its efficacy were evaluated. In each experiment 17 alkylated and 19 non-alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs, C10-C40) were extracted using semipermeable membrane devices from wastewater before and after treatment. The acquired data during experiments were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The treatment system robustly removed dissolved PAHs across the studied ranges of the process parameters, providing overall removal efficiencies of 96.9-99.7% for the sum of 36 PAHs. However, the major contributor to their removal was sorption rather than biodegradation, and despite the general efficiency of the process there was up to a 9-fold range in the sums of quantified PAHs in the effluents between experiments. Combinations of long process contact time (24 h) with high temperature (24 degrees C) and moderate oxygen concentration (6-7mg O2 L-1) resulted in good removal of bioavailable PAHs. The removal of TPHs was more dependent on biological activities during the wastewater treatment, and consequently more dependent on the process parameters. In addition, small but significant proportions of PAHs were volatilized and released during the wastewater treatment.

  • 33.
    Aurell, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Effects of Varying Combustion Conditions on PCDD/F Formation2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are by-products emitted from combustion sources such as municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants. These organic compounds are recognized as toxic, bioaccumulative and persistent in the environment. PCDD/Fs are removed from flue gases before released from MSW incineration. However, the PCDD/Fs are not destroyed but retained in the residues, thus in the environment. Understanding the pathways that lead to their formation is important in order to develop ways to suppress their formation and prevent their release into the environment. Suppressing the formation can also allow less expensive air pollution control system to be used, and/or the costs of thermally treating the residues to be reduced. The main objective of the studies underlying this thesis was to elucidate process, combustion and fuel parameters that substantially affect the emission levels and formation of PCDD/Fs in flue gases from MSW incineration. The experiments were conducted under controllable, realistic combustion conditions using a laboratory-scale reactor combusting artificial MSW.

    The parameter found to most strongly reduce the PCDD/F emissions, was prolonging the flue gas residence time at a relatively high temperature (460°C). Increasing the sulfur dioxide (SO2) to hydrogen chloride (HCl) ratio to 1.6 in the flue gas was also found to reduce the PCDF levels, but not the PCDD levels. Fluctuations in the combustion process (carbon monoxide peaks), high chlorine levels in the waste (1.7%) and low temperatures in the secondary combustion zone (660°C) all tended to increase the emission levels. The PCDD/PCDF ratio in the flue gas was found to depend on the chlorine level in the waste, fluctuations in the combustion process and the SO2:HCl ratio in the flue gas. The formation pathways were found to be affected by the quench time profiles in the post-combustion zone, fluctuations in the combustion process and addition of sulfur. In addition, increased levels of chlorine in the waste increased the chlorination degrees of both PCDDs and PCDFs. A tendency for increased SO2 levels in the flue gas to increase levels of polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (sulfur analogues of PCDFs) was also detected, however the increases were much less significant than the reduction in PCDF levels.

  • 34. Avagyan, Rozanna
    et al.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Particulate hydroxy-PAH emissions from a residential wood log stove using different fuels and burning conditions2016In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 140, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but have not been studied as extensively as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several studies have however shown that hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have toxic and carcinogenic properties. They have been detected in air samples in semi urban areas and combustion is assumed to be the primary source of those compounds. To better understand the formation and occurrence of particulate hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential wood log stove combustion, 9 hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 hydroxy biphenyls were quantified in particles generated from four different types of wood logs (birch, spruce, pine, aspen) and two different combustion conditions (nominal and high burn rate). A previously developed method utilizing liquid chromatography photo ionization tandem mass spectrometry and pressurized liquid extraction was used. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed along with hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions varied significantly across different wood types and burning conditions; the highest emissions for nominal burn rate were from spruce and for high burn rate from pine burning. Emissions from nominal burn rate corresponded on average to 15% of the emissions from high burn rate, with average emissions of 218 mu g/MJ(fuel) and 32.5 mu g/MJ(fuel) for high burn rate and nominal burn rate, respectively. Emissions of the measured hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons corresponded on average to 28% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. This study shows that wood combustion is a large emission source of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and that not only combustion conditions, but also wood type influences the emissions of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. There are few studies that have determined hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in emissions from wood combustion, and it is therefore necessary to further investigate the formation, occurrence and distribution of these compounds as they are present in significant amounts in wood smoke particles.

  • 35. Axelsson, E. Petter
    et al.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    LeRoy, Carri J.
    Whitham, Thomas G.
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Wennström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Leaf litter from insect-resistant transgenic trees causes changes in aquatic insect community composition2011In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 1472-1479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent research has addressed how transgenic residues fromarable crops may influence adjacent waterways, aquatic consumers and important ecosystem processes such as litter breakdown rates. With future applications of transgenic plants in forestry, such concerns may apply to forest stream ecosystems. Before any large-scale release of genetically modified (GM) trees, it is therefore imperative to evaluate the effects of genetic modifications in trees on such ecosystems. 2. We conducted decomposition experiments under natural stream conditions using leaf litter from greenhouse grown GM trees (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) that express Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins (cry3Aa; targeting coleopteran leaf-feeding beetles) to examine the hypothesis that GM trees would affect litter decomposition rates and/or the aquatic arthropod community that colonizes and feeds on leaf litter in streams. 3. We show that two independent transformations of isogenic Populus trees to express Bt toxins caused similar changes to the composition of aquatic insects colonizing the leaf litter, ultimately manifested in a 25% and 33% increases in average insect abundance. 4. Measurements of 24 phenolic compounds as well as nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in the litter did not significantly differ among modified and wild-type trees and were thus not sufficient to explain these differences in the insect assemblage. 5. Decomposition rates were comparable among litter treatments suggesting that the normal suite of leaf traits influencing decomposition was similar among litter treatments and that the shredding functions of the community were maintained despite the changes in insect community composition. 6. Synthesis and applications. We report that leaf litter from GM trees affected the composition of aquatic insect communities that colonized litter under natural stream conditions. This suggests that forest management using GM trees may affect adjacent waterways in unanticipated ways, which should be considered in future commercial applications of GM trees. We also argue that studies at different scales (e.g. species, communities and ecosystems) will be needed for a full understanding of the environmental effects of Bt plants.

  • 36. Axelsson, E Petter
    et al.
    Hjältén, Joakim
    LeRoy, Carri J
    Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta
    Wennström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pilate, Gilles
    Can leaf litter from genetically modified trees affect aquatic ecosystems?2010In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 1049-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to potential benefits, biotechnology in silviculture may also be associated with environmental considerations, including effects on organisms associated with the living tree and on ecosystems and processes dependent on tree residue. We examined whether genetic modification of lignin characteristics (CAD and COMT) in Populus sp. affected leaf litter quality, the decomposition of leaf litter, and the assemblages of aquatic insects colonizing the litter in three natural streams. The decomposition of leaf litter from one of the genetically modified (GM) lines (CAD) was affected in ways that were comparable over streams and harvest dates. After 84 days in streams, CAD-litter had lost approximately 6.1% less mass than the non-GM litter. Genetic modification also affected the concentration of phenolics and carbon in the litter but this only partially explained the decomposition differences, suggesting that other factors were also involved. Insect community analyses comparing GM and non-GM litter showed no significant differences, and the two GM litters showed differences only in the 84-day litterbags. The total abundance and species richness of insects were also similar on GM and non-GM litter. The results presented here suggest that genetic modifications in trees can influence litter quality and thus have a potential to generate effects that can cross ecosystem boundaries and influence ecosystem processes not directly associated with the tree. Overall, the realized ecological effects of the GM tree varieties used here were nevertheless shown to be relatively small.

  • 37. Axelsson, Sara
    et al.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Determination of resin acids during production of wood pellets-a comparison of HPLC/ESI-MS with the GC/FID MDHS 83/2 method2011In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 13, no 10, p. 2940-2945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resin acids are constituents of natural and technical products of widespread use. Exposure is known to cause health effects in the airways and on the skin. Liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray-mass spectrometry (HPLC/pos ESI-MS) was investigated for determination of 7-oxodehydroabietic (7-OXO), dehydroabietic (DHAA) and abietic acid (AA) in wood dust-containing air samples as a derivatisation-free alternative to the GC/FID HSE method 83/2, developed by the Health and Safety Executive UK. The resin acid 7-OXO was measured as a marker for oxidised resin acids, which are known to be the main contact allergens in colophonium. The found detection limits were 0.42 ng m(-3) for 7-OXO, 5.2 ng m(-3) for DHAA and 9.4 ng m(-3) for AA, respectively, which are considerably lower than with the GC/FID method (24, 115 and 89 ng m(-3)). The two methods correlated well, although consistently and significantly lower concentrations of 7-OXO were detected with LC/MS. The higher concentration of this compound with MDHS 83/2 is suggested to be an artefact from the derivatisation step in the presence of soluble wood dust remains.

  • 38.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Optimal management of groundwater under uncertainty: a unified approach2017In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 351-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete-time stochastic models of management of groundwater resources have been extensively used for understanding a number of issues in groundwater management. Most models used suffer from two drawbacks: relatively simplistic treatment of the cost of water extraction, and a lack of important structural results (such as monotonicity of extraction in stock and concavity of the value function), even in simple models. Lack of structural properties impede both practical policy simulation and clarity of understanding of the resulting models and the underlying economics. This paper provides a unifying framework for these models in two directions; first, the usual cost function is extended to encompass cases where marginal cost of pumping depends on the stock and second, the analysis dispenses with assumptions of concavity of the objective function and compactness of the state space, using instead lattice-theoretic methods. With these modifications, a comprehensive investigation of which structural properties can be proved in each of the resulting cases is carried out. It is shown that for some of the richer models more structural properties may be proved than for the simpler model used in the literature. This paper also introduces to the resource economics literature an important method of proving convergence to a stationary distribution which does not require monotonicity in stock of resource. This method is of interest in a variety of renewable resource model settings.

  • 39.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nuclear power policy as a differential game2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines nuclear energy output in a differential game framework involving two countries. The countries differ regarding nuclear technology with one being relatively safe and the other less safe. Simulation of a numerical model gives the following results, (i) A cooperative agreement will imply less use of nuclear energy compared with both a noncooperative Nash equilibrium and an uncontrolled market solution, (ii) The country with relatively safe nuclear energy technology benefits most from a cooperative solution, (iii) Starting from an uncontrolled market economy, an agreement between the countries to introduce taxation of nuclear energy will be beneficial for both countries. However, by starting from the noncooperative Nash equilibrium, an agreement to slightly increase the nuclear energy taxes will be most beneficial for the country with less safe nuclear energy technology.

  • 40.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    On the role of green taxes in social accounting: a numerical analysis2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses social accounting numerically in a dynamic general equilibrium model. The main purposes are to study: (i) whether emission taxes based on static willingness to pay information can be used to improve the welfare level, and; (ii) whether these taxes provide close enough approximations of the correct Pigou-vian emission tax to be useful in the context of social accounting. The results indicate that, if environmental quality is relatively linear with respect to pollution, the approximation of the Pigouvian emission tax will bring the economy close to the socially optimal solution and, at the same time, provide a close approximation of the value of net investments in environmental capital.

  • 41.
    Backlund, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Welfare measurement, externalities and Pigouvian taxation in dynamic economies2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of five papers.

    Paper [1] analyzes one possible way of replacing dynamic Pigouvian taxes by a static approximation of such taxes from the point of view of social accounting. The idea is to approximate a Pigouvian emission tax by using the instantaneous marginal willingness to pay to reduce the stock of pollution. If this approximation is close enough to the correct Pigouvian tax it will be useful for at least two reasons: (i) it brings the economy close to the socially optimal solution; and (ii) it provides information relevant for social accounting by closely approximating the value of additions to the stock of pollution.

    Paper [2] analyzes the welfare effects of an agreement between countries to slightly increase their emission taxes. The results indicate that such an agreement need not necessarily increase the global welfare level, even if each individual country has set its prereform emission tax to be lower than the marginal social cost of pollution.

    Paper [3] provides an economic framework for analyzing the global warming problem, emphasizing the use of forests as a means of carbon sequestration. We explore the difference between the decentralized economy and the socially optimal resource allocation, and discuss the appropriate tax system required to implement the first best optimum.

    Paper [4] incorporates the uncertainty involved in the production of nuclear energy into a dynamic general equilibrium growth model. We compare the resource allocation in the decentralized economy with the socially optimal resource allocation and design the dynamic Pigouvian taxes that make the decentralized economy reproduce the socially optimal resource allocation.

    Paper [5] treats externalities from nuclear power in a dynamic differential game framework involving two countries, which differ with regard to their nuclear technology. The model is solved numerically, where one country is considered relatively safe and the other relatively less safe.

  • 42.
    Backlund, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Återvinning av dryckeskartonger: En studie som syftar till att öka återvinningsgraden av Tetra Paks förpackningar i Indonesien2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People of the modern world consume more than they ever used to do. Because of the close correlation between consumption and the amount of waste, the waste volume is also expected to increase. The purpose of this study is to examine if some measures in the recycling process from Sweden could be implemented in Indonesia. In fact, Indonesia is one of the countries in which the waste management system is struggling. Tetra Pak, one of the world leading producer of food packaging, is studied in this report. Tetra Paks recycling rate of their beverage cartons is relatively low, 8.42 %, in Indonesia compared with their recycling rate in other countries. To answer the purpose, information was collected from scientific reports, by interviews carried out in both Sweden and Indonesia and by study visits in Indonesia. The results of the study shows that there are measures which could be made in the recycling process to increase the recycling rate in Indonesia. School projects and deposit systems could increase the collection rate and a drumscreen and a buffertank could make the recycling process more profitable for the papermills. There is also some alternative end products which could make the whole recycling process more public visible. One of the conclusions of this study is that the paper mills should adjust their drumscreens, this to increase the fibre yield which is crucial for the recycling value. Another conclusions is that Tetra Pak should consider to initiate a recycling business by their own, in order to reduce the burden on the environment.

  • 43.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Liljelind, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Assessment of the release of organic contaminants from soil using a batch leaching test2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mustafa, Majid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lundstedt, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 499, p. 220-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    pH affects both soil–water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The Kd was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and Kd values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log Kd-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5–7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log Kd values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  • 45.
    Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales U.K..
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ecological restoration success: a policy analysis understanding2016In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 284-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses how ecological restoration success can be understood and evaluated using a policy analysis lens. First, this article details a conceptual tool that helps to develop a more encompassing set of criteria to assess restoration activities that provide socioeconomic benefits. Second, by broadening the understanding of restoration success and how it can be evaluated, it allows a more critical view of evaluation itself and its uses as a policy tool. A table is presented that can help practitioners reveal preferences and clarify the aims and objectives of particular initiatives. The table also sensitizes practitioners to the complexity of the links between restoration rationales and evaluation criteria, which in turn may open up much needed discussion and dialogue between restoration participants about the underlying values an actor may wish to promote. It heightens awareness of the fact that evaluation methods need to recognize that restoration is driven by multiple rationales often in the same project, both process driven and output oriented, which in turn can change over time. Adding process and output criteria together may also raise issues of priority. Evaluation criteria thus need to be assigned in ways that reflect these multiplicities, while at the same time recognizing that some restoration values might be conflictual and that there may be winners and losers. Furthermore, judgement about "failure" of a project can change as new goals emerge in delivery and implementation. Ecological restoration evaluation should therefore be ongoing, contextual, and not a one-off event.

  • 46.
    Baker, Susan
    et al.
    Cardiff School of Social Sciences, Cardiff University, Wales, UK.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Political science and ecological restoration2014In: Environmental Politics, ISSN 0964-4016, E-ISSN 1743-8934, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 509-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecological restoration has taken on a new significance in the face of climate change and biodiversity loss. Despite its growing policy salience, however, the social and political sciences have paid limited attention to the study of ecological restoration policy and practice. By drawing upon the political science study of multilevel governance, institutions, power elations, and place-based politics, a flavour is given of what a political science engagement might contribute to the rich tapestry of analysis that has already been produced by other disciplines on ecological restoration. As the use of restoration grows, it is increasingly likely that it will give rise to social dispute and be brought into conflict with a variety of environmental, cultural, economic, and community interests. Restoration policy and projects encounter professional and institutional norms as well as place-specific interests and values. There is urgent need to investigate how and in what ways some interests become winners and others losers in these activities, and how this in turn can influence ecological restoration outcomes. A political science lens could help build new criteria for evaluating the success of ecological restoration, ones that combine both process- and product-driven considerations.

  • 47. Balk, Berth M.
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. SLU.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shwana
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Environmental Performance in Swedish Manufacturing 1913-19902006In: The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Roger Axelsson, Runar Brännlund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 287-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48. Barrio, I. C.
    et al.
    Bueno, C. G.
    Gartzia, M.
    Soininen, E. M.
    Christie, K. S.
    Speed, J. D. M.
    Ravolainen, V. T.
    Forbes, B. C.
    Gauthier, G.
    Horstkotte, Tim
    Hoset, K. S.
    Høye, T. T.
    Jónsdóttir, I. S.
    Lévesque, E.
    Mörsdorf, M. A.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wookey, P. A.
    Hik, D. S.
    Biotic interactions mediate patterns of herbivore diversity in the Arctic2016In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1108-1118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Understanding the forces shaping biodiversity patterns, particularly for groups of organisms with key functional roles, will help predict the responses of ecosystems to environmental changes. Our aim was to evaluate the relative role of different drivers in shaping the diversity patterns of vertebrate herbivores, a group of organisms exerting a strong trophic influence in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems. This biome, traditionally perceived as homogeneous and low in biodiversity, includes wide variation in biotic and physical conditions and is currently undergoing major environmental change. Location: The Arctic (including the High Arctic, Low Arctic and Subarctic) MethodsWe compiled available data on vertebrate (birds and mammals) herbivore distribution at a pan-Arctic scale, and used eight variables that represent the most relevant hypotheses for explaining patterns of species richness. We used range maps rasterized on a 100kmx100km equal-area grid to analyse richness patterns of all vertebrate herbivore species combined, and birds and mammalian herbivores separately. Results: Overall, patterns of herbivore species richness in the Arctic were positively related to plant productivity (measured using the normalized difference vegetation index) and to the species richness of predators. Greater species richness of herbivores was also linked to areas with a higher mean annual temperature. Species richness of avian and mammalian herbivores were related to the distance from the coast, with the highest avian richness in coastal areas and mammalian richness peaking further inland. Main conclusions: Herbivore richness in the Arctic is most strongly linked to primary productivity and the species richness of predators. Our results suggest that biotic interactions, with either higher or lower trophic levels or both, can drive patterns of species richness at a biome-wide scale. Rapid ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic are likely to affect herbivore diversity through impacts on both primary productivity and changes in predator communities via range expansion of predators from lower latitudes.

  • 49. Barrio, Isabel C.
    et al.
    Lindén, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Te Beest, Mariska
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rocha, Adrian
    Soininen, Eeva M.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Andersson, Tommi
    Asmus, Ashley
    Boike, Julia
    Bråthen, Kari Anne
    Bryant, John P.
    Buchwal, Agata
    Bueno, C. Guillermo
    Christie, Katherine S.
    Denisova, Yulia V.
    Egelkraut, Dagmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ehrich, Dorothee
    Fishback, LeeAnn
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    Gartzia, Maite
    Grogan, Paul
    Hallinger, Martin
    Heijmans, Monique M. P. D.
    Hik, David S.
    Hofgaard, Annika
    Holmgren, Milena
    Høye, Toke T.
    Huebner, Diane C.
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjorg Svala
    Kaarlejärvi, Elina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Kumpula, Timo
    Lange, Cynthia Y. M. J. G.
    Lange, Jelena
    Lévesque, Esther
    Limpens, Juul
    Macias-Fauria, Marc
    Myers-Smith, Isla
    van Nieukerken, Erik J.
    Normand, Signe
    Post, Eric S.
    Schmidt, Niels Martin
    Sitters, Judith
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium.
    Skoracka, Anna
    Sokolov, Alexander
    Sokolova, Natalya
    Speed, James D. M.
    Street, Lorna E.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. The Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, The Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Suominen, Otso
    Tananaev, Nikita
    Tremblay, Jean-Pierre
    Urbanowicz, Christine
    Uvarov, Sergey A.
    Watts, David
    Wilmking, Martin
    Wookey, Philip A.
    Zimmermann, Heike H.
    Zverev, Vitali
    Kozlov, Mikhail V.
    Background invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex) increases with temperature and precipitation across the tundra biome2017In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 40, no 11, p. 2265-2278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic, low intensity herbivory by invertebrates, termed background herbivory, has been understudied in tundra, yet its impacts are likely to increase in a warmer Arctic. The magnitude of these changes is however hard to predict as we know little about the drivers of current levels of invertebrate herbivory in tundra. We assessed the intensity of invertebrate herbivory on a common tundra plant, the dwarf birch (Betula glandulosa-nana complex), and investigated its relationship to latitude and climate across the tundra biome. Leaf damage by defoliating, mining and gall-forming invertebrates was measured in samples collected from 192 sites at 56 locations. Our results indicate that invertebrate herbivory is nearly ubiquitous across the tundra biome but occurs at low intensity. On average, invertebrates damaged 11.2% of the leaves and removed 1.4% of total leaf area. The damage was mainly caused by external leaf feeders, and most damaged leaves were only slightly affected (12% leaf area lost). Foliar damage was consistently positively correlated with mid-summer (July) temperature and, to a lesser extent, precipitation in the year of data collection, irrespective of latitude. Our models predict that, on average, foliar losses to invertebrates on dwarf birch are likely to increase by 6-7% over the current levels with a 1 degrees C increase in summer temperatures. Our results show that invertebrate herbivory on dwarf birch is small in magnitude but given its prevalence and dependence on climatic variables, background invertebrate herbivory should be included in predictions of climate change impacts on tundra ecosystems.

  • 50. Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Cucherousset, Julien
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Premke, Katrin
    Rubach, Anja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Steger, Kristin
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Eklov, Peter
    Terrestrial subsidies to lake food webs: an experimental approach2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 168, no 3, p. 807-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-ecosystem movements of material and energy are ubiquitous. Aquatic ecosystems typically receive material that also includes organic matter from the surrounding catchment. Terrestrial-derived (allochthonous) organic matter can enter aquatic ecosystems in dissolved or particulate form. Several studies have highlighted the importance of dissolved organic carbon to aquatic consumers, but less is known about allochthonous particulate organic carbon (POC). Similarly, most studies showing the effects of allochthonous organic carbon (OC) on aquatic consumers have investigated pelagic habitats; the effects of allochthonous OC on benthic communities are less well studied. Allochthonous inputs might further decrease primary production through light reduction, thereby potentially affecting autotrophic resource availability to consumers. Here, an enclosure experiment was carried out to test the importance of POC input and light availability on the resource use in a benthic food web of a clear-water lake. Corn starch (a C-4 plant) was used as a POC source due to its insoluble nature and its distinct carbon stable isotope value (delta C-13). The starch carbon was closely dispersed over the bottom of the enclosures to study the fate of a POC source exclusively available to sediment biota. The addition of starch carbon resulted in a clear shift in the isotopic signature of surface-dwelling herbivorous and predatory invertebrates. Although the starch carbon was added solely to the sediment surface, the carbon originating from the starch reached zooplankton. We suggest that allochthonous POC can subsidize benthic food webs directly and can be further transferred to pelagic systems, thereby highlighting the importance of benthic pathways for pelagic habitats.

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