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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Omstedt, Anders
    Rolff, Carl
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea2017In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 170, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia and oxygen deficient zones are expanding worldwide. To properly manage this deterioration of the marine environment, it is important to identify the causes of oxygen declines and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Here, we provide a study aiming to explain the declining oxygen levels in the deep waters of the Bothnian Sea over the past 20 years by investigating data from environmental monitoring programmes. The observed decline in oxygen concentrations in deep waters was found to be primarily a consequence of water temperature increase and partly caused by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater (R-Adj(2). = 0.83) as well as inflow from the adjacent sea basin. As none of the tested eutrophication-related predictors were significant according to a stepwise multiple regression, a regional increase in nutrient inputs to the area is unlikely to explain a significant portion of the oxygen decline. Based on the findings of this study, preventing the development of anoxia in the deep water of the Bothnian Sea is dependent on the large-scale measures taken to reduce climate change. In addition, the reduction of the nutrient load to the Baltic Proper is required to counteract the development of hypoxic and phosphate-rich water in the Baltic Proper, which can form deep water in the Bothnian Sea. The relative importance of these sources to oxygen consumption is difficult to determine from the available data, but the results clearly demonstrate the importance of climate related factors such as temperature, DOC and inflow from adjacent basins for the oxygen status of the sea.

  • 2. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Manasypov, R.
    Lim, A.
    Krickov, I.
    Kolesnichenko, L. G.
    Laudon, H.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Permafrost and lakes control river isotope composition across a boreal Arctic transect in the Western Siberian lowlands2018In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, no 3, p. =20-=20, article id 034028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western Siberian Lowlands (WSL) store large quantities of organic carbon that will be exposed and mobilized by the thawing of permafrost. The fate of mobilized carbon, however, is not well understood, partly because of inadequate knowledge of hydrological controls in the region which has a vast low-relief surface area, extensive lake and wetland coverage and gradually increasing permafrost influence. We used stable water isotopes to improve our understanding of dominant landscape controls on the hydrology of the WSL. We sampled rivers along a 1700 km South-North transect from permafrost-free to continuous permafrost repeatedly over three years, and derived isotope proxies for catchment hydrological responsiveness and connectivity. We found correlations between the isotope proxies and catchment characteristics, suggesting that lakes and wetlands are intimately connected to rivers, and that permafrost increases the responsiveness of the catchment to rainfall and snowmelt events, reducing catchment mean transit times. Our work provides rare isotope-based field evidence that permafrost and lakes/wetlands influence hydrological pathways across a wide range of spatial scales (10-105 km2) and permafrost coverage (0%-70%). This has important implications, because both permafrost extent and lake/wetland coverage are affected by permafrost thaw in the changing climate. Changes in these hydrological landscape controls are likely to alter carbon export and emission via inland waters, which may be of global significance.

  • 3. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vorobyev, S. N.
    Manasypov, R. M.
    Loiko, S.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape2018In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, p. 279-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

  • 4.
    Algesten, Grete
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Sobek, Sobek
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Tranvik, Lars T.
    Department of Limnology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seasonal variation of CO2 saturation in the Gulf of Bothnia: Indications of marine net heterotrophy2004In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 18, p. 4021-4028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal variation of pCO2 and primary and bacterioplankton production were measured in the Gulf of Bothnia during an annual cycle. Surface water was supersaturated with CO2 on an annual basis, indicating net heterotrophy and a source of CO2 to the atmosphere. However, the Gulf of Bothnia oscillated between being a sink and a source of CO2 over the studied period, largely decided by temporal variation in bacterial respiration (BR) and primary production (PP) in the water column above the pycnocline. The calculated annual respiration-production balance (BR-PP) was very similar to the estimated CO2 emission from the Gulf of Bothnia, which indicates that these processes were major determinants of the exchange of CO2 between water and atmosphere. The southern basin (the Bothnian Sea) had a lower net release of CO2 to the atmosphere than the northern Bothnian Bay (7.1 and 9.7 mmol C m−2 d−1, respectively), due to higher primary production, which to a larger extent balanced respiration in this basin.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Brugel, Sonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Department of Food and Environmental Sciences, Division of Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Kratzer, S.
    Legrand, C.
    Influence of allochthonous dissolved organic matter on pelagic basal production in a northerly estuary2018In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 204, p. 225-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria are key groups at the base of aquatic food webs. In estuaries receiving riverine water with a high content of coloured allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM), phytoplankton primary production may be reduced, while bacterial production is favoured. We tested this hypothesis by performing a field study in a northerly estuary receiving nutrient-poor, ADOM-rich riverine water, and analyzing results using multivariate statistics. Throughout the productive season, and especially during the spring river flush, the production and growth rate of heterotrophic bacteria were stimulated by the riverine inflow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, primary production and photosynthetic efficiency (i.e. phytoplankton growth rate) were negatively affected by DOC. Primary production related positively to phosphorus, which is the limiting nutrient in the area. In the upper estuary where DOC concentrations were the highest, the heterotrophic bacterial production constituted almost 100% of the basal production (sum of primary and bacterial production) during spring, while during summer the primary and bacterial production were approximately equal. Our study shows that riverine DOC had a strong negative influence on coastal phytoplankton production, likely due to light attenuation. On the other hand DOC showed a positive influence on bacterial production since it represents a supplementary food source. Thus, in boreal regions where climate change will cause increased river inflow to coastal waters, the balance between phytoplankton and bacterial production is likely to be changed, favouring bacteria. The pelagic food web structure and overall productivity will in turn be altered.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Selstam, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Hagström, Åke
    Vertical transport of lipid in seawater1993In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 98, no 1-2, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipids in seawater act as solvents and transporters of lipophilic organic pollutants. To investigate a possible transport route of lipophilic pollutants, the vertical flux of lipid was quantified during an annual cycle in the northern Baltic Sea. The lipid content in both sedimenting material and different size fractions of seawater was analyzed. During the year, 8 g lipid m-2 sedimented out from the photic zone to the benthic system. The sedimentation of lipid accounted for 300 to 400 % of the average standing stock of pelagic lipid and was concentrated in the spring bloom period (April-June) when 70 % of the total lipid sedimentation occurred. About 30 % of the produced pelagic lipid settled out from the system. In seawater the lipid maximum occurred at the end of the spring bloom, shortly after nutrient depletion, indicating a stress response in the algae. Since lipid sedimentation is concentrated in the spring bloom, removal of lipophilic organic pollutants may be important during this period.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Tamminen, Timo
    Lehtinen, Sirpa
    Jürgens, Klaus
    Labrenz, Matthias
    Viitasalo, Markku
    The pelagic food web2017In: Biological oceanography of the Baltic sea / [ed] Pauline Snoeijs, Hendrik Schubert, Teresa Radziejewska, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2017, p. 281-332Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. Environmental drivers and food web structure in the pelagic zone vary from south to north in the Baltic Sea. 
    2. While nitrogen is generally the limiting nutrient for primary production in the Baltic Sea, phosphorus is the limiting nutrient in the Bothnian Bay. 
    3. In the Gulf of Bothnia the food web is to a large extent driven by terrestrial allochthonous material, while autochthonous production dominates in the other parts of the Baltic Sea. 
    4. Changes in bacterioplankton, protist and zooplankton community composition from south to north are mainly driven by salinity. 
    5. Bacteria are crucial constituents of the pelagic food web (microbial loop) and in oxygen-poor and anoxic bottom waters where they mediate element transformations. 
    6. Diatoms and dinoflagellates are the major primary producers in the pelagic zone. Summer blooms of diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) filamentous cyanobacteria are typical of the Baltic Sea, especially in the Baltic Sea proper and the Gulf of Finland. 
    7. The mesozooplankton (mainly copepods and cladocerans) channel energy from primary producers and the microbial food web to fish and finally to the top predators in the pelagic system (waterbirds and mammals). 
    8. Herring and sprat populations are affected by the foraging intensity of their main predator (cod), and therefore the environmental conditions that affect cod may also influence mesozooplankton due to food web effects "cascading down the food web". 
    9. Anthropogenic pressures, such as overexploitation of fish stocks, eutrophication, climate change, introduction of non-indigenous species and contamination of top predators by hazardous substances, cause changes in the pelagic food web that may have consequences for the balance and stability of the whole ecosystem.
  • 8.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Klimatförändringar kan leda till mindre fisk i havet2016In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i i svenska havsområden. 2015/2016, Göteborg: Havs- och vattenmyndigheten , 2016, p. 25-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Pelagisk biologi2004In: Bottniska viken: årsrapport från den marina miljöövervakningen. 2003, Skydd av havsområden gagnar fisken, Hörnefors: Umeå marina forskningscentrum (UMF) , 2004, p. 11-13Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Net ecosystem production in clear-water and brown-water lakes2012In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 26, p. GB1017-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 15 lakes in northern Sweden with respect to primary production and respiration in benthic and pelagic habitats. The lakes were characterized by different concentrations of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of terrestrial origin, forming a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water lakes. Primary production decreased and respiration increased on a whole-lake scale along the gradient of increasing DOC. Thus, the lakes became more net heterotrophic, i.e., had lower net ecosystem production (NEP = gross primary production - community respiration), with increasing terrestrial DOC and this change coincided with increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in the surface waters. The single most important process for the increasing net heterotrophy along the DOC gradient was pelagic respiration of terrestrial organic carbon. In spite of high metabolic activity in the benthic habitat, benthic primary production and benthic respiration decreased simultaneously with increasing DOC, showing that the benthic habitat was in metabolic balance throughout the gradient. Therefore, the net heterotrophic states of the lakes depended on the terrestrial DOC export to lakes and the concomitant respiration of terrestrial organic carbon in the pelagic habitat.

  • 11. Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    et al.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Gonzales del Tanago, Marta
    Marchamalo, Miguel
    Responses of riparian trees and shrubs to flow regulationalong a boreal stream in northern Sweden2011In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 853-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Flow dynamics is a major determinant of riparian plant communities. Therefore, flowregulation may heavily affect riparian ecosystems. Despite the large number of damsworldwide, little specific information is available on the longitudinal impacts of dams onvegetation, for example how far downstream and at what degree of regulation a dam on ariver can influence riparian woodlands.

    2. We quantified the long-term responses of riparian trees and shrubs to flow regulation byidentifying their lateral distribution and habitat conditions along a boreal river in northernSweden that has been regulated by a single dam since 1948. The regulation has reducedannual flow fluctuations, this effect being largest at the dam, downstream from which itprogressively decreases following the entrance of free-flowing tributaries.

    3. We related changes in the distribution patterns, composition, abundance and richness oftree and shrub species to the degree of regulation along the river downstream from thedam. Regulation has triggered establishment of trees and shrubs closer to the channel,making it possible to measure ecological impacts of flow regulation as differences invegetation attributes relative to the positions of tree and shrub communities establishedbefore and after regulation.

    4. Trees and shrubs had migrated towards the mid-channel along the entire study reach,but the changes were largest immediately downstream of the dam. Shrubs were mostimpacted by flow regulation in terms of lateral movement, but the effect on trees extendedfurthest downstream.

    5. The species composition of trees progressively returned to its pre-regulation state withdistance downstream, but entrance of free-flowing tributaries and variation in channelmorphology and substratum caused local deviations. Species richness after regulationincreased for trees but decreased for shrubs. The changes in species composition andrichness of trees and shrubs showed no clear downstream patterns, suggesting that otherfactors than the degree of regulation were more important in governing life form.

  • 12.
    Bejarano, Maria Dolores
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro
    Alonso, Carlos
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Characterizing effects of hydropower plants on sub-daily flow regimes2017In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 550, p. 186-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A characterization of short-term changes in river flow is essential for understanding the ecological effects of hydropower plants, which operate by turning the turbines on or off to generate electricity following variations in the market demand (i.e., hydropeaking). The goal of our study was to develop an approach for characterizing the effects of hydropower plant operations on within-day flow regimes across multiple dams and rivers. For this aim we first defined ecologically meaningful metrics that provide a full representation of the flow regime at short time scales from free-flowing rivers and rivers exposed to hydropeaking. We then defined metrics that enable quantification of the deviation of the altered short-term flow regime variables from those of the unaltered state. The approach was successfully tested in two rivers in northern Sweden, one free-flowing and another regulated by cascades of hydropower plants, which were additionally classified based on their impact on short-term flows in sites of similar management. The largest differences between study sites corresponded to metrics describing sub-daily flow magnitudes such as amplitude (i.e., difference between the highest and the lowest hourly flows) and rates (i.e., rise and fall rates of hourly flows). They were closely followed by frequency-related metrics accounting for the numbers of within-day hourly flow patterns (i.e., rises, falls and periods of stability of hourly flows). In comparison, between-site differences for the duration-related metrics were smallest. In general, hydropeaking resulted in higher within-day flow amplitudes and rates and more but shorter periods of a similar hourly flow patterns per day. The impacted flow feature and the characteristics of the impact (i.e., intensity and whether the impact increases or decreases whatever is being described by the metric) varied with season. Our approach is useful for catchment management planning, defining environmental flow targets, prioritizing river restoration or dam reoperation efforts and contributing information for relicensing hydropower dams. 

  • 13. Beldowski, Jacek
    et al.
    Klusek, Zygmunt
    Szubska, Marta
    Turja, Raisa
    Bulczak, Anna I.
    Rak, Daniel
    Brenner, Matthias
    Lang, Thomas
    Kotwicki, Lech
    Grzelak, Katarzyna
    Jakacki, Jaromir
    Fricke, Nicolai
    Ostin, Anders
    Olsson, Ulf
    Fabisiak, Jacek
    Garnaga, Galina
    Nyholm, Jenny Rattfelt
    Majewski, Piotr
    Broeg, Katja
    Soderstrom, Martin
    Vanninen, Paula
    Popiel, Stanislaw
    Nawala, Jakub
    Lehtonen, Kari
    Berglind, Rune
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, European CBRNE Center.
    Schmidt, Beata
    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment-An evaluation of the dumped munitions problem in the Baltic Sea2016In: Deep-sea research. Part II, Topical studies in oceanography, ISSN 0967-0645, E-ISSN 1879-0100, Vol. 128, p. 85-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project has performed studies on chemical weapon (CW) detection, sediment pollution and spreading as well as biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea. Results suggest that munitions containing CWAs are more scattered on the seafloor than suspected, and previously undocumented dumpsite was discovered in Gdansk Deep. Pollution of sediments with CWA degradation products was local and close to the detected objects; however the pollution range was larger than predicted with theoretical models. Bottom currents observed in the dumpsites were strong enough for sediment re-suspension, and contributed to the transport of polluted sediments. Diversity and density of the faunal communities were poor at the dumping sites in comparison to the reference area, although the direct effects of CWA on benthos organisms were difficult to determine due to hypoxic or even anoxic conditions near the bottom. Equally, the low oxygen might have affected the biological effects assessed in cod and caged blue mussels. Nonetheless, both species showed significantly elevated molecular and cellular level responses at contaminated sites compared to reference sites.

  • 14. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Soares, Ana R. Alves
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Toward an ecologically meaningful view of resource stoichiometry in DOM-dominated aquatic systems2015In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 489-499Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on nutrient controls of planktonic productivity tends to focus on a few standard fractions of inorganic or total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, there is a wide range in the degree to which land-derived dissolved organic nutrients can be assimilated by biota. Thus, in systems where such fractions form a majority of the macronutrient resource pool, including many boreal inland waters and estuaries, our understanding of bacterio-and phytoplankton production dynamics remains limited. To adequately predict aquatic productivity in a changing environment, improved standard methods are needed for determining the sizes of active (bioavailable) pools of N, P and organic carbon (C). A synthesis of current knowledge suggests that variation in the C:N:P stoichiometry of bioavailable resources is associated with diverse processes that differentially influence the individual elements across space and time. Due to a generally increasing organic nutrient bioavailability from C to N to P, we hypothesize that the C:N and N:P of bulk resources often vastly overestimates the corresponding ratios of bioavailable resources. It is further proposed that basal planktonic production is regulated by variation in the source, magnitude and timing of terrestrial runoff, through processes that have so far been poorly described.

  • 15.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Seasonal dynamics of bacteria and mixotrophic flagellates as related to input of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon2009In: International association of theoretical and applied limnology, vol 30, pt 6: proceedings / [ed] Jones, J & Faaborg, J, Stuttgart: Schweizerbart , 2009, p. 923-928Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Contrasting plankton stoichiometry and nutrient regeneration in northern arctic and boreal lakes2018In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 80, no 2, article id UNSP 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrasting carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus (C: N: P) stoichiometry between phytoplankton and zooplankton affect consumer growth and phytoplankton nutrient limitation via nutrient recycling by zooplankton. However, no study has assessed how regional differences in terrestrial loadings of organic matter affect plankton N: P stoichiometry and recycling in systems with low N deposition and N-limited phytoplankton. We address this question by using data from 14 unproductive headwater arctic and boreal lakes. We found that boreal lakes had higher lake water-and seston C, N and P concentrations than arctic lakes, whereas seston C: N, C: P and N: P ratios did not differ among regions. Boreal zooplankton were also richer in N and P relative to C, with lower somatic N: P ratios, compared to arctic lakes. Consequently, the estimated N: P imbalances between seston and zooplankton were negative in arctic lakes, indicating zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton of suboptimal N content, resulting in low consumer driven N: P recycling (medians arctic sub-mid and high altitude lakes: 11 and 13). In boreal lakes, estimated N: P imbalance did not differ from zero, with a seston N: P stoichiometry matching the N: P requirements of zooplankton, which resulted in higher consumer driven N: P recycling (median 18). Our results imply that regional climate induced catchment differences, through enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs, affect plankton stoichiometry by raising consumer N: P recycling ratio and changing zooplankton from being mainly N-(arctic) to NP co-limited (boreal). Browning of lakes, in regions with low N deposition, may therefore promote large-scale regional changes in plankton nutrient limitation with potential feedbacks on pelagic food webs.

  • 17. Bijmans, Martijn FM
    et al.
    van Helvoort, Pieter-Jan
    Dar, Shabir A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Dopson, Mark
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Lens, Piet NL
    Buisman, Cees JN
    Selective recovery of nickel over iron from a nickel-iron solution using microbial sulfate reduction in a gas-lift bioreactor2009In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 853-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process streams with high concentrations of metals and sulfate are characteristic for the mining and metallurgical industries. This study aims to selectively recover nickel from a nickel-iron-containing solution at pH 5.0 using a single stage bioreactor that simultaneously combines low pH sulfate reduction and metal-sulfide formation. The results show that nickel was selectively precipitated in the bioreactor at pH 5.0 and the precipitates consisted of >= 83% of the nickel content. The nickel-iron precipitates were partly crystalline and had a metal/sulfur ratio of 1, suggesting these precipitates were NiS and FeS. Experiments focusing on nickel recovery at pH 5.0 and 5.5 reached a recovery of >99.9%, resulting in a nickel effluent concentration <0.05 mu M. The mixed microbial population included known sulfate reducers and acetogens. This study shows that selective metal precipitation in a single stage sulfate reducing bioreactor operated at low pH has the potential to produce metal-sulfides that can be used by the metallurgical industry as a resource for metal production.

  • 18.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Beyond the peat: synthesizing peat, lake sediments and soils in studies of the Swedish environment2006In: Peatlands: basin evolution and depository of records on global environmental and climatic changes / [ed] I.P. Martini, A. Martínez Cortizas and W. Chesworth, Elsevier, 2006, p. 431-448Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter illustrates on comparing peat and lake sediment records and linking the quantitative record of metals in peat to contemporary environmental problems. Quantifying metal records in peat has been an important step, but new research needs to move beyond this and consider how to apply these data. Lead analyses, including stable isotopes, are now fairly routine and based on these analyses the historical trends of lead deposition are now well established in peat, lake sediments and even glacial ice. The biogeochemical cycling of lead has also been well researched, which allows making this link between the historical lead record and soil biogeochemistry. Because peat and lake sediments seem to record the same changes in mercury deposition, there is similar promise in linking the long-term peat record of mercury and other metals with biogeochemical cycling of mercury and other important metals in forests and soils.

  • 19. Björk, G
    et al.
    Nohr, C
    Gustafsson, BG
    Lindberg, Amund E. B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ice dynamics in the Bothnian Bay inferred from ADCP measurements2008In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 178-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bottom mounted ADCP has monitored the ice motion and thickness in Bothnian Bay, Baltic Sea during the entire winter season 2004. The ADCP was deployed at 20 m depth at Falkensgrund well outside the land fast ice zone. The data shows that the ice motion is primarily driven by the wind but with a clear influence of internal ice stresses. The ice stresses become more dominant as the ice grow thicker with increasing number of observations with nearly stationary ice for relatively high wind speeds. A clear dependence of the ice/wind speed ratio to wind shifts is detected with higher ratio in the new wind direction. The effect of strain hardening is also seen in several events as decreasing ice speed, sometimes to zero, in spite of constant wind speed and wind direction. A rough force balance computation gives a compressive ice strength of about  9 × 104 N m−2 , which is much larger than normally used in numerical ice models. The ice thickness data show numerous ice ridges with ice draft well above 1 m passing the instrument. The ridges make up a large portion, 30–50%, of the total ice volume showing that dynamical processes are important for the total ice production in the Bothnian Bay.

  • 20. Bonk, Alicja
    et al.
    Kinder, Małgorzata
    Enters, Dirk
    Grosjean, Martin
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tylmann, Wojciech
    Sedimentological and geochemical responses of Lake Żabińskie (north-eastern Poland) to erosion changes during the last millennium2016In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 56, no 2-3, p. 239-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased erosion triggered by land-use changes is a major process that influences lake sedimentation. We explored the record of erosion intensity in annually laminated sediments of Lake Żabińskie, northeast Poland. A 1000-year-long, annually resolved suite of sedimentological (varve thickness, sediment accumulation rate) and geochemical data (scanning XRF, loss on ignition, biogenic silica) was analyzed with multivariate statistics. PCA indicated erosion was a major process responsible for changes in the chemical composition of the sediments. Analysis of sedimentary facies enabled identification of major phases of erosion that influenced lake sedimentation. These phases are consistent with the history of land use, inferred from pollen analysis. From AD 1000 to 1610, conditions around and in Lake Żabińskie were relatively stable, with low erosion intensity in the catchment and a dominance of carbonate sedimentation. Between AD 1610 and 1740, higher lake productivity and increased delivery of minerogenic material were caused by development of settlements in the region and widespread deforestation. The most prominent changes were observed between AD 1740 and 1880, when further land clearance and increased agricultural activity caused intensified soil erosion and higher lake productivity. Landscape clearance also created better conditions for water column mixing, which led to changes in redox conditions in the hypolimnion. The most recent period (AD 1880–2010) was characterized by partial reforestation and a gradual decrease in the intensity of erosional processes.

  • 21.
    Bunse, Carina
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Bacterioplankton in the light of seasonality and environmental drivers2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton are keystone organisms in marine ecosystems. They are important for element cycles, by transforming dissolved organic carbon and other nutrients. Bacterioplankton community composition and productivity rates change in surface waters over spatial and temporal scales. Yet, many underlying biological processes determining when, why and how bacterioplankton react to changes in environmental conditions are poorly understood. Here, I used experiments with model bacteria and natural assemblages as well as field studies to determine molecular, physiological and ecological responses allowing marine bacteria to adapt to their environment.

    Experiments with the flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. MED134 aimed to determine how the metabolism of bacteria is influenced by light and different organic matter. Under light exposure, Dokdonia sp. MED134 expressed proteorhodopsin and adjusted its metabolism to use resources more efficiently when growing with lower-quality organic matter. Similar expression patterns were found in oceanic datasets, implying a global importance of photoheterotrophic metabolisms for the ecology of bacterioplankton.

    Further, I investigated how the composition and physiology of bacterial assemblages are affected by elevated CO2 concentrations and inorganic nutrients. In a large-scale experiment, bacterioplankton could keep productivity and community structure unaltered by adapting the gene expression under CO2 stress. To maintain pH homeostasis, bacteria induced higher expression of genes related to respiration, membrane transport and light acquisition under low-nutrient conditions. Under high-nutrient conditions with phytoplankton blooms, such regulatory mechanisms were not necessary. These findings indicate that open ocean systems are more vulnerable to ocean acidification than coastal waters.

    Lastly, I used field studies to resolve how bacterioplankton is influenced by environmental changes, and how this leads to seasonal succession of marine bacteria. Using high frequency sampling over three years, we uncovered notable variability both between and within years in several biological features that rapidly changed over short time scales. These included potential phytoplankton-bacteria linkages, substrate uptake rates, and shifts in bacterial community structure. Thus, high resolution time series can provide important insights into the mechanisms controlling microbial communities.

    Overall, this thesis highlights the advantages of combining molecular and traditional oceanographic methodological approaches to study ecosystems at high resolution for improving our understanding of the physiology and ecology of microbial communities and, ultimately, how they influence biogeochemical processes.

  • 22. Cael, B. B.
    et al.
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The size-distribution of Earth's lakes2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 29633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, there are millions of small lakes, but a small number of large lakes. Most key ecosystem patterns and processes scale with lake size, thus this asymmetry between area and abundance is a fundamental constraint on broad-scale patterns in lake ecology. Nonetheless, descriptions of lake size-distributions are scarce and empirical distributions are rarely evaluated relative to theoretical predictions. Here we develop expectations for Earth's lake area-distribution based on percolation theory and evaluate these expectations with data from a global lake census. Lake surface areas >= 8.5 km(2) are power-law distributed with a tail exponent (T = 1.97) and fractal dimension (d = 1.38), similar to theoretical expectations (T = 2.05; d = 4/3). Lakes <8.5 km(2) are not power-law distributed. An independently developed regional lake census exhibits a similar transition and consistency with theoretical predictions. Small lakes deviate from the power-law distribution because smaller lakes are more susceptible to dynamical change and topographic behavior at sub-kilometer scales is not self-similar. Our results provide a robust characterization and theoretical explanation for the lake size-abundance relationship, and form a fundamental basis for understanding and predicting patterns in lake ecology at broad scales.

  • 23. Cai, Minggang
    et al.
    Hong, Qingquan
    Sun, Jionghui
    Sundqvist, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chen, Kai
    Wang, Yun
    Qiu, Cangrong
    Huang, Shuiying
    Concentrations, distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal sediments from Xiamen, China2016In: Marine Chemistry, ISSN 0304-4203, E-ISSN 1872-7581, Vol. 185, p. 74-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xiamen and its surroundings are representative areas suffering from intense anthropogenic turbulence and contamination in southeast coast of China during rapid industrialization and urbanization period, thus relevant organic pollutants research is necessary to assess the coastal environmental quality and generate management strategy. Contamination status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was investigated for 7 surface sediment samples collected in these areas in January 2007. The given data were used to evaluate the contamination and their potential risks of the pollutants. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs were in the range of 60 to 4089 pg g(-1) (dry weight) with an average of 1706 pg g(-1) and DL-PCBs in the range of 3 to 76 pg g(-1) with an average of 28 pg g(-1). Octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and PCBs 105 and 118 were the main congeners of the PCDD/F and DL-PCB, respectively. The toxicity equivalent concentrations (TEQs) were in the range of 0.15 to 5.2 pg g(-1) (average: 3.0 pg g(-1)) for PCDD/Fs, while in the range of <limit of quantitation (LOQ) to 0.09 pg g(-1) (average: 0.05 pg g(-1)) for DL-PCBs. Congener pattern analysis showed a dominance of OCDD, suggesting main sources were current or historical use of chlorophenol, current use of dioxin contaminated pesticides or atmospheric deposition. Due to the current levels of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in this area, it is necessary to further research their biogeochemical processes and ecological influences in the future.

  • 24.
    Dahlgren, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olsen, Bernt Rydland
    Troedsson, Christofer
    Båmstedt, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Seasonal variation in wax ester concentration and gut content in a Baltic Sea copepod [Limnocalanus macrurus (Sars 1863)]2012In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 286-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limnocalanus macrurus from Bothnian Bay in the northern part of the Baltic Sea was studied during the ice-free period (AprilDecember) in order to understand its life history and feeding biology. Our data on the population dynamics indicated that reproduction occurred during the ice-covered period, during which lipid storage was reduced to a minimum. From spring to late summer, the lipid reserve increased by a factor of 3, while the gonads of adult females were immature during this period, continuing to December as indicated by the small size of the eggs. Average stomach fullness was always ca. 50 indicating continuous feeding activity. A newly developed denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyse the gut contents over the study period. More than 30 taxa (at different taxonomic levels) could be identified. However, phytoplankton was only represented by one taxon (Diatomophycea), and was restricted to July. Thus, adult L. macrurus seems to have a strongly carnivorous feeding preference in the northern Baltic Sea.

  • 25. Datry, T.
    et al.
    Foulquier, A.
    Corti, R.
    von Schiller, D.
    Tockner, K.
    Mendoza-Lera, C.
    Clement, J. C.
    Gessner, M. O.
    Moleon, M.
    Stubbington, R.
    Gucker, B.
    Albarino, R.
    Allen, D. C.
    Altermatt, F.
    Arce, M. I.
    Arnon, S.
    Banas, D.
    Banegas-Medina, A.
    Beller, E.
    Blanchette, M. L.
    Blanco-Libreros, J. F.
    Blessing, J. J.
    Boechat, I. G.
    Boersma, K. S.
    Bogan, M. T.
    Bonada, N.
    Bond, N. R.
    Brintrup Barria, K. C.
    Bruder, A.
    Burrows, R. M.
    Cancellario, T.
    Canhoto, C.
    Carlson, S. M.
    Cauvy-Fraunie, S.
    Cid, N.
    Danger, M.
    Terra, Bianca de Freitas
    De Girolamo, A. M.
    de La Barra, Evans
    del Campo, R.
    Diaz-Villanueva, V. D.
    Dyer, F.
    Elosegi, A.
    Faye, E.
    Febria, C.
    Four, B.
    Gafny, S.
    Ghate, S. D.
    Gomez, R.
    Gómez-Gener, Lluís
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Graca, M. A. S.
    Guareschi, S.
    Hoppeler, F.
    Hwan, J. L.
    Jones, J. , I
    Kubheka, S.
    Laini, A.
    Langhans, S. D.
    Leigh, C.
    Little, C. J.
    Lorenz, S.
    Marshall, J. C.
    Martin, E.
    McIntosh, A. R.
    Meyer, E. , I
    Milisa, M.
    Mlambo, M. C.
    Morais, M.
    Moya, N.
    Negus, P. M.
    Niyogi, D. K.
    Papatheodoulou, A.
    Pardo, I
    Paril, P.
    Pauls, S. U.
    Pesic, V
    Polasek, M.
    Robinson, C. T.
    Rodriguez-Lozano, P.
    Rolls, R. J.
    Sanchez-Montoya, M. M.
    Savic, A.
    Shumilova, O.
    Sridhar, K. R.
    Steward, A. L.
    Storey, R.
    Taleb, A.
    Uzan, A.
    Vander Vorste, Ross
    Waltham, N. J.
    Woelfle-Erskine, C.
    Zak, D.
    Zarfl, C.
    Zoppini, A.
    A global analysis of terrestrial plant litter dynamics in non-perennial waterways2018In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perennial rivers and streams make a disproportionate contribution to global carbon (C) cycling. However, the contribution of intermittent rivers and ephemeral streams (IRES), which sometimes cease to flow and can dry completely, is largely ignored although they represent over half the global river network. Substantial amounts of terrestrial plant litter (TPL) accumulate in dry riverbeds and, upon rewetting, this material can undergo rapid microbial processing. We present the results of a global research collaboration that collected and analysed TPL from 212 dry riverbeds across major environmental gradients and climate zones. We assessed litter decomposability by quantifying the litter carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and oxygen (O2) consumption in standardized assays and estimated the potential short-term CO2 emissions during rewetting events. Aridity, cover of riparian vegetation, channel width and dry-phase duration explained most variability in the quantity and decomposability of plant litter in IRES. Our estimates indicate that a single pulse of CO2 emission upon litter rewetting contributes up to 10% of the daily CO2 emission from perennial rivers and stream, particularly in temperate climates. This indicates that the contributions of IRES should be included in global C-cycling assessments.

  • 26.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Germany.
    Berger, Stella A.
    Soissons, Quentin
    Giling, Darren P.
    Stibor, Herwig
    An experimental demonstration of the critical depth principle2015In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 2051-2060Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sverdrup's critical depth hypothesis, which has had an almost canonical status in biological oceanography, has recently been challenged as a universal explanation for the formation of oceanic spring blooms, and several alternative hypotheses have been proposed. Arguments pro and contra alternative explanations have so far relied on theoretical considerations and purely observational data. In this paper, we propose that mesocosm experiments with natural plankton communities could make important contributions to the resolution of the issue. We first briefly review the foundations of the critical depth concept and derive an approximate relationship that relates optically scaled critical depth (="critical optical depth", i.e. the product of the light attenuation coefficient and the critical depth) to light-dependent phytoplankton production in the mixed surface layer. We describe how this relationship can be used to scale experimental mesocosms such that they reproduce ambient light conditions of natural water columns from the surface down to the critical depth and beyond. We illustrate the power of the approach with a mesocosm study in which we experimentally controlled the onset of the spring bloom of a lake plankton community through the manipulation of optically scaled mixed-layer depth. This experiment may be the first experimental demonstration of the critical depth principle acting on a natural plankton community. Compensation light intensity (=minimum average mixed-layer light intensity required to trigger a bloom of the ambient plankton community) could be constrained to be somewhat above 3.2 moles PAR m(-2) d(-1), corresponding to a critical optical depth of 10.5. We compare these numbers to estimates from marine systems and end with a discussion of how experiments could be designed to (i) more accurately determine the critical depth in a given system and (ii) resolve among competing hypotheses for vernal bloom onset.

  • 27.
    Enetjärn, Albin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Temporal och spatial variation för pH och relaterade parametrar i Bastuån, Jämtland2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic emissions of acidifying substances, mainly sulfur dioxide, during the second half of the 20th century caused a widespread acidification of many European freshwater environments. Even relatively remote areas, such as inland northern Sweden, experienced reduced pH-values, much due to low buffering capacity in the environment. Extensive liming has taken place in Sweden over the past fifty years to counteract negative effects on limnic ecosystems. Despite a general increase in pH over the last decades, problems with acidification still occur. However, this can be hard to separate from natural acidity due to a large landscape variability. This study aims at describing the temporal and spatial variation of pH and pH-related parameters in Bastuån, a 46 km2 watershed in Jämtland, Sweden, which is being investigated for future liming measures. Existing water chemistry data sets were analyzed and extended with an additional field study, sampling the twelve largest tributaries to Bastuån. Results show that pronounced high and low pH values has become increasingly rare while the average is basically unchanged between 1999 and 2017. Low pH is mainly associated with high discharge during snowmelt or rain events. Anthropogenic SO42- concentrations seems to contribute relatively little to pH-depressions while organic acids plays a more important role. Large water chemical variations in the tributaries indicate that several different biological and physical properties within the watershed regulates pH. However, any credible function that can predict pH using such properties remains to be found.

  • 28.
    Fransner, Filippa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Gustafsson, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Tedesco, Letizia
    Vichi, Marcello
    Hordoir, Robinson
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Roquet, Fabien
    Stockholms universitet, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Spilling, Kristian
    Kuznetsov, Ivan
    Eilola, Kari
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholms universitet, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Nycander, Jonas
    Stockholms universitet, Meteorologiska institutionen (MISU).
    Non-Redfieldian Dynamics Explain Seasonal pCO2 Drawdown in the Gulf of Bothnia2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans, ISSN 2169-9275, E-ISSN 2169-9291, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 166-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High inputs of nutrients and organic matter make coastal seas places of intense air-sea CO2 exchange. Due to their complexity, the role of coastal seas in the global air-sea CO2 exchange is, however, still uncertain. Here, we investigate the role of phytoplankton stoichiometric flexibility and extracellular DOC production for the seasonal nutrient and CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) dynamics in the Gulf of Bothnia, Northern Baltic Sea. A 3-D ocean biogeochemical-physical model with variable phytoplankton stoichiometry is for the first time implemented in the area and validated against observations. By simulating non-Redfieldian internal phytoplankton stoichiometry, and a relatively large production of extracellular dissolved organic carbon (DOC), the model adequately reproduces observed seasonal cycles in macronutrients and pCO2. The uptake of atmospheric CO2 is underestimated by 50% if instead using the Redfield ratio to determine the carbon assimilation, as in other Baltic Sea models currently in use. The model further suggests, based on the observed drawdown of pCO2, that observational estimates of organic carbon production in the Gulf of Bothnia, derived with the method, may be heavily underestimated. We conclude that stoichiometric variability and uncoupling of carbon and nutrient assimilation have to be considered in order to better understand the carbon cycle in coastal seas.

  • 29. Furey, Paula C
    et al.
    Deininger, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Liess, Antonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Substratum-Associated Microbiota2016In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 88, no 10, p. 1638-1672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This survey of literature on substratum associated microbiota from 2015 highlights research findings associated with benthic algae and bacteria from a variety of aquatic environments, but primarily freshwaters. It focuses on topics of interest to the Water Environment Federation along with those of current emerging interest such as global change, oil spills, and environmental contaminants like pharmaceutical compounds, microplastics, nanoparticles and organic pollutants. Other interesting findings briefly covered include areas of general ecology, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions, water quality, nuisance and invasive species, bioindicators, and bioremediation.

  • 30. Furey, Paula C.
    et al.
    Liess, Antonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Substratum-Associated Microbiota2015In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 87, no 10, p. 1611-1678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review of literature on substratum-associated microbiota from 2014 highlights topics on benthic algae and bacteria from a range of aquatic environments, but focuses on freshwater habitats. Advances in pollution and toxin detection, assessment methods, and applications of new technologies are highlighted as are updates in taxonomy and systematics. Aspects of general ecology, water quality, nutrient cycling, trophic interactions, land use changes, biofuels, biofouling, and environmental challenges such as climate change, pollutants, tar sands and fracking, oil spills and nuisance blooms are presented.

  • 31. Furey, Paula C.
    et al.
    Liess, Antonia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Substratum-Associated Microbiota2013In: Water environment research, ISSN 1061-4303, E-ISSN 1554-7531, Vol. 85, no 10, p. 1786-1827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review of literature published in 2012 covers topics on substratum-associated microbiota (algae and bacteria) from a variety of aquatic environments, especially freshwater ecosystems. It is not a comprehensive review, rather aims to highlight aspects of methods, taxonomy and systematics, ecology, and current environmental issues such as nuisance taxa, pollutants and climate change.

  • 32.
    Gardeström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Aquatic Sciences & Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ermold, Matti
    Goedkoop, Willem
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Disturbance history influences stressor impacts: effects of a fungicide and nutrients on microbial diversity and litter decomposition2016In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 61, no 12, p. 2171-2184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streams draining agricultural catchments are severely degraded by multiple stressors, including nutrient enrichment and pesticides. The understanding of how such stressors interact to alter ecosystem structure and function, and how responses of biota reflect their longer-term disturbance history, remains limited. We conducted a multifactorial stream microcosm experiment to investigate how elevated nutrients and a fungicide (azoxystrobin) interact to affect multiple variables associated with leaf decomposition: the biomass, sporulation rate and diversity of aquatic hyphomycete decomposers, litter decomposition rates and detritivore growth. We further manipulated decomposer species composition by using three distinct fungal assemblages drawn from streams with contrasting histories of agricultural disturbance: a forest stream, a mixed land-use stream subject to nutrient enrichment but little pesticide use, and an agricultural stream subjected to both intensive nutrient and pesticide use. We also varied the presence of the detritivorous isopod Asellus aquaticus. The fungicide azoxystrobin reduced both biomass and diversity of aquatic hyphomycetes and growth of A.aquaticus, and had negative knock-on effects on leaf decomposition and fungal sporulation. These impacts further varied with nutrient concentration. Impacts of the fungicide differed markedly among the three fungal assemblages. The agricultural assemblages were dominated by tolerant species and showed some capacity for maintaining processes under pesticide exposure, whereas diversity and functioning were strongly suppressed in the forest stream assemblage, which was dominated by stress-intolerant species. Pesticides, in interaction with other agricultural stressors, can impact microbial diversity and key ecosystem processes underlying the delivery of ecosystem services from streams. The extent of such impacts vary according to the longer-term disturbance history of the biota, and might be most acute when agricultural activity expands into previously uncultivated catchments, as is currently occurring in many regions of the world.

  • 33.
    Grabic, Roman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Institute of Public Health Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Jurcikova, Jana
    Tomsejova, Sarka
    Ocelka, Tomas
    Halirova, Jarmila
    Hypr, Dusan
    Kodes, Vit
    Passive sampling methods for monitoring endocrine disruptors in the Svratka and Svitava rivers in the Czech Republic2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 550-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are manmade or natural chemicals that have the ability to interfere with the endocrine system of animals. They have not been monitored systematically in the Czech Republic. The goal of the present study was the characterization of aquatic environmental pollution from the Brno (Czech Republic) city agglomeration focusing on EDC. Passive sampling devices, as well as semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS), were used for the pilot assessment of EDC. They were deployed for 21- to 28-d periods at nine locations in the Svratka and Svitava Rivers, Brno, Czech Republic, including at the inlet and outlet of Brno's wastewater treatment plant. The SPMDs were used to monitor nonpolar compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorinated pesticides (OCP). The POCIS were used to monitor polar compounds such as pesticides and their metabolites, perfluoro-organic compounds (PFOC), and pharmaceuticals. The passive samplers allowed very low detection limits for soluble (bioavailable) fractions of pollutants. The contribution of PAH, PCB, and HCB in sewage water to pollution of the Svratka River was low. The Brno wastewater treatment plant was identified as the main source of pharmaceuticals, triclosan, methyl triclosan, and some polar pesticides.

  • 34. Göthe, Emma
    et al.
    Lepori, Fabio
    Malmqvist, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Forestry affects food webs in northern Swedish coastal streams2009In: Fundamental and Applied Limnology, ISSN 1863-9135, Vol. 175, no 4, p. 281-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated how riparian logging affects the food webs of coastal streams in northern Sweden by comparing streams surrounded either by clear-cuts or old-growth forests. Specific hypotheses were that: (i) algal standing stocks are higher in clear-cut streams, whereas detrital standing stocks are higher in old-growth streams; (ii) algal-based (autotrophic) pathways contribute more to consumer (aquatic insect) body carbon in clear-cut streams than in old-growth streams; (iii) a higher autotrophic contribution reflects a combination of numerical (increased abundance of herbivore taxa) and functional (shift in diet by generalist taxa) responses of insect taxa to logging; and (iv) potential predators function more strictly as true predators, and reduce propensity to omnivory in clear-cut relative to old-growth streams. The standing stocks of algae and fine particulate organic matter (FPOM) were similar between treatments, whereas the standing stock of coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM) was higher in old-growth streams. Stable isotope analysis suggested that the autochthonous contribution to aquatic insect carbon per individual taxon was greater in clear-cut than in old-growth streams; although the difference was not statistically conclusive the large effect size suggests that it is biologically meaningful. Greater reliance on autotrophic pathways in clear-cut streams seemed to be caused by a decrease in the relative consumption of detritus by the generalist species Leuctra hippopus, an increase in the abundance of the specialist herbivore Baetis rhodani, and a diffuse increase in the consumption of algae across all functional feeding groups except gathering-collectors. Resources and consumers were enriched in (15)N in clear-cut relative to old-growth streams, suggesting that forestry affects the microbial processing of organic nitrogen, which in turn causes an increased availability of (15)N to algae. The enrichment in (15)N in clear-cut relative to old-growth streams was apparent in all functional feeding groups except for gathering-collectors. In summary, our results show that riparian logging affects the balance of aquatic vs. terrestrial carbon sources and the cycling of nutrients in streams, with effects reverberating to the aquatic consumers.

  • 35. Hajdu, Susanna
    et al.
    Larsson, Ulf
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    Sommarens växtplanktonsamhälle har förändrats2007In: Havet 2007, Naturvårdsverket, 2007Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Växtplanktonsamhällets sammansättning under sommaren har förändrats i alla havsområden under senare år. Exempelvis har filamentösa cyanobakterier ökat i Egentliga Östersjön. Den troligaste förklaringen är ändrade hydrografiska förutsättningar, så som ökad humustillförsel från land, försämrat ljusklimat, minskad salinitet och ökad temperatur orsakad av ändringar i klimatet.

  • 36.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Backstrom, Tobias
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Home alone: the effects of isolation on uptake of a pharmaceutical contaminant in a social fish2016In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 180, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of biologically active pharmaceutical residues is present in aquatic systems worldwide. As uptake potential and the risk of effects in aquatic wildlife are directly coupled, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between stress by isolation, uptake and effects of the psychiatric pharmaceutical oxazepam in fish. To do this, we measured cortisol levels, behavioral stress responses, and oxazepam uptake under different stress and social conditions, in juvenile perch (Percafluviatilis) that were either exposed (1.03 mu gl(-1)) or not exposed to oxazepam. We found single exposed individuals to take up more oxazepam than individuals exposed in groups, likely as a result of stress caused by isolation. Furthermore, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) was significantly negatively correlated with fish weight in both social treatments. We found no effect of oxazepam exposure on body cortisol concentration or behavioral stress response. Most laboratory experiments, including standardized bioconcentration assays, are designed to minimize stress for the test organisms, however wild animals experience stress naturally. Hence, differences in stress levels between laboratory and natural environments can be one of the reasons why predictions from artificial laboratory experiments largely underestimate uptake of oxazepam, and other pharmaceuticals, in the wild.

  • 37. Hidding, Bert
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bakker, Elisabeth S
    Flooding tolerance and horizontal expansion of wetland plants: facilitation by floating mats?2014In: Aquatic Botany, ISSN 0304-3770, E-ISSN 1879-1522, Vol. 113, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water level fluctuations (WLF) can be important disturbances promoting the diversity of riparian plant communities, but are currently absent from many managed aquatic ecosystems. A lack of WLF is thought to reduce plant diversity and hamper hydrosere succession. However, a positive impact of WLF on plant diversity may crucially depend on nutrient availability and the presence of a potential ecosystem engineer, the floating plant Strati otes abides, that may provide structural support to riparian plants. We tested the interactive effects of 40 cm flooding, presence of S. abides and sediment nutrient availability (N and P) on growth and horizontal expansion of eight wetland plant species in a 10 week experiment. Seven out of eight species showed a significant elongation response to flooding. Compared to stagnant water levels, flooding in combination with high nutrient availability decreased horizontal expansion in two short species and increased it in two tall species, whereas flooding decreased horizontal expansion in two other short species under both nutrient levels. In this 10 week experiment, we observed no effect of S. abides on the measured plant parameters. This experiment shows short-term negative effects of flooding on most of the short species. On the long-term, we hypothesize that improvements in water quality and seedling recruitment due to drawdown may result in net positive effects of WLF in the riparian zone, but as the species that were rare in the field happened to be short, care should be taken to maintain rare species when allowing more WLF.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 38. Hobson, Keith A.
    et al.
    Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.
    Wassenaar, Leonard I.
    Larson, Keith W.
    Department of Zoology, Lund University, Lund, Scania, Sweden.
    Linking Hydrogen (δ2H) Isotopes in Feathers and Precipitation: sources of Variance and Consequences for Assignment to Isoscapes2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, article id e35137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tracking small migrant organisms worldwide has been hampered by technological and recovery limitations and sampling bias inherent in exogenous markers. Naturally occurring stable isotopes of H (δ2H) in feathers provide an alternative intrinsic marker of animal origin due to the predictable spatial linkage to underlying hydrologically driven flow of H isotopes into foodwebs. This approach can assess the likelihood that a migrant animal originated from a given location(s) within a continent but requires a robust algorithm linking H isotopes in tissues of interest to an appropriate hydrological isotopic spatio-temporal pattern, such as weighted-annual rainfall. However, a number of factors contribute to or alter expected isotopic patterns in animals. We present results of an extensive investigation into taxonomic and environmental factors influencing feather δ2H patterns across North America. Stable isotope data were measured from 544 feathers from 40 species and 140 known locations. For δ2H, the most parsimonious model explaining 83% of the isotopic variance was found with amount-weighted growing-season precipitation δ2H, foraging substrate and migratory strategy. This extensive H isotopic analysis of known-origin feathers of songbirds in North America and elsewhere reconfirmed the strong coupling between tissue δ2H and global hydrologic δ2H patterns, and accounting for variance associated with foraging substrate and migratory strategy, can be used in conservation and research for the purpose of assigning birds and other species to their approximate origin.

  • 39. Holeton, Claire
    et al.
    Lindell, Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Holmborn, Towe
    Hogfors, Hedvig
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Decreased astaxanthin at high feeding rates in the calanoid copepod Acartia bifilosa2009In: Journal of Plankton Research, ISSN 0142-7873, E-ISSN 1464-3774, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 661-668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In marine food webs, copepods are the major producers of a carotenoid pigment astaxanthin, which is an important antioxidant. The availability of astaxanthin for higher trophic levels can be affected by changes in phytoplankton stocks and copepod feeding; however, the functional relationship between food availability and astaxanthin production is poorly understood. We hypothesized that with a given food type and quality, astaxanthin content in copepods is positively related to feeding and egg production rates. The hypothesis was tested by measuring astaxanthin accumulation in concert with ingestion and egg production rates in the copepod Acartia bifilosa exposed to different algal concentrations (Tetraselmis suecica; 0 to 1200 mu g C L(-1)). Egg production and ingestion rates increased with increasing food availability and reached a plateau at >= 400-600 mu g C L(-1). In contrast, increasing accumulation of astaxanthin with increasing food availability was observed only at concentrations <= 150 mu g C L(-1). Contrary to our hypothesis, at 600-1200 mu g C L(-1) copepods had maximal ingestion and egg production rates, but low astaxanthin contents. It is suggested that this low accumulation of astaxanthin at high food concentrations results from a food-dependant decrease in assimilation efficiency. These findings are important for the understanding of astaxanthin dynamics within marine food webs, where increases in phytoplankton biomass may translate to a trade-off between zooplankton quantity and its nutritional quality for zooplanktivores.

  • 40. Holmborn, Towe
    et al.
    Dahlgren, Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Holeton, Claire
    Hogfors, Hedvig
    Gorokhova, Elena
    Biochemical proxies for growth and metabolism in Acartia bifilosa (Copepoda, Calanoida)2009In: Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, ISSN 1541-5856, E-ISSN 1541-5856, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 785-794Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochemical proxies are becoming increasingly common for growth assessment in zooplankton. Their suitability is often unknown, however, and proper calibration is lacking. We investigated correlations between physiological variables (ingestion, egg production, and respiration rates) and biochemical indices related to protein synthesis (RNA content, RNA: DNA ratio, RNA: protein ratio, and protein specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases [spAARS] activity) in copepods Acartia bifilosa exposed to different algal concentrations (0-1200 mu g C L-1). All variables assayed increased with increasing food concentration either linearly (spAARS) or nonlinearly (all other variables). Egg production and ingestion rates were significantly and positively correlated with RNA content and RNA: protein ratio, whereas correlations with spAARS and RNA: DNA ratio were weaker or nonsignificant. However, when RNA: DNA ratio and spAARS activity were used as predictors of ingestion, together they had higher explanatory value than did either variable separately. As there were substantial differences in saturating food concentrations among the assayed variables, applicability of biomarkers as proxies of physiological rates will be more reliable if restricted to the nonsaturated phase of the functional response of either variable, unless both variables saturate simultaneously. These findings contribute to methodology of zooplankton growth assessment and to our understanding of biochemical processes underlying growth and metabolism in copepods.

  • 41.
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Pelagial biologi/bakterieplankton2016In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2015/2016, Naturvårdsverket, Havsmiljöinstitutet och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten , 2016, p. 62-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Höglander, Helena
    et al.
    Stockholm Universitet.
    Skjevik, Ann-Turi
    SMHI.
    Karlsson, Chatarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Huseby, Siv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Pelagial biologi/växtplankton2016In: Havet: om miljötillståndet i svenska havsområden. 2015/2016, Naturvårdsverket; Havsmiljöinstitutet; Havs- och vattenmyndigheten , 2016, p. 56-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Isles, Peter D. F.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA; Vermont EPSCoR, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA..
    Rizzo, Donna M.
    Xu, Yaoyang
    Schroth, Andrew W.
    Modeling the drivers of interannual variability in cyanobacterial bloom severity using self-organizing maps and high-frequency data2017In: INLAND WATERS, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 333-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that cyanobacteria populations in shallow lakes exhibit dramatic fluctuations on both interannual and intraannual timescales; however, despite extensive research, disentangling the drivers of interannual variability in bloom severity has proved challenging. Critical thresholds of abiotic drivers such as wind, irradiance, air temperature, and tributary inputs may control the development and collapse of blooms, but these thresholds are difficult to identify in large and complex datasets. In this study, we compared high-frequency estimates of oxygen metabolism in a shallow bay of Lake Champlain to concurrent measurements of physical and chemical parameters over 3 years with very different bloom dynamics. We clustered the data using supervised and unsupervised self-organizing maps to identify the environmental drivers associated with key stages of bloom development. We then used threshold analysis to identify subtle yet important thresholds of thermal stratification that drive transitions between bloom growth and decline. We found that extended periods with near-surface temperature differentials above 0.20 degrees C were associated with the initial development of bloom conditions, and subsequent frequency and timing of wind mixing events had a strong influence on interannual variability in bloom severity. The methods developed here can be widely applied to other high frequency lake monitoring datasets to identify critical thresholds controlling bloom development.

  • 44. Jaanus, Andres
    et al.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Olenina, Irina
    Toming, Kaire
    Kaljurand, Kaire
    Changes in phytoplankton communities along a north–south gradient in the Baltic Sea between 1990 and 20082011In: Boreal environment research, ISSN 1239-6095, E-ISSN 1797-2469, Vol. 16, p. 191-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of changes in Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities has been hampered by a lack of quantitative long-term data. We investigated changes in biomass of summer (June–September) phytoplankton over the last two decades (1990–2008) along a north–south gradient in the Baltic Sea. The areas were characterized by different temperature, salinity and nutrient conditions. Thirty taxonomic groups were selected for the statistical analysis. Increases in total phytoplankton, particularly cyanobacterial, biomass were observed in the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. In these two areas over the study period cyanobacteria also became abundant earlier in the season, and in the Curonian Lagoon Planktothrix agardhii replaced Aphanizomenon flos-aquae as the most abundant cyanobacterium. In general, water temperature was the most influential factor affecting the summer phytoplankton communities. Our data suggest that temperature increases resulting from climate change are likely to cause basin-specific changes in the phytoplankton communities, which in turn may affect overall ecosystem functioning in the Baltic Sea.

  • 45. Johansson, Karin S. L.
    et al.
    Luhrig, Katharina
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rengefors, Karin
    Development of a quantitative PCR method to explore the historical occurrence of a nuisance microalga under expansion2016In: Harmful Algae, ISSN 1568-9883, E-ISSN 1878-1470, Vol. 56, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of marine and freshwater harmful algal bloom (HAB) species have colonized new areas and expanded their habitat range in recent years. Nevertheless it is notoriously difficult to establish when colonization first occurred, what the dispersal routes are, and to separate recent invasion from increases in existent but small populations. The freshwater raphidophyte Gonyostomum semen is a nuisance species that has expanded its habitat range and increased in abundance in northern Europe during the past decades. To evaluate to what extent sediments can be used for determining historic occurrence of G. semen, a quantitative real-time PCR method for detecting cysts of this algae was developed. This paper presents a qPCR protocol with a set of primers that are specific to Gonyostomum and with PCR conditions optimized for sediment samples from humic lakes, which are the common habitat of G. semen. With this sensitive method as few as 1.6 cysts per PCR reaction could be reliably quantified, corresponding to 320 cysts per g wet weight sediment Cysts were present in sediments with ages ranging from years to decades and their persistence allows detection of historic populations up to at least 50 years old. With this qPCR assay it will be possible to trace the presence of G. semen in environments prior to the onset of algae-specific monitoring programs as well as for quantification in water column samples.

  • 46.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Canhoto, Cristina
    Climate change and freshwater invertebrates: their role in reciprocal freshwater-terrestrial resource fluxes2017In: Global climate change and terrestrial invertebrates / [ed] Scott N. Johnson, T. Hefin Jones, Chichester, UK.: John Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 274-294Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter overviews how climate change might alter resource fluxes between terrestrial and freshwater systems and focuses on the intermediary role of freshwater invertebrates. Global climate change will affect terrestrial vegetation in multiple but different ways at a regional level. Because mean annual temperature and global terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) are positively correlated, and as northern regions are expected to experience the greatest increase in mean annual temperature, increases in NPP will likely be more pronounced at high latitudes and at high elevations. As a consequence of increased terrestrial NPP and increased precipitation, higher levels of organic matter are available to the soil layer. Freshwater systems ‐ especially in northern regions ‐ are predicted to receive increased amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial runoff. Freshwater invertebrate secondary production and community composition are closely related with terrestrial input characteristics.

  • 47.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Stenroth, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vasconcelos, Francisco Rivera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Climate change modifies the size structure of assemblages of emerging aquatic insects2015In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 78-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to not only raise water temperatures, but also to cause brownification of aquatic ecosystems via increased inputs of terrestrial dissolved organic matter. While efforts have been made to understand how increased temperature and brownification separately influence aquatic food webs, their interactive effects have been less investigated. Further, although climate change effects on aquatic ecosystems likely will propagate to terrestrial consumers via changes in aquatic insect emergence, this has rarely been studied. We investigated the effect of climate change on aquatic insect emergence, in a large-scale outdoor pond facility where 16 sections - each containing natural food webs including a fish top-consumer population - were subjected to warming (3 degrees C above ambient temperatures) and/or brownification (by adding naturally humic stream water). Aquatic insect emergence was measured biweekly over 18weeks. We found no effect of warming or brownification on total emergent insect dry mass. However, warming significantly reduced the number of emergent Chironomidae, while numbers of larger taxa, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera, remained unchanged. On average, 57% and 58% fewer Chironomidae emerged from the warmed clear and humic pond sections, respectively. This substantial decrease in emergent Chironomidae resulted in a changed community structure and on average larger individuals emerging from warm sections as well as from humic sections under ambient conditions. There was also a weak influence of fish biomass on the size structure of emergent aquatic insects, with a positive relationship between individual insect size and total fish biomass, but effects of fish were clearly subordinate to those of warming. Climate change impacts on aquatic systems can have widespread consequences also for terrestrial systems, as aquatic insects are ubiquitous and their emergence represents an important resource flow from aquatic to terrestrial environments. While we found that neither warming nor brownification quantitatively changed total aquatic insect emergence biomass, the warming-induced decrease in number of emergent Chironomidae and the subsequent increase in average body size will likely impact terrestrial consumers relying on emergent aquatic insect as prey.

  • 48.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Stenroth, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Catchment properties predict autochthony in stream filter feeders2018In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 815, no 1, p. 83-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream ecological theory predicts that the use of allochthonous resources declines with increasing channel width, while at the same time primary production and autochthonous carbon use by consumers increase. Although these expectations have found support in several studies, it is not well known how terrestrial runoff and/or inputs of primary production from lakes alter these longitudinal patterns. To investigate this, we analyzed the diet of filter-feeding black fly and caddisfly larvae from 23 boreal streams, encompassing gradients in drainage area, land cover and land use, and distance to nearest upstream lake outlet. In five of these streams, we also sampled repeatedly during autumn to test if allochthony of filter feeders increases over time as new litter inputs are processed. Across sites, filter-feeder autochthony was 21.1-75.1%, did not differ between black fly and caddisfly larvae, was not positively related to drainage area, and did not decrease with distance from lakes. Instead, lake and wetland cover promoted filter-feeder autochthony independently of stream size, whereas catchment-scale forest cover and forestry reduced autochthony. Further, we found no seasonal increase in allochthony, indicating low assimilation of particles derived from autumn litter fall. Hence, catchment properties, rather than local conditions, can influence levels of autochthony in boreal streams.

  • 49.
    Jonsson, Sofi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Skyllberg, Ulf
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Schaefer, Jeffra K.
    Åkerblom, Staffan
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Terrestrial discharges mediate trophic shifts and enhance methylmercury accumulation in estuarine biota2017In: Science Advances, Vol. 3, no 1, article id e1601239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The input of mercury (Hg) to ecosystems is estimated to have increased two- to fivefold during the industrial era, and Hg accumulates in aquatic biota as neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg). Escalating anthropogenic land use and climate change are expected to alter the input rates of terrestrial natural organic matter (NOM) and nutrients to aquatic ecosystems. For example, climate change has been projected to induce 10 to 50% runoff increases for large coastal regions globally. A major knowledge gap is the potential effects on MeHg exposure to biota following these ecosystem changes. We monitored the fate of five enriched Hg isotope tracers added to mesocosm scale estuarine model ecosystems subjected to varying loading rates of nutrients and terrestrial NOM. We demonstrate that increased terrestrial NOM input to the pelagic zone can enhance the MeHg bioaccumulation factor in zooplankton by a factor of 2 to 7 by inducing a shift in the pelagic food web from autotrophic to heterotrophic. The terrestrial NOM input also enhanced the retention of MeHg in the water column by up to a factor of 2, resulting in further increased MeHg exposure to pelagic biota. Using mercury mass balance calculations, we predict that MeHg concentration in zooplankton can increase by a factor of 3 to 6 in coastal areas following scenarios with 15 to 30% increased terrestrial runoff. The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the impact of climate-induced changes in food web structure on MeHg bioaccumulation in future biogeochemical cycling models and risk assessments of Hg.

  • 50.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    OSPAR's exclusion of rigs-to-reefs in the North Sea2012In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 58, p. 57-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on how the debate over the deep-water disposal of offshore oil and gas installations has been central to shaping North Sea artificial reef policy. Through a close empirical historical study, this article reconstructs how Greenpeace's protest of the deep-water disposal of the Brent Spar spurred the exclusion of rigs-to-reefs (the conversion of obsolete offshore oil and gas structures into artificial reefs) as a viable decommissioning option by the primary international treaty organization with jurisdiction over North Sea waters, the Oslo-Paris Commission (OSPAR). During OSPAR's artificial reef guideline development, several OSPAR contracting parties implied that there is a conspiracy among oil companies to use rigs-to-reefs as a cover for evading the deep-water disposal rules, although they never presented evidence to back up these claims. In the face of pressure to "close the loophole" for deep-water disposal and in spite of scientific objection. OSPAR's final guidelines excluded all non-virgin materials as acceptable reef construction materials, essentially banning rigs-to-reefs. Because a significant number of steel offshore installations will be decommissioned in North Sea waters in the decade and the most up-to-date science has concluded that manmade deep-water reefs may be beneficial to some species including threatened cold-water coral, this article suggests that OSPAR revise its guidelines. Rigs-to-reefs should be not categorically excluded; a case-by-case determination of the suitability of a structure for reuse as an artificial reef would be most appropriate.

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