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  • 1. Allen, Derek
    et al.
    Bateman, Mark
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Hartmann, Dan
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Coope, Russell
    Department of Geological Sciences, Birmingham University, Birmingham, UK.
    Stratigraphy, dates and insect faunas from the Lateglacial site at Barmston, East Yorkshire2023Ingår i: The Naturalist, ISSN 0028-0771, Vol. 148, s. 81-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Late Quaternary deposits on the Yorkshire coast southwards from Sewerby Cliff in Bridlington Bay to Dimlington north of Spurn Point (Figs. 1a-1c, p82) have been the subject of stratigraphic and palaeontological research for well over a century (Bateman et al., 2011; Catt, 2007 and references therein, Evans et al., 1995). The region contains the type-site for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in Britain at Dimlington (Rose, 1985) and extensive outcrops of at least three glacial diamicts, locally the Basement, Skipsea and Withernsea Tills, indicating the dynamic nature of the North Sea ice lobe during the final stages of the British and Irish Icesheet (BIIS). Work by Bateman et al. (2015) indicates that the Skipsea and Withernsea Tills represent icesheets that were present across Holderness for less than 6 ka between 20.9 and 15.1 ka BP before retreating north and east. However, the deglaciation remains insufficiently constrained, with a hiatus between the preserved glacial deposits and the earliest Lateglacial sequences at Gransmoor and Roos Bog (Walker et al., 1993; Beckett, 1981). Organic sediments directly overlying glacial till have been examined at Barmston which provide additional evidence of Lateglacial environments and climate in Holderness. This paper presents fossil insect and chronological evidence from coastal exposures from which climatic reconstructions can be made.

  • 2. Aufgebauer, Anne
    et al.
    Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos
    Wagner, Bernd
    Schaebitz, Frank
    Viehberg, Finn A.
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Zanchetta, Giovanni
    Sulpizio, Roberto
    Leng, Melanie J.
    Damaschke, Magret
    Climate and environmental change in the Balkans over the last 17 ka recorded in sediments from Lake Prespa (Albania/FYR of Macedonia/Greece)2012Ingår i: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 274, s. 122-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents sedimentological, geochemical, and biological data from Lake Prespa (Albania/Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Greece). The 320 cm core sequence (Co1215) covers the last 17 ka calBP and reveals significant change in climate and environmental conditions on a local and regional scale. The sediment record suggests typical stadial conditions from 17.1 to 15.7 ka calBP, documented through low lake productivity, well-mixed conditions, and cold-resistant steppe catchment vegetation. Warming is indicated from 15.7 ka calBP with slightly increased in-lake productivity, gradual expansion of trees, and decreasing erosion through disappearance of local ice caps. Between 14.5 and 11.5 ka calBP relatively stable hydrological conditions are documented. The maximum in tree taxa percentages during the Bolling/Allerod interstadial (14.5-13.2 ka calBP) indicates increased temperatures and moisture availability, whereas the increase of cold-resistant open steppe vegetation taxa percentages during the Younger Dryas (13.2-11.5 ka calBP) is coupled with distinct colder and drier conditions. The Holocene sequence from 11.5 ka calBP indicates ice-free winters, stratification of the water column, a relatively high lake trophic level and dense vegetation cover over the catchment. A strong climate related impact on the limnology and physical parameters in Lake Prespa is documented around 8.2 ka through a significant decrease in productivity, enhanced mixing, strong decomposition and soil erosion, and a coeval expansion of herbs implying cool and dry climate conditions. Intensive human activity in the catchment is indicated from around 1.9 ka calBP. This multiproxy approach improves our understanding of short- and long-term climate fluctuations in this area and their impact on catchment dynamics, limnology, hydrology, and vegetation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Bazzanti, Marcello
    et al.
    Mastrantuono, Luciana
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Depth-related response of macroinvertebrates to the reversal of eutrophication in a Mediterranean lake: Implications for ecological assessment2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 579, s. 456-465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A better management of nutrient inflows into lakes has led to an improvement in their conditions (i.e. reversal of eutrophication) and the effects of this on macroinvertebrate communities that inhabit different lake-depth zones is largely unknown. This paper reports a comparison of macroinvertebrate communities living in the eulittoral, infralittoral and sublittoral/profundal zones of Lake Nemi (Central Italy) before and after its natural recovery from eutrophication following the deviation of domestic Wastewater. The infralittoral zone responded more rapidly than the other two depth-zones to the improved ecological conditions, as shown by larger differences in community composition between the two periods. In the eulittoral sand, the combined effects of hydromorphological pressures and reversal of eutrophication hindered the biotic response. In the eulittoral and infralittoral zones, typical taxa of mesotrophic waters appeared or increased their abundances after the eutrophication reversal. Benthic invertebrate response was slower in the sublittoral/profundal zone due to deoxygenation that continued to prevail in the deepest area of the lake during summer. However, both tolerant and more sensitive taxa were collected there for the first time. After the reversal of eutrophication, the percentage of molluscan + large crustaceans increased in the infralittoral zone, whereas the oligochaete/chironomid ratio decreased in both sublittoral/profundal and infralittoral zones. Functional feeding metrics (percentages of filter-feeders, collector-gatherers, miners and scrapers/grazers) differently tracked the reversal of eutrophication in the three depth-zones probably according to the effects of the-reduction of nutrients on food-web structure influencing macroinvertebrates. Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) and the Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) seemed to respond to eutrophication reversal only in the sublittoral/profundal zone, where deoxygenation plays a major role as a structuring agent of the community. Our results suggest that the effects of re-. versal of eutrophication can be better assessed by examining the response of the communities belonging to each zone individually. 

  • 4.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Börlin, Niclas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Klaminder, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The use of terrestrial photogrammetry to estimate soil motion rates in non-sorted circlesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil motion induced by cryogenic processes is known for creating soil surface structures (patterned ground) and redistributing carbon within Arctic soils. Lateral and vertical soil motion created by cryogenic processes proceeds over annual to millennial time-scales and is difficult to quantify without adopting disruptive soil sampling techniques. In this study, we evaluate the use of terrestrial close range photogrammetry to calculate soil motion rates within a patterned ground system (non-sorted circles). The measured rates of lateral and vertical motion were estimated and used to infer the importance of physical soil transport for the formation of non-sorted circles as well as the trajectories of soil carbon. Soil experiencing significant vertical displacement between years covered approximately 65% of the non-sorted circles and had surface levels fluctuating between 4 and -2.1 cm. Systematic lateral motion of surface stones allowed detection of lateral motion working outwards from the centre towards the sides, at rates ranging between 0.1 and 6.3 cm yr-1. We conclude that terrestrial close range photogrammetry can be used to identify the main soil movements within non-sorted circles and that this transport is an important factor controlling the trajectories of soil carbon over centennial to millennial timescales. 

  • 5.
    Becher, Marina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Olid, Carolina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Buried soil organic inclusions in non-sorted circles fields in northern Sweden: Age and Paleoclimatic context2013Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 104-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although burial of surface organic soil horizons into deeper mineral soil layers helps drive the long-term buildup of carbon in arctic soils, when and why buried horizons formed as result of cryoturbation in northern Sweden remain unclear. In this study, we used C-14 and Pb-210 dating to assess when organic matter was buried within non-sorted circles fields near Abisko in northern Sweden. In addition, we used aerial photos from 1959 and 2008 to detect eventual trends in cryogenic activities during this period. We found that organic matter from former organic horizons (stratigraphically intact or partly fragmented) corresponds to three major periods: 0-100 A. D., 900-1250 A. D., and 1650-1950 A. D. The latter two periods were indicated by several dated samples, while the extent of the oldest period is more uncertainty (indicated by only one sample). The aerial photos suggest a net overgrowth by shrub vegetation of previously exposed mineral soil surfaces since 1959. This overgrowth trend was seen in most of the studied fields (92 out of 137 analyzed fields), indicating that the cryogenic activity has mainly decreased in studied non-sorted circles fields since the 1950s. This latter interpretation is also supported by the absence of buried organic layers formed during the last decades. We suggest that the organic matter was buried during the transition from longer cold periods to warmer conditions. We believe these climatic shifts could have triggered regional scale burial of soil organic matter and thus affected how these soils sequestered carbon.

  • 6.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Comment on "The biosphere: A homogeniser of Pb-isotope signals" by C. Reimann, B. Flem, A. Arnoldussen, P. Englmaier, T.E. Finne, F. Koller and Ø. Nordgulen2008Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 23, nr 8, s. 2519-2526Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper by Reimann et al. (2008) is an echo of the debate carried out mainly by Clair Patterson and Robert Kehoe in the 1960s to 1980s about whether the enrichment of Pb in the biosphere and humans was a result of the global Pb contamination or due to natural causes and what impacts on human health were entailed ([Needleman, 1998] and [Nriagu, 1998]). Reimann et al. are also re-awakening the idea that the ‘plant pump’ is the reason for the surface enrichment of Pb in the soil (Goldschmidt, 1937). So is it time to revive this debate again? Are there reasons to expect that the enrichment of Pb and the change in Pb isotopic composition in surface soils is due to natural plant cycling and not due to the 1000-fold enrichment of Pb in the environment and humans since pristine times as originally suggested by Clair Patterson ([Patterson, 1965] and Settle and Patterson, 1980 D. Settle and C.C. Patterson, Lead in Albacore: guide to lead pollution in Americans, Science 207 (1980), pp. 1167–1176. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (97)[Settle and Patterson, 1980])? Is it so that a changed plant uptake can explain the >90% reduction of Pb in mosses seen all over Europe since the 1970s, which co-occurs with reduced atmospheric emissions (e.g., [Berg and Steinnes, 1997a] and [Rühling and Tyler, 2001])? Is there a reason to believe that plants, independent of the geological matrix below choose to take up Pb with an isotopic composition that causes the surface organic layer all over Europe to have lower (i.e., heavier) 206Pb/207Pb ratios that are coincidentally similar to anthropogenic Pb sources? No, of course not. In this comment the author explains why he thinks future studies should not adopt the conclusions of Reimann et al.

  • 7.
    Bogren, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    LIDAR-analys av flygsanddyner i Västerbottens inland: Har dynmorfologi bildad under tidigare interstadialer bevarats i landskapet?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to map the prevalence of aeolian sand dunes in Västerbotten, northern Sweden to find dunes formed during earlier deglaciation phases, which was then preserved in cold-based conditions during the youngest stadial of the Weichselian glaciation. These preserved dunes were expected to be covered by a layer of till and have a rather faint morphology compared to dunes formed during the Holocene. Consequently, high resolution LIDAR-derived images from the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (Lantmäteriet) was used to detect the dunes throughout an area covering most of Västerbotten, above the highest coastline and below the mountain range. The analysis resulted in several new findings of aeolian dunes compared to the findings in the quaternary soil map created by the Geological Survey of Sweden. Despite the fact some of the dunes at the LIDAR-derived image had a strange faint appearance, it was quickly evident during the fieldwork that the aeolian sand was not covered by till on any of the dunes visited. The common view during the last decades has been that cold-based ice will not erode or alter the morphology of the landscape beneath the ice. However, this study suggests that hypothesis may not be entirely correct, and therefore it can be hard to use geomorphological implications to reconstruct past glacial environments. Thus, it can be concluded that even under cold-based conditions, preservation of aeolian sand dunes in Västerbotten is probably not very common.

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  • 8. Bonk, Alicja
    et al.
    Kinder, Małgorzata
    Enters, Dirk
    Grosjean, Martin
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Tylmann, Wojciech
    Sedimentological and geochemical responses of Lake Żabińskie (north-eastern Poland) to erosion changes during the last millennium2016Ingår i: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 56, nr 2-3, s. 239-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased erosion triggered by land-use changes is a major process that influences lake sedimentation. We explored the record of erosion intensity in annually laminated sediments of Lake Żabińskie, northeast Poland. A 1000-year-long, annually resolved suite of sedimentological (varve thickness, sediment accumulation rate) and geochemical data (scanning XRF, loss on ignition, biogenic silica) was analyzed with multivariate statistics. PCA indicated erosion was a major process responsible for changes in the chemical composition of the sediments. Analysis of sedimentary facies enabled identification of major phases of erosion that influenced lake sedimentation. These phases are consistent with the history of land use, inferred from pollen analysis. From AD 1000 to 1610, conditions around and in Lake Żabińskie were relatively stable, with low erosion intensity in the catchment and a dominance of carbonate sedimentation. Between AD 1610 and 1740, higher lake productivity and increased delivery of minerogenic material were caused by development of settlements in the region and widespread deforestation. The most prominent changes were observed between AD 1740 and 1880, when further land clearance and increased agricultural activity caused intensified soil erosion and higher lake productivity. Landscape clearance also created better conditions for water column mixing, which led to changes in redox conditions in the hypolimnion. The most recent period (AD 1880–2010) was characterized by partial reforestation and a gradual decrease in the intensity of erosional processes.

  • 9.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    School of Conservation Sciences, Bournemouth University, Dorset, UK.
    Hughes, Damian (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    ECUS, University of Sheffield, UK.
    Palaeoecological evidence for the Vera hypothesis?2005Ingår i: Large herbivores in the wildwood and modern naturalistic grazing systems, English Nature , 2005, s. 62-116Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report stems from work commissioned by English Nature into the role of largeherbivores in the post-glacial landscape of Britain and the potential for using free-ranginggrazing animals to create and maintain diverse landscape mosaics in modern conditions.Some aspects may be disputed or considered controversial; it is an active field of research.Therefore we stress that the views expressed are those of the authors at the current time.Subsequent research may confirm our views or lead us to modify them.We hope they will be useful in future discussions, both within English Nature and inconservation land-management circles more generally.

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  • 10. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    G. Russell, Coope
    Sadler, Jon P.
    School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham.
    A bibliography of quaternary entomology: (qbib)2019Dataset
    Abstract [en]

    Originally published in 1991 (Buckland & Coope, 1991), this is the most comprehensive bibliography of articles and books on Quaternary fossil insects and their use in palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology and environmental archaeology available on the planet. Updates are periodically posted here, at www.bugscep.com, and on other open resources.

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    QBIB
  • 11. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Skidmore, P.
    Insect Remains from GUS: an interim report1998Ingår i: Man, culture and environment in ancient Greenland / [ed] Jette Arneborg; Han Christian Gulløv, Copenhagen: Danish National Museum & Danish Polar Center , 1998, s. 74-79Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Fossil insects and the Neolithic: methods and potencial2004Ingår i: ANTAEUS 27: Annals of the Archaeological Instititute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 2004, s. 235-252Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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    FULLTEXT02
  • 13. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    What's eating Halvdan the Black?: fossil insects and the study of a burial mound in its landscape context2004Ingår i: Halvdanshaugen: arkeologi, historie og naturvetenskap / [ed] Jan Henning Larsen; Perry Rolfsen, Oslo: University Museum of Cultural Heritage , 2004, 1, s. 353-375Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the earliest work with insects from archaeological contexts dates back to was work on Egyptian mummies in the early nineteenth century, they were not widely used in archaeological interpretation until an effective technique for concentrating their remains was developed during the 1960s by Coope and Osborne at the University of Birmingham in England. Whilst most of their research centred upon climate and environment during the Late Quaternary, Osborne in particular began to examine assemblages from archaeological sites, and his work was expanded by Kenward, initially concentrating upon Roman and early medieval deposits in the city of York and later by Robinson at Oxford, whose main interest is in the late Holocene history of the Thames valley. Funding from the Leverhulme Trust in the UK allowed Buckland to examine the origins of the insect faunas of the Atlantic islands and this work has continued until recently. Initially research was concentrated upon the Coleoptera (beetles), but Kenward added identifications of Hemiptera (true bugs), and Skidmore and Panagiotakopulu Diptera (true flies). Panagiotakopulu has also worked closely with ectoparasite remains from archaeological sites. Although identification work still relies heavily upon the availability of extensive reference collections, the development of an extensive computer-based database, BUGS, of habitat, distribution and the fossil record of Quaternary insects has made interpretation considerably easier. In Scandinavia, early work was pioneered by Henriksen and later Lindroth. More recently Lemdahl has worked extensively on Lateglacial into Holocene natural assemblages and, in association with Hellqvist, has also examined archaeological contexts. Apart from Ponel’s work in France, there has been little recent research elsewhere in Europe, and most published work concerns natural assemblages. Similarly apart from Bain’s work on post-Columbian assemblages in the eastern US and Canada, and some work by Elias in the mid-West, insects have rarely been utilised in site interpretation in the Americas and, apart from Egypt, Africa, Asia and Australasia have fared even worse. Part of the reason behind this is the scattered nature of published results, and the frequent failure of archaeologists to cost scientific aspects of work upon their sites into project design. This paper attempts to outline some of the evidence which has been obtained from the study of insect remains, as well as to outline the methods used to concentrate the fossils. The fairly extensive bibliography allows access to the published literature, particularly that relevant to the Scandinavian World.

  • 14.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Sugden, Heather (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Analysis of organic deposits from trenching at Elvaston, Derbyshire: level one assessment1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A Level One assessment was carried out to evaluate the state of preservation within the organic deposits, and to assess their potential usefulness, should further work be undertaken, for the retrieval of palaeoenvironmental information. Selected profiles within palaeochannel sequences were examined, and assessed as to whether these contained macrofossils in a state of preservation which was likely to provide data adequate for the reconstruction of past landscapes within the area. Other factors of special interest were those relating to environmental change, such as changes in sedimentation or vegetation, be they human or naturally induced. The potential for the use of three complementary data retrieval methods was reviewed.

  • 15.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Archaeological Field Assessment of the Proposed Borrow Pits at Staythorpe Power Station, Staythorpe, Nottinghamshire: Assessment of the fossil insects1999Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    ARCUS project 220: report on palaeochannel prospection at Elvaston Castle Tarmac site, Derbyshire1995Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Environmental archaeology, climate change and e-science2010Ingår i: Thule: Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundets årsbok. 2010 / [ed] Roger Jacobsson, Umeå: Kungliga Skytteanska Samfundet , 2010, s. 55-69Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Freeing information to the people: Using the past to aid the future2011Ingår i: International Innovation - Disseminating Science Research and Technology, ISSN 2041-4552, nr 4, s. 51-53Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Dr Philip Buckland discusses his recent project SEAD: the web-accessible scientific database that crosses archaeological and environmental disciplines. 

    Disciplines as diverse as anthropology and palaeoecology take an interest in our environment and how we have treated it. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database aims to create a multi-proxy, GIS-ready database for environmental and archaeological data to aid multidisciplinary research

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  • 19.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Insect remains from Pástóftir, Kárahnjúkar, Iceland2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 20.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Lichenometry and Soil Erosion in Northwest Iceland1994Ingår i: Environmental Change in Iceland: mit 18 Tabellen / [ed] Stötter, Johann, München: Münchener Universitätsschriften , 1994, s. 31-40Konferensbidrag (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Preliminary report: fossil insect remains from Karahnjukar, Iceland2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 22.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP): the development and implementation of software for palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatological research2009Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book describes the development and practical application of a unique database orientated software package, BugsCEP, for environmental, climatic and biodiversity reconstruction from beetle assemblages. BugsCEP consists of a database of ecology and distribution data for over 9400 insect taxa, and includes temperature tolerance data for 436 species. It contains abundance and summary data for over 770 sites, most of the known European Quaternary fossil coleopteran record, supported by a bibliography of over 3700 sources. Built in statistics, including a specially developed habitat classification system, provide semi-quantitative environmental reconstructions to aid in the interpretation of sites. BugsCEP's querying and reporting functions also increase the efficiency with which analyses can be undertaken, including the facility to explore the fossil record of species by searching ecology and distribution data. The Mutual Climatic Range (MCR) reconstruction method is implemented and improved upon, including predictive modelling and the graphical output of reconstructions and climate space maps. BugsCEP is available from www.bugscep.com.

  • 23.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    The Insect Remains1995Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Bateman, Mark D.
    Department of Geography, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.
    Bennike, Ole
    GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, ØsterVoldgade 10, Copenhagen 1350, Denmark.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Chase, Brian M.
    Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution-Montpellier (ISEM), Universite´ de Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Bat 22, CC061, Place Euge`ne Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France.
    Frederick, Charles
    6Department of Geography and the Environment, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Greenwood, Malcolm
    Department of Geography, Loughborough University, Leics LE11 3TU, UK.
    Murton, Julian
    Department of Geography, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9RH, UK.
    Murton, Della
    Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, University of Edinburgh, Drummond Street, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK.
    Mid-Devensian climate and landscape in England: new data from Finningley, South Yorkshire2019Ingår i: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 6, nr 7, artikel-id 190577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is extensive evidence for the Late Devensian, less is known about Early and Middle Devensian (approx. 110-30 ka) climates and environments in the UK. The Greenland ice-core record suggests the UK should have endured multiple changes, but the terrestrial palaeo-record lacks sufficient detail for confirmation from sites in the British Isles. Data from deposits at Finningley, South Yorkshire, can help redress this. A channel with organic silts, dated 40 314-39 552 cal a BP, contained plant macrofossil and insect remains showing tundra with dwarf-shrub heath and bare ground. Soil moisture conditions varied from free draining to riparian, with ponds and wetter vegetated areas. The climate was probably low arctic with snow cover during the winter. Mutual climatic range (MCR), based on Coleoptera, shows the mean monthly winter temperatures of -22 to -2 degrees C and summer ones of 8-14 degrees C. Periglacial structures within the basal gravel deposits and beyond the glacial limits indicate cold-climate conditions, including permafrost. A compilation of MCR reconstructions for other Middle Devensian English sites shows that marine isotope stage 3-between 59 and 28 ka-experienced substantial variation in climate consistent with the Greenland ice-core record. The exact correlation is hampered by temporal resolution, but the Finningley site stadial at approximately 40 ka may correlate with the one of the Greenland stadials 7-11.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    BugsCEP: Coleopteran Ecology Package (software)2006Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    BugsCEP is a research and teaching aid for palaeoentomology, entomology and ecology. As well as habitat and distribution data, it includes tools for climate and environmental reconstruction, and facilities for storing site based abundance/collection data. A variety of searching and reporting functions greatly augment the efficiency of beetle based research.

    Bugs is built around a comprehensive database of beetle ecology and European fossil records which has been accumulated over the past 20 years.

  • 26.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    How can a database full of Bugs help reconstruct the climate?2002Ingår i: Archaeological informatics : pushing the envelope : CAA 2001: proceedings of the 29th conference, Gotland, April 2001 / [ed] Göran Burenhult, Oxford: Archaeopress, 2002, s. 453-461Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The BUGS Insect Ecology Package was originally constructed (using Dbase and Clipper) to compile Coleoptera (beetle) habitat and distribution data from a myriad of sources into one, easy to use, and publicly available database. Its primary users were researchers and teachers within the palaeoentomology field. The present system, five versions and many revisions later, is built in MS Access 2000, and covers some 5300 species, 2000 references, and 240 sites (archaeological and Quaternary), and is of value to archaeologists, ecologists, and conservationists alike.

    BUGS is essentially a relational database management system constructed around three components:

    - the species data (modern ecology and distribution)

    - the bibliography

    - the site data with species lists

    Its implementation in several institutions has greatly accelerated the efficiency with which palaeoentomological investigations can be carried out, and greatly improved the teaching of the subject.

    Palaeoenvironmental reconstructions are performed by the superimposition of the ecology and distribution of modern insect populations over fossil assemblages. At the moment, this is essentially performed semi-quantitatively by cross-reference of the data (which BUGS collates for a species list and then exports as an RTF file to any word processing package). BUGS contains a wealth of ecological data which can be employed in the interpretation of archaeological sites and contexts. In natural deposits, away from the artificial heat islands created by human activity, insect distributions are essentially constrained by climatic parameters. Tim Atkinson (UEA) and Dave Perry (formerly at Birmingham University) digitally encoded the temperature range data for over 400 species into a program for the calculation of palaeoclimates through the MCR (Mutual Climatic Range) method, and this has been extensively used in the modelling of Quaternary climates from beetle remains. The aim of our present phase of BUGS development is to implement MCR functionality into the BUGS database system. From this point it should be possible to move on to other ecological variables such as habitat and vegetation types, and increase the precision of modern climatic data, thus enhancing the value of insects in archaeological interpretation and the modelling of past climates.

  • 27.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Buckland, Paul C.
    Species found as fossils in Quaternary sediments2012Ingår i: Checklist of Beetles of the British Isles / [ed] A.G. Duff, United Kingdom: Pemberley Books , 2012, 2nd, s. 127-130Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This new checklist is the most up-to-date and comprehensive checklist of the beetle fauna of the British Isles, representing many man-years of effort by leading British coleopterists. The main checklist is fully annotated with detailed endnotes.

  • 28.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Wagner, Pat
    Environmental archaeological investigation of samples from the Kaupang 2000 excavations2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Environmental Archaeology Lab was contracted in June 2000 to carry out palaeoenvironmental analyses on samples from the Kaupang excavation in Southern Norway. Excavation was carried out during that summer, and Pat Wagner (Sheffield University) was employed by the excavators to supervise initial sampling and teach the sampling and field processing methods. The sampled features included waterlogged deposits interpreted as wells and latrines, and deposits from pits ofunknown function. Fossil preservation varied considerably, being both a function of modern conditions and the hydrological history of the deposit, and one cannot guarantee that all material sare equally preserved.

    A total of 15 soil samples were submitted to the lab, all of which were to undergo macrofossil analysis, and 6 of which were, in addition, to be analysed with respect to their fossil insect assemblages. As a matter of routine all samples underwent rudimentary soil chemistry analyses. Table 1 summarises the samples and the analyses performed upon them. In addition to the soilsamples received, several jars of test material floated on site were included, these were cursorily examined as a control to the soil samples, i.e. their faunas were checked against the appropriate sample to see whether any extra species were present in the jars. These samples are not listed in the results as the faunas were too small to be of real analytical value.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Viklund, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Svensson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Buckland, Paul
    Panagiotakopulu, Eva
    Institute of Geography, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Olofsson, Johan
    Uppsala Municipal Council, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Integrating human dimensions of Arctic palaeoenvironmental science: SEAD – the strategic environmental archaeology database2011Ingår i: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 345-351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental change has a human dimension, and has had so for at least the last 10 000 years. The prehistoric impact of people on the Arctic landscape has occasionally left visible traces, such as house and field structures. More often than not, however, the only evidence available is at the microscopic or geochemical level, such as fossil insect and seed assemblages or changes in the physical and chemical properties of soils and sediments. These records are the subject of SEAD, a multidisciplinary database and software project currently underway at Umeå University, Sweden, which aims to create an online database and set of tools for investigating these traces, as part of an international research infrastructure for palaeoecology and environmental archaeology.

  • 30.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Lund University.
    Hjärthner-Holdar, Eva
    Swedish National Historical Museums.
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Stockholm University.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Lund University.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Possnert, Göran
    Uppsala University.
    The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: a resource for international, multiproxy and transdisciplinary studies of environmental and climatic change2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate and environmental change are global challenges which require global data and infrastructure to investigate. These challenges also require a multi-proxy approach, integrating evidence from Quaternary science and archaeology with information from studies on modern ecology and physical processes among other disciplines. The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD http://www.sead.se) is a Swedish based international research e-infrastructure for storing, managing, analysing and disseminating palaeoenvironmental data from an almost unlimited number of analysis methods. The system currently makes available raw data from over 1500 sites (>5300 datasets) and the analysis of Quaternary fossil insects, plant macrofossils, pollen, geochemistry and sediment physical properties, dendrochronology and wood anatomy, ceramic geochemistry and bones, along with numerous dating methods. This capacity will be expanded in the near future to include isotopes, multi-spectral and archaeo-metalurgical data. SEAD also includes expandable climate and environment calibration datasets, a complete bibliography and extensive metadata and services for linking these data to other resources. All data is available as Open Access through http://qsead.sead.se and downloadable software.

     

    SEAD is maintained and managed at the Environmental Archaeology Lab and HUMlab at Umea University, Sweden. Development and data ingestion is progressing in cooperation with The Laboratory for Ceramic Research and the National Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology at Lund University, Sweden, the Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm University, the Geoarchaeological Laboratory, Swedish National Historical Museums Agency and several international partners and research projects. Current plans include expanding its capacity to serve as a data source for any system and integration with the Swedish National Heritage Board's information systems.

     

    SEAD is partnered with the Neotoma palaeoecology database (http://www.neotomadb.org) and a new initiative for building cyberinfrastructure for transdisciplinary research and visualization of the long-term human ecodynamics of the North Atlantic funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Poster
  • 31.
    Buckland, Philip I
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Johan, Olofsson
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier.
    SEAD: Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, planning report2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This document lays out a strategy for the development of SEAD – A Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database, which will facilitate the digitisation and accessibility augmentation of MAL’s existing data from nearly thirty years of work in the fields of archaeology and environmental science. SEAD will also provide a framework for the entry of data from all future research and consultancy work at MAL, and allow guest researchers and external partners to contribute to, and work with the same data. The planned system will be implemented at both local and internet levels, and be designed with an aim towards broadening its scope with external partners in the future. SEAD will be made available online in order to increase the ease of access to environmental archaeology data and encourage an expansion of both the discipline and Sweden’s role in it. This is inline with current EU strategies on enhancing research infrastructure, and providing a greater insight into human-environment interactions for long term planning.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Explaining Late Quaternary beetle extinctions in the UK using palaeoenvironmental databases for quantitative environmental reconstruction2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of palaeoenvironmental and archaeological records of fossil insects with modern red data books can provide a picture of local extinctions. Buckland & Buckland (2012) performed such a study on the Coleoptera of the British Isles, using the BugsCEP database for the fossil data, and looking at broad chronological divisions. The ecology of these regionally extinct beetles, all of which are extant in other parts of the World, may be used to investigate the environmental and climatic changes which may have lead to their extirpation. This process can be semi-automated and habitats quantified through the use of ecological classification and a database infrastructure which links fossil and modern ecological and climate data (Buckland & Buckland 2006; http://www.bugscep.com). Preliminary results indicate that the majority of extirpated species with mid-Holocene records were dependent on woodland environments (Buckland 2014). These investigations can be refined by using narrower time-slices, interpolating dating evidence and including more comprehensive archaeological dating evidence. The expansion of the analysis to include the full assemblages found in the samples containing the extirpated species also allows for a more comprehensive picture of the long-term relationships between biodiversity, environmental and climatic change and human activity.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Presentation
  • 33.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Sadler, Jon
    Manual for the Beta test version of BUGS: a computer based palaeoentomological research aid1995Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    von Boer, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Roger, Mähler
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    The intricate details of using research databases and repositories for environmental archaeology data2022Ingår i: ArcheoLogica Data, ISSN 2785-0307, Vol. 2, s. 15-29Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental archaeology is a complex mix of empirical analysis and qualitative interpretation.It is increasingly data science oriented, and databases and online resources are becoming increasinglyimportant in large scale synthesis research on changes in climate, environments and human activities.Research funders, journals and universities place much emphasis on the use of data repositories toensure transparency and reusability in the research process. Although these are important, researchersthemselves, however, may have more use for research databases which are oriented more towardsadvanced querying and exploratory data analysis than conforming to archiving standards. This paperexplores the pros and cons of these different approaches. It also discusses and problematizes somekey concepts in research data management, including the definitions of data and metadata, along withthe FAIR principles. Research examples are provided from a broad field of environmental archaeologyand palaeoecology. In contrast to most publications, the developer’s perspective is also included, anda worked example using the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) to investigate fossilbeetle data demonstrates the implementation of some of this in the real world. This example may befollowed online using the SEAD browser, and all described data downloaded from there. After providingboth encouragement and warnings on the use of digital resources for synthesis research, some suggestionsare made for moving forward.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Symonds, James
    Research School of Archaeology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Archaeological investigation into subsurface features at Elvaston, Derbyshire;  a proposal1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 36.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Symonds, James
    ARCUS Project 220: archaeology at Elvaston, Derbyshire1996Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 37.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Yuan Zhuo, Don
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Buckland, Paul C.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Towards an expert system in palaeoentomology1997Ingår i: Studies in quaternary entomology: an inordinate fondness for insects / [ed] A.C. Ashworth; P.C. Buckland; J.P. Sadler, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1997, s. 71-77Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of Quaternary insect fossils, principally of Coleoptera, the beetles, are now sufficiently frequent to warrant the construction of a database to maintain easy access to the record. BUGS, however, seeks to go beyond this and provide ecological and distributional data on the modern fauna to enable more precise reconstructions of apst environments. This paper summarizes the program and its salient features and discusses the application of intra- and intersite statistics, which the database allows.

  • 38.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Marine Biology, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Barouillet, CéciliaINRAE, Université Savoie Mont Blanc CARRTEL, Thonon-les-Bains, France.Smol, John P.Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Lab (PEARL) Department of Biology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Tracking environmental change using lake sediments: volume 6: sedimentary DNA2023Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book, entitled Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments: Volume 6 – Sedimentary DNA, provides an overview of the applications of sedimentary DNA-based approaches to paleolimnological studies. These approaches have shown considerable potential in providing information about the long-term changes of overall biodiversity in lakes and their watersheds in response to natural and anthropogenic changes, as well as tracking human migrations over the last thousands of years.

    Although the first studies investigating the preservation of these molecular proxies in sediments originate from the late-1990s, the number of scientific publications on this topic has increased greatly over the last five years. Alongside numerous ecological findings, several sedimentary DNA studies have been dedicated to understanding the reliability of this approach to reconstruct past ecosystem changes.  Despite the major surge of interest, a comprehensive compilation of sedimentary DNA approaches and applications has yet to be attempted. The overall aim of this DPER volume is to fill this knowledge gap. 

  • 39. Chapligin, B
    et al.
    Meyer, H
    Swann, GEA
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hubberten, H-W
    A 250 ka oxygen isotope record from diatoms at Lake El'gygytgyn, far east Russian Arctic2012Ingår i: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 1621-1636Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2003 sediment core Lz1024 was drilled at Lake El'gygytgyn, far east Russian Arctic, in an area of the Northern Hemisphere which has not been glaciated for the last 3.6 Ma. Biogenic silica was used for analysing the oxygen isotope composition (delta O-18(diatom)) in the upper 13m long section dating back about 250 ka with samples dominated by one taxa in the < 10 mu m fraction (Cyclotella ocellata). Downcore variations in delta O-18 values show that glacial-interglacial cycles are present throughout the core and delta O-18(diatom)-values are mainly controlled by delta O-18(precipitation). Changes reflect the Holocene Thermal Maximum, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the interglacial periods corresponding to MIS 5.5 and MIS 7 with a peak-to-peak amplitude between LGM and MIS 5.5 of Delta O-18=5.3 parts per thousand. This corresponds to a mean annual air temperature difference of about 9 degrees C. Our record is the first continuous delta O-18(diatom) record from an Arctic lake sediment core directly responding to precipitation and dating back more than 250 ka and correlates well with the stacked marine delta(18)OLR04 (r = 0.58) and delta D EPICA Dome-C record (r = 0.69). With delta O-18 results indicating strong links to both marine and ice-core records, records from Lake El'gygytgyn can be used to further investigate the sensitivity of the Arctic climate to both past and future global climatic changes.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Chen, Keyao
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Influence of depositional mobility (downwashing) on the accumulation of atmospherically supplied elements in peat cores: an experimental approach2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential influence of downwashing on atmospherically deposited elements is of rare focus compared with other geochemical processes related to peat. Downwashing may cause a rapid downward movement of atmospherically supplied elements before they bond to the peat organic substrate and thus reduce the reliability of age-depth models that rely on atmospherically supplied radioisotopes (e.g. 210Pb, 241Am, 137Cs). However, the existence of downwashing has not been directly tested, and to which depth the deposited element can be washed down is not fully understood. To address the question of downwashing, an experiment was set up to mimic wet deposition by applying a CuBr2 solution during a three-week period in peat cores collected from Rödmossamyran. Through this, the experimental results clearly supported the existence of downward mobility. Added Cu2+ could be measured to a depth of 10 cm, similar to previous studies based on Be and Pb. As a similar metal to Cu, the age-depth model based on 210Pb dating could underestimate the ages to some extent without consideration of downwashing.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    downwashing
  • 41. Cui, Qiao-Yu
    et al.
    Gaillard, Marie-Jose
    Lemdahl, Geoffrey
    Sugita, Shinya
    Greisman, Annica
    Jacobson, George L.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: Implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues2013Ingår i: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, nr 12, s. 1747-1763Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a quantitative reconstruction of local forest history at two sites, Stavsakra (hemiboreal zone) and Storasjo (southern boreal zone), in southern Sweden (province of Smaland) to evaluate possible causes of contrasting Holocene fire histories in mid- and late Holocene. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) is applied to evaluate between-site differences in the relative abundance of deciduous trees and Pinus (pine) and landscape/woodland openness during the Holocene. The LRA estimates of local vegetation abundance are compared with other proxies of local vegetation, that is, plant and beetle remains. The LRA results suggest that Pinus was a major tree taxon in the woodlands of Storasjo during mid- and late Holocene, while Tilia (linden) and Betula (birch) were dominant at Stavsakra. The contrasting fire histories are shown to be strongly related to between-site differences in tree composition during mid-Holocene, 4000-2000 bc in particular. The archaeological/historical and beetle data indicate contrasting land uses from c. 1000 bc (late Bronze Age/early Iron Age), grazing in open Calluna heaths at Stavsakra and woodland grazing at Storasjo. Between-site differences in fire history during late Holocene were likely due to different land-use practices. Between-site differences in tree composition in mid-Holocene are best explained by local climatic and geological/geomorphological differences between the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of Smaland, which might also be the primary cause of between-site differences in land-use histories during late Holocene. Maintenance of biodiversity at the landscape scale in the study area requires that existing old pine woodlands and Calluna heath are managed with fire and cattle grazing. Further climate warming might lead to higher probabilities of climate-induces fire, in particular in pine-dominated woodlands.

  • 42.
    Davies, Neil S.
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Gosse, John C.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.
    Rouillard, Alexandra
    Lundbeck Foundation GeoGenetics Centre, GLOBE Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Geosciences, UiT—The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Rybczynski, Natalia
    Department of Palaeobiology, Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 6P4, Canada;6 Department of Biology and Department of Earth Sciences, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Meng, Jin
    Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, New York, USA.
    REYES, ALBERTO V.
    Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
    Kiguktak, Jarloo
    Grise Fiord, Nunavut, Canada.
    Wood jams or beaver dams?: pliocene life, sediment and landscape interactions in the Canadian High Arctic2022Ingår i: Palaios, ISSN 0883-1351, E-ISSN 1938-5323, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 330-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the mid-Pliocene (Zanclean, ca. ∼ 3.9 Ma), parts of the Canadian High Arctic experienced mean annual temperatures that were 14–22°C warmer than today and supported diverse boreal-type forests. The landscapes of this vegetated polar region left behind a fragmented sedimentary record that crops out across several islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago as the Beaufort Formation and correlative strata. Paleoecological information from these strata provides a high-fidelity window onto Pliocene environments, and prominent fossil sites yield unparalleled insights into Cenozoic mammal evolution. Significantly, many of the strata reveal evidence for life-sediment interactions in a warm-climate Arctic, most notably in the form of extensive woody debris and phytoclast deposits. This paper presents original field data that refines the sedimentological context of plant debris accumulations from the anactualistic High Arctic forests, most notably at the ‘Fyles Leaf Beds' and ‘Beaver Pond' fossil-bearing sites in the ‘high terrace deposits' of central Ellesmere Island. The former is a remarkably well-preserved, leaf-rich deposit that is part of a complex of facies associations representing lacustrine, fluvio-deltaic and mire deposition above a paleotopographic unconformity. The latter yields tooth-marked woody debris within a peat layer that also contains a rich assemblage of vertebrate and plant fossils including abundant remains from the extinct beaver-group Dipoides. Here we present sedimentological data that provide circumstantial evidence that the woody debris deposit at Beaver Pond could record dam-building in the genus, by comparing the facies motif with new data from known Holocene beaver dam facies in England. Across the Pliocene of the High Arctic region, woody debris accumulations are shown to represent an array of biosedimentary deposits and landforms including mires, driftcretions, woody bedforms, and possible beaver dams, which help to contextualize mammal fossil sites, provide facies models for high-latitude forests, and reveal interactions between life and sedimentation in a vanished world that may be an analogue to that of the near-future.

  • 43. de Araujo, Kleiton R.
    et al.
    Sawakuchi, Henrique Oliveira
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba, Brazil.
    Bertassoli, Dailson J., Jr.
    Sawakuchi, Andre O.
    da Silva, Karina D.
    Vieira, Thiago B.
    Ward, Nicholas D.
    Pereira, Tatiana S.
    Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and emission in the newly constructed Belo Monte hydropower complex in the Xingu River, Amazonia2019Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 16, nr 18, s. 3527-3542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Belo Monte hydropower complex located in the Xingu River is the largest run-of-the-river (ROR) hydroelectric system in the world and has one of the highest energy production capacities among dams. Its construction received significant media attention due to its potential social and environmental impacts. It is composed of two ROR reservoirs: the Xingu Reservoir (XR) in the Xingu's main branch and the Intermediate Reservoir (IR), an artificial reservoir fed by waters diverted from the Xingu River with longer water residence time compared to XR. We aimed to evaluate spatiotemporal variations in CO2 partial pressure (pCO(2)) and CO2 fluxes (FCO2) during the first 2 years after the Xingu River impoundment under the hypothesis that each reservoir has contrasting FCO2 and pCO(2) as vegetation clearing reduces flooded area emissions. Time of the year had a significant influence on pCO(2) with the highest average values observed during the high-water season. Spatial heterogeneity throughout the entire study area was observed for pCO(2) during both low-and high-water seasons. FCO2, on the other hand, only showed significant spatial heterogeneity during the high-water period. FCO2 (0.90 +/- 0.47 and 1.08 +/- 0.62 mu mol m(2) d(-1) for XR and IR, respectively) and pCO(2) (1647 +/- 698 and 1676 +/- 323 mu atm for XR and IR, respectively) measured during the high-water season were on the same order of magnitude as previous observations in other Amazonian clearwater rivers unaffected by impoundment during the same season. In contrast, during the low-water season FCO2 (0.69 +/- 0.28 and 7.32 +/- 4.07 mu mol m(2) d(-1) for XR and IR, respectively) and pCO(2) (839 +/- 646 and 1797 +/- 354 mu atm for XR and IR, respectively) in IR were an order of magnitude higher than literature FCO2 observations in clearwater rivers with naturally flowing waters. When CO2 emissions are compared between reservoirs, IR emissions were 90% higher than values from the XR during low-water season, reinforcing the clear influence of reservoir characteristics on CO2 emissions. Based on our observations in the Belo Monte hydropower complex, CO2 emissions from ROR reservoirs to the atmosphere are in the range of natural Amazonian rivers. However, the associated reservoir (IR) may exceed natural river emission rates due to the preimpounding vegetation influence. Since many reservoirs are still planned to be constructed in the Amazon and throughout the world, it is critical to evaluate the implications of reservoir traits on FCO2 over their entire life cycle in order to improve estimates of CO2 emissions per kilowatt for hydropower projects planned for tropical rivers.

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  • 44. Ecke, Frauke
    et al.
    Christensen, Pernilla
    Rentz, Ralf
    Nilsson, Mats
    Sandström, Per
    Hörnfeldt, Birger
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Vindelfjällens forskningsstation, Ammarnäs, Sweden; Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden .
    Landscape structure and the long-term decline of cyclic grey-sided voles in Fennoscandia2010Ingår i: Landscape Ecology, ISSN 0921-2973, E-ISSN 1572-9761, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 551-560Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in forest landscape structure have been suggested as a likely contributing factor behind the long-term decline in the numbers of cyclic grey-sided voles (Clethrionomys rufocanus) in northern Fennoscandian lowland regions in contrast to mountain regions due to the absence of forest management in the mountains. This study, for the first time, formally explored landscape structure in 29 lowland (LF) and 14 mountain forest (MF) landscapes (each 2.5 x 2.5 km) in northern Sweden, and related the results to the cumulated spring trapping index of the grey-sided vole in 2002-2006. The grey-sided vole showed striking contrasts in dynamics close in space and time. The MF landscapes were characterized by larger patches and less fragmentation of preferred forest types. The grey-sided vole was trapped in all of 14 analyzed MF landscapes but only in three out of 29 of the LF landscapes. MF and LF landscapes with grey-sided vole occurrence were characterized by similar focal forest patch size (mean 357 ha, minimum 82 ha and mean 360 ha, minimum 79 ha, respectively). In contrast, these MF compared to the LF landscapes were characterized by larger patches of preferred forest types and less fragmented preferred forest types and by a lower proportion of clear-cut areas. The present results suggest that landscape structure is important for the abundance of grey-sided voles in both regions. However, in the mountains the change from more or less seasonal dynamics to high-amplitude cycles between the mid 1990s and 2000s cannot be explained by changes in landscape structure.

  • 45.
    Edvardsson, Johannes
    et al.
    Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology, Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hansson, Anton
    Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology, Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sjölander, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    von Boer, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    Linderson, Hans
    Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology, Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gunnarson, Björn
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Linderholm, Hans W.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Drobyshev, Igor
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Alnarp, Sweden.
    Hammarlund, Dan
    Laboratory for Wood Anatomy and Dendrochronology, Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Old wood in a new light: an online dendrochronological database2023Ingår i: International Journal of Wood Culture, ISSN 2772-3194, Vol. 3, nr 1-3, s. 442-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Old Wood in a New Light database project focuses on the digitization and accessibility of the results of dendrochronological samples analyzed and archived at four Swedish university-based tree-ring laboratories at Lund University, Stockholm University, University of Gothenburg, and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Collaboration with the Environmental Archaeology Laboratory and Humlab at Umeå University enables long-term open access to data, raw data, and metadata. In this project, we (1) systematically undertake large-scale entry and open access publication of results from wood samples scientifically analyzed and archived by Swedish laboratories and the associated metadata, into the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD; www.sead.se) research data infrastructure, and (2) actively promote the database as a resource for new and ongoing interdisciplinary research initiatives. Including dendrochronological data in SEAD infrastructure allows interdisciplinary studies that combine major scientific and societal questions. Building on a pilot study of construction timber from southern Sweden and adaptation of SEAD digitization workflows, more than 70 000 samples archived at the four dendrochronological laboratories are now being handled in the project. The broad coverage of research networks, stakeholder interaction, and strategic support from the cultural heritage community is guaranteed owing to the ongoing collaboration between laboratories and an established international and multidisciplinary reference group.

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  • 46. Emmanouilidis, Alexandros
    et al.
    Katrantsiotis, Christos
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Dotsika, Elissavet
    Kokkalas, Sotirios
    Unkel, Ingmar
    Avramidis, Pavlos
    Holocene paleoclimate variability in the eastern Mediterranean, inferred from the multi-proxy record of Lake Vouliagmeni, Greece2022Ingår i: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 595, artikel-id 110964Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a Holocene multi-proxy record from Lake Vouliagmeni, eastern Gulf of Corinth, Greece. The lake is subjected to intense climatic and tectonic forces causing stratigraphic variations with laminated sediments frequently interrupted by homogenous sections and event deposits. Lamination couplets consist of aragonite layers alternating with detrital and organic residues formed during periods of seawater intrusion and stratification of the lake water. The discontinuous occurrence of laminated deposits excludes a varve based chronology from being established but highlights the susceptibility of the lake to record environmental and climatic changes. Our synthesis model for regional climatic reconstruction and local environmental changes derives from δ18O and δ13C data from laminated and homogenous sediments studied separately and depending on the dominant carbonate mineral. This is further strengthened by high-resolution geochemical proxies, diatom and sedimentological data. Regional climatic signals from key sites and possible links to the Lake Vouliagmeni record are explored in response to atmospheric circulation patterns. Phases of overall humid conditions are recorded by increased inflow of siliciclastic material to the lake and negative δ18Obulk values. In contrast, periods of marine intrusion and enhanced evaporation are recorded by aragonite precipitation, positive δ18OAr values and laminations. The laminations formed in the lake seem to occur during periods of sea water intrusion into the lake, which led to pycnocline stabilization and stratified lake waters.

  • 47.
    Faithfull, Carolyn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pelagic energy mobilization across crossed gradients of phosphorus and dissolved organic carbon in a chemostat experiment2010Ingår i: INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF THEORETICAL AND APPLIED LIMNOLOGY, VOL 30, PT 9 / [ed] Jones J, Faaborg J, 2010, Vol. 30, nr 9, s. 1411-1415Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pelagic production depends on biological energy mobilization based on both light energy mobilized by phytoplankton and imported energy bound as allochthonous organic carbon (AOC) and utilized by bacteria. Both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (bacterioplankton) production form the basis of pelagic energy mobilization (PEM) in lakes (JANSSON et al. 2003). The relative importance of these two energy mobilization pathways changes with respect to phosphorus (P) and AOC availability (KARLSSON et al. 2002, JANSSON et al. 2003). Whereas heterotrophic pelagic energy mobilization (PEMhet) increases with AOC (HESSEN 1998, JANSSON et al. 2000), both autotrophic (PEMaut) and heterotrophic production increase with P (DEL GIORGIO & PETERS 1994, NURNBERG & SHAW 1999), although the proportion each contributes to PEM may change with increasing total phosphorus (TP) concentration (ROTHHAUPT & CODE 1992, KRITZRERG et al. 2006). JANSSON et al. (2003) demonstrated from whole lake data from unproductive lakes that nutrient use efficiency (PEM/TP) is lower in heterotrophic systems than in autotrophic systems. Bacteria can use AOC as a carbon and energy source, thus uncoupling bacterial production from reliance on phytoplankton carbon (JONES 1992). Because bacteria have a higher affinity for P than phytoplankton, they can out compete phytoplankton at low concentrations of P, but would be expected to mobilize less carbon (C) per unit of P because bacteria contain approximately 10 times more P per unit C (by weight) than phytoplankton (VADSTEIN 2000). Consequently, it would be expected that less energy per unit P would be available for higher trophic levels in pelagic systems dominated by heterotrophy (JANSSON et al. 2003). A second explanation for PEM/TP being lower in heterotrophic than autotrophic systems is that although a high AOC input rate is correlated with a high TP input rate (MEILI 1992), P can be tightly bound to AOC and not always be available for bacterial and phytoplankton production (JONES 1998). An increase in the bioavailability of P may be caused by UV degradation of AOC, or eutrophication (COTNER & BIDDANDA 2002). In this study we examine how the relative contributions of heterotrophic and autotrophic production change with a range of AOC and P concentrations in a chemostat environment. We hypothesise that the proportion of pelagic energy mobilisation that is heterotrophic (%PEMhet) is positively correlated with the input rate of AOC and negatively related to the input rate of inorganic P at a given dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. We also hypothesise that the nutrient use efficiency (PEM/TP) will decrease as heterotrophy increases.

  • 48. Farjon, Aljos
    et al.
    Horne, David J.
    Parfitt, Simon A.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Lewis, Mark D.
    Early Pleistocene conifer macrofossils from Happisburgh, Norfolk, UK, and their environmental implications for early hominin occupation2020Ingår i: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 232, artikel-id 106115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuing coastal erosion in the vicinity of Happisburgh in north Norfolk has revealed archaeological sites documenting early human presence during at least two episodes in the Early and early Middle Pleistocene. At Happisburgh 3, the oldest archaeological site in northern Europe (approximately 900,000 years old) finds include at least 80 flint artefacts and human footprints associated with abundant, well-preserved organic remains. The deposits consist of gravels and estuarine sands and silts contained within a complex of channels, which accumulated in the estuary of a large river, probably the ancestral River Thames. The environmental remains reflect a slow-flowing tidal river, at the limit of tidal influence, and a grassland valley bordered by conifer-dominated woodland. Analyses of the pollen, wood, cones and leaves have identified a diversity of coniferous taxa, with some unexpected central and southern European elements (Pinus mugo ssp. mugo, Pinus mugo ssp. rotundata and Juniperus thurifera) indicating a type of coniferous woodland no longer present in Europe today. Here we present the conifer finds and their environmental implications. A new multi-proxy consensus palaeoclimate reconstruction, using conifer and beetle mutual climatic ranges, confirms and refines previous indications of a more continental climate than today, with significantly colder winters. These results provide a new perspective for understanding the climate and environment encountered by Early Pleistocene hominins at the northernmost limit of their range.

  • 49. Finsinger, Walter
    et al.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekologi och geovetenskap. NCCR Climate, Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Altenbergrain 21, CH-3013, Bern, Switzerland.
    Kraehenbuehl, Urs
    Lotter, Andre F
    Ammann, Brigitta
    Human impacts and eutrophication patterns during the past similar to 200 years at Lago Grande di Avigliana (N. Italy)2006Ingår i: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 55-67Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A short sediment core from Lago Grande di Avigliana (Piedmont, Italy), the second most eutrophied lake in Italy, was analysed for pollen and diatoms to reconstruct land-use changes and to estimate baseline conditions for total phosphorus (TP) in the water column. Varve counts on sediment thin-sections and (210)Pb, (226)Ra, and (137)Cs dating provided a reliable chronology for the past similar to 200 years. The main pollen-inferred land-use changes showed a sharp decrease of hemp retting around AD 1900, as well as a gradual change to less intensive agriculture and increasing abundance of exotic plants since AD similar to 1970. Diatom-inferred TP reconstructions indicated stable TP concentrations until AD similar to 1950, revealing baseline mesotrophic conditions (TP < 25 mu g l(-1)). After AD similar to 1950, TP values increased distinctly and continuously, culminating in the late 1960s with concentrations of 150 mu g l(-1). Subsequently, diatoms implied a linear decrease of TP, with an inferred value of 40 mu g l(-1) in the surface sediment sample. Comparison with instrumental TP measurements from the water column since AD 1980 showed a rapid recovery and allowed a direct validation of the diatom TP inference. However, although the TP concentration has decreased considerably, baseline conditions have not yet been reached. When compared to the limnological effects of sewage discharges on inferred-TP concentration, our results indicated that agricultural land use played a minor role in the lake's eutrophication.

  • 50.
    Finsinger, Walter
    et al.
    ISEM, University of Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Schworer, Christoph
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Tinner, Willy
    Institute of Plant Sciences and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Rates of palaeoecological change can inform ecosystem restoration2024Ingår i: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 1629-1638Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerations of ecosystem transformation raise concerns, to the extent that high rates of ecological change may be regarded amongst the most important ongoing imbalances in the Earth system. Here, we used high-resolution pollen and diatom assemblages and associated ecological indicators (the sum of tree and shrub pollen and diatom-inferred total phosphorus concentrations as proxies for tree cover and lake-water eutrophication, respectively) spanning the past 150 years to emphasize that rate-of-change records based on compositional data may document transformations having substantially different causes and outcomes. To characterize rates of change also in terms of other key ecosystem features, we quantified for both ecological indicators: (i) the percentage of change per unit time, (ii) the percentage of change relative to a reference level, and (iii) the rate of percentage change per unit time relative to a reference period, taking into account the irregular spacing of palaeoecological data. These measures document how quickly specific facets of nature changed, their trajectory, as well as their status in terms of palaeoecological indicators. Ultimately, some past accelerations of community transformation may document the potential of ecosystems to rapidly recover important ecological attributes and functions. In this context, insights from palaeoecological records may be useful to accelerate ecosystem restoration.

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