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  • 1.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Adawi, Tom
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Comparing Group and Individual Problem Solving: A Case Study from Newtonian Mechanics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that many students not only emerge from their studies ofphysics with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding but that they also experience seriousstructural difficulties when solving physics problems, such as being able to see the structureof possible solutions and answers before actually solving the problem [1, 2]. One commonly implementedinstructional strategy to bridge these two types of gaps is to let students solve problems in groups, asthis leads to better conceptual understanding and students are able to solve more complex problems ingroups than individually [3,4]. There has, however, been very little research focusing on how the problemsolving process changes when students solve physics problems together rather than individually. In this case study, we explore differences and similarities in how students formulate and solve physicsproblems in groups and individually. The empirical data comprised video-recorded sessions of studentssolving problems in groups [5] and semi-structured interviews with other students solving thesame set of problems individually [2]. All students were enrolled in Engineering Physics at Chalmers Universityof Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden. The problems were drawn from Newtonian mechanicsand the solution to the problems required an understanding of basic notions such as force, friction, accelerationand system. Success on the problems also required an understanding of basic mathematicalnotions such as functions, systems of equations and derivatives. An analysis of the video-recordingsand the interviews revealed how the students struggled with both near- and far transfer [6, 7], i.e. transferto a similar and a different context. Moreover, different patterns of problem solving that were connectedto the social context, i.e. if the problems were solved in groups or individually, became apparent.A comparison between these contexts illustrates some of the benefits of collaborative learning. Someimplications for instruction are also discussed in the paper.

  • 2.
    Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Energy Technology Center, Piteå, Sweden.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Thanning, Lennart
    FOI.
    Effects of increased small-scale biomass pellet combustion on ambient air quality in residential areas: A parametric dispersion modeling study2003In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 24, no 6, 465-474 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's goals of contemporaneously reducing CO2 emissions and phasing out nuclear power will require a maximum utilization of biomass fuels. This would imply a significant shift from electricity and fuel oil to biomass generated heat, but must also be accomplished without a deterioration of the local air quality. The most suitable energy carrier seems to be pelletized biomass fuels with their associated low emissions and considerable residential conversion potential. Using an underlying statistical design, a parametric dispersion modeling study was performed to estimate and illustrate the combined effects of source-specific, meteorological and modeling variables on the ambient air quality in a typical residential area for different conversion scenarios. The work nicely illustrated the benefits of combining statistical designs with model calculations. It further showed that the concentration of combustion related ambient THC was strongly related to conditions affecting the source strength, but only weakly to the dispersion conditions and model variables. Time of year (summer or winter); specific emission performance; extent of conversion from electricity; conversion from wood log combustion; and specific efficiency of the pellet appliances showed significant effects in descending order. The effects of local settings and model variables were relatively small, making the results more generally applicable. To accomplish the desired conversion to renewable energy in an ecologically and sustainable way, the emissions would have to be reduced to a maximum advisable limit of (given as CH4). Further, the results showed the potential positive influence by conversion from wood log to low emission pellet combustion.

  • 3.
    Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    Energy Technology Centre, Piteå, Sweden.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Department of Analytical Chemistry, Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Stove performance and emission characteristics in residential wood log and pellet combustion: Part 1: Pellet stoves2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 1, 307-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stove performance, characteristics, and quantities of gaseous and particulate emissions were determined for two different pellet stoves, varying fuel load, pellet diameter, and chimney draft. This approach aimed at covering variations in emissions from stoves in use today. The extensive measurement campaign included CO, NOx, organic gaseous carbon, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total particulate matter (PMtot) as well as particle mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and inorganic composition. At high load, most emissions were similar. For stove B, operating at high residual oxygen and solely with primary air, the emissions of PMtot and particle numbers were higher while the particles were smaller. Lowering the fuel load, the emissions of CO and hydrocarbons increased dramatically for stove A, which operated continuously also at lower fuel loads. On the other hand for stove B, which had intermittent operation at lower fuel loads, the emissions of hydrocarbons increased only slightly lowering the fuel load, while CO emissions increased sharply, due to high emissions at the end of the combustion cycle. Beside methane, dominating VOCs were ethene, acetylene, and benzene and the emissions of VOC varied in the range 1.1−42 mg/MJfuel. PAH emissions (2−340 μg/MJfuel) were generally dominated by phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene. The PMtot values (15−45 mg/MJfuel) were in all cases dominated by fine particles with mass median diameters in the range 100−200 nm, peak mobility diameters of 50−85 nm, and number concentrations in the range 4 × 1013 to 3 × 1014 particles/MJfuel. During high load conditions, the particulate matter was totally dominated by inorganic particles at 15−25 mg/MJfuel consisting of potassium, sodium, sulfur, and chlorine, in the form of K2SO4, K3Na(SO4)2, and KCl. The study shows that differences in operation and modulation principles for the tested pellet stoves, relevant for appliances in use today, will affect the performance and emissions significantly, although with lower scattering in the present study compared to compiled literature data.

  • 4.
    Boman, Christoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Trace element enrichment and behavior in wood pellet production and combustion processes.Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Lessons from extinctions2017In: Wood wise Woodland Conservation News, 22-27 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Many beetles are very good at colonising new areas when changes in the landscape open up new possibilities. Equally, they are highly susceptible to local extinction in the face of landscape scale changes in their environment.

  • 6.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package (BugsCEP) database: 1000 sites and half a million fossils later2014In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 341, 272-282 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bugs database project started in the late 1980s as what would now be considered a relatively simple system, albeit advanced for its time, linking fossil beetle species lists to modern habitat and distribution information. Since then, Bugs has grown into a complex database of fossils records, habitat and distribution data, dating and climate reference data wrapped into an advanced software analysis package. At the time of writing, the database contains raw data and metadata for 1124 sites, and Russell Coope directly contributed to the analysis of over 154 (14%) of them, some 98790 identifications published in 231 publications. Such quantifications are infeasible without databases, and the analytical power of combining a database of modern and fossil insects with analysis tools is potentially immense for numerous areas of science ranging from conservation to Quaternary geology.

    BugsCEP, The Bugs Coleopteran Ecology Package, is the latest incarnation of the Bugs database project. Released in 2007, the database is continually added too and is available for free download from http://www.bugscep.com. The software tools include quantitative habitat reconstruction and visualisation, correlation matrices, MCR climate reconstruction, searching by habitat and retrieving, among other things, a list of taxa known from the selected habitat types. It also provides a system for entering, storing and managing palaeoentomological data as well as a number of expert system like reporting facilities.

    Work is underway to create an online version of BugsCEP, implemented through the Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database (SEAD) project (http://www.sead.se). The aim is to provide more direct access to the latest data, a community orientated updating system, and integration with other proxy data. Eventually, the tools available in the offline BugsCEP will be duplicated and Bugs will be entirely in the web.

    This paper summarises aspects of the current scope, capabilities and applications of the BugsCEP database and software, with special reference to and quantifications of the contributions of Russell Coope to the field of palaeoentomology as represented in the database. The paper also serves to illustrate the potential for the use of BugsCEP in biographical studies, and discusses some of the issues relating to the use of large scale sources of quantitative data.

    All datasets used in this article are available through the current version of BugsCEP available at http://www.bugscep.com.

  • 7.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: Progress Report Spring 20142014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the progress and results of the VR:KFI infrastructure projects 2007-7494 and (825-)2010-5976. It should be considered as a status report in an on-going long-term research infrastructure development project.

  • 8.
    Diverde, Hannah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The sanitary situation and its health effects on women exposed to occupational heat in Chennai, India.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to see how lack of toilets along with occupational heat affects health and prosperous. It is based on interviews made on women and men working in the surroundings of Chennai, India, with and without access to toilets, that all are affected by occupational heat. Questions about their perception of how their health is affected by working in heat are asked. There are also questions about how their work is affected by their toilet situation. Some of the interviewees have access to shadow and to toilets and some do not have any access to these facilities. Totally 72 people have been interviewed, 58 women and 14 men. 50 of them had access to toilets and 22 did not. All of the interviewees are affected by the heat and some of them have diseases that indicates on health problems caused by no or limited access to toilets. The workers with no access to toilets are the group that have most health problems and are also the group that go for urination and defecation least. The workers with access to toilets are the group that have least health problems and go to the toilet most. Men with no access to toilets go more often than women with no toilets and are more similar with the group with access to toilets. This report is a minor field study, funded by SIDA, and made in collaboration with Sri Ramachandra University, India. 

  • 9.
    Enestam, Sonja
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Niemi, Jere
    Metso Power.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Mäkele, Kari
    Metso Power.
    Hupa, Mikko
    Åbo Akademi.
    Occurrence of zinc and lead in aerosols and deposits in the fluidized bed combustion of recovered waste wood:  Part 1: Samples from boilers2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 4, 1396-1404 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion of recovered waste wood (RWW) has led to increased fouling and corrosion of furnace walls, superheaters, and economizers. These problems have been associated mainly with chlorine, zinc, and lead in the deposits but also with sodium and titanium. The presence of lead and zinc compounds, especially lead and zinc chlorides, has been shown to increase the corrosivity of the deposits even at relatively low metal temperatures (230−450 °C). The present work determined experimentally the distribution and speciation of zinc and lead compounds in aerosol particles and deposits in the fluidized-bed combustion of RWW. Measurements were conducted in both a full-scale (20 MWth) plant with as-received RWW and in a pilot-scale (2 MWth) setup with as-received RWW and RWW doped with zinc and lead. The results show that the amount and speciation of zinc and lead in the deposits vary depending upon the fuel composition, flue gas temperature, and metal temperature. Both lead and zinc chlorides are found in temperature ranges typical for the primary superheater area. A caracolite-type compound [Na3Pb2(SO4)3Cl] was identified in deposits from the economizer area and K2ZnCl4 in the sub-micrometer aerosol particle fraction.

  • 10. Eriksson, A. C.
    et al.
    Nordin, E. Z.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pettersson, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Swietlicki, E.
    Bergvall, C.
    Westerholm, R.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pagels, J. H.
    Particulate PAH Emissions from Residential Biomass Combustion: Time-Resolved Analysis with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 12, 7143-7150 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time-resolved emissions of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and total organic particulate matter (OA) from a wood log stove and an adjusted pellet stove were investigated with high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (ANIS). The highest OA emissions were found during the addition of log wood on glowing embers, that is, slow burning pyrolysis conditions. These emissions contained about 1% PAHs (of OA). The highest PAH emissions were found during fast burning under hot air starved combustion conditions, in both stoves. In the latter case, PAHs contributed up to 40% of OA, likely due to thermal degradation of other condensable species. The distribution of PAHs was also shifted toward larger molecules in these emissions. ANIS signals attributed to PAHs were found at molecular weights up to 600 Da. The vacuum aerodynamic size distribution was found to be bimodal with a smaller mode (D-va similar to 200 nm) dominating under hot air starved combustion and a larger sized mode dominating under slow burning pyrolysis (D-va similar to 600 nm). Simultaneous reduction of PAHs, OA and total particulate matter from residential biomass combustion may prove to be a challenge for environmental legislation efforts as these classes of emissions are elevated at different combustion conditions.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Bergsten, Urban
    Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bergström, Dan
    Forest Planning and Operations Management, Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fuel characterization of pellet chips2011In: Forest products journal, ISSN 0015-7473, Vol. 61, no 2, 143-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small hardwood chips, known as pellet chips, were characterized and combusted in two different pellet burners, installed in a residential boiler specially designed for pellet combustion. The average particle mass was about 10 percent of the mass of an 8-mm pellet, with a similar surface-to-volume ratio. The bulk density of pellet chips was 160 to 170 kg m<sup>-3</sup> at 10 percent moisture content (about 25% to 35% of 8-mm pellet bulk densities). The combustion performance was good, with average O<sub>2</sub> and CO values (by volume) at 17.6 percent (SD, 0.6%) and 200 ppm (SD, 210 ppm), respectively, for the bottom-fed burner and 14.2 percent (SD, 1.1%) and 330 ppm (SD, 93 ppm), respectively, for the top-fed burner. Thus the study indicates that pellet chips produced with commercially available equipment can be used in ordinary pellet combustors, provided that the fuel feeding rates are increased and the moisture content well below 20 percent. More accurate market assessments will require the investigation of the performance of different types of combustion equipment with fuels of different qualities.

  • 12.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. City University of New York (CUNY).
    Adopting a theory/practice stance for educational action: Three examples from mathematics classrooms2013In: Action Research Network of the Americas (ARNA) Inaugural Conference 1-2 May 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA, Session Abstracts, San Francisco, 2013, 7-7 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I shall demonstrate my conduct of action research at Grades four and eight in Sweden. By drawing on cultural-historical and/or Vygotskian perspectives, I shall explore the nuances of its theory/practice approach with three examples from ongoing classroom practices. In the first I shall draw on the theory of explicit mediation1 to rectify the faulty use of the = sign by students and share my collaboration with a teacher at Grade four. In the second, I shall draw upon exploratory talk and report my work with the same teacher in relation to the topic of measurement, within a project on communication and mathematics for which she had obtained funding. Finally, I shall present my conduct of an action strategy with two teachers at Grade eight, situated as their classrooms and school were in a wider environment facing consequences of global recession. In doing so I attempt to unravel the interplay between existing research/theory and situated practice, which together informed the taking of collaborative educational action as practitioners. 

  • 13.
    Gardell, Laila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Vägledningen i centrum2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14. Geladi, Paul
    et al.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Alternative ways of achieving nearinfrared information in field images: a tentative approach2015In: NIR news, ISSN 0960-3360, Vol. 26, no 8, 7-10 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial digital cameras can be converted into a tool for NIR field multivariate imaging. Results obtained using such a tool are far less sophisticated than those obtained by NIR spectrometers or hyperspectral imagers but they may often be useful enough for making quick conclusions during field work.

  • 15.
    Holme, Petter
    Dept. of Energy Science,Sungkyunkwan University,Suwon 440-746,Korea.
    Model versions and fast algorithms for network epidemiology2014In: Journal of Logistical Engineering University, ISSN 1672-7843, Vol. 30, no 3, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Network epidemiology has become a core framework for investigating the role of human contact patterns in the spreading of infectious diseases. In network epidemiology, one represents the contact structure as a network of nodes (individuals) connected by links (sometimes as a temporal network where the links are not continuously active) and the disease as a compartmental model (where individuals are assigned states with respect to the disease and follow certain transition rules between the states). In this paper, we discuss fast algorithms for such simulations and also compare two commonly used versions,one where there is a constant recovery rate (the number of individuals that stop being infectious per time is proportional to the number of such people);the other where the duration of the disease is constant. The results show that, for most practical purposes, these versions are qualitatively the same.

  • 16.
    Hållbus, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Undersökning om värmeförluster från kabninen kan användas som avisningsmetod2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Isenrot, Mio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Skidturism för alla?: En enkätstudie kring tillgänglighet, påverkan och val i Kebnekaisemassivet med omnejd2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores who the people in the mountain world are and what makes them choose the activities they do through a questionnaire survey with information about gender, age, place of birth, education level, mountain habit and the sense of accessibility, self-esteem and factors that influence the choice of mountain activities. The results from the study show that most people who visit the mountains come from southern Sweden and from outside the Nordic countries. Many of these visit the mountains several times a year. A majority of respondents also feel included in the target groups that they think nature tourism is focusing on, which are those with good economics, high level of education, associated middle or upper classes, and already introduced in the mountain environment. Non-white persons were some who, according to the interviewees, were not prioritized by nature tourism, and among the interviewees were also non-white in extreme minority. Factors that affect the interviewees' choices about what they choose to do for activities in the mountains are above all the tour company, but also the economy and old habit. As to what makes the respondents choose not to do certain activities in the mountains, there is also a society that is the biggest factor, followed by ignorance, economy and uncertainty.

  • 18.
    Lejon, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rengöring på restauranger: Kontroll och utvärdering av olika rengöringsmetoder på restauranger i Södra Roslagen.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Control and comparison of various cleaning methods on restaurants in Södra Roslagen

    The purpose of this report is to find out and analyze the efficiency of cleaning methods in restaurant kitchens. The investigation was carried out through unannounced inspections at 89 restaurants in Södra Roslagen (municipality of Danderyd, Täby and Vaxholm). ATP-measuring was done on a plate, a knife, a bench surface and a cutting board. The ATP-method measured the amount of food residue on equipment and working surfaces after cleaning, with a luminometer and swabs. Restaurant staffs were asked to describe in detail how and when the last cleaning was carried out on the surface. The results after cleaning were not as good as one would expect. Of the 342 tests that were analyzed only 42% passed, 10 % got caution and 48 % of the tests failed. It seems most difficult to clean the cutting boards sufficiently. Cleaning in a dishwasher gave generally better result than washing by hand. Plain detergent and to rinse with water seem to give the best results for bench surface. Many food businesses in Södra Roslagen and other communities had insufficient procedures for cleaning and need to improve the methods.

    Keywords: Cleaning, washing, ATP-measuring, restaurants, control program

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Toppturer norr om Torneträsk2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demand of nature tourism is increasing and new ways to satisfy tourists are necessary.

    The goal with this report was to answer that demand by exploring the possibilities for back

    country skiing north of Torneträsk. This area was chosen because it is unexplored. This has

    been succeeded by an extensive fieldwork. Aspects like topography, routes, slope angles and

    geological places of interests where recorded. The results has shown that back country skiing

    is well suited for this area and poses no negative impact on the natural habitat. A total of 12

    mountain tops have been documented including routes and geology.

  • 20.
    Norheim, Øyvind Hansen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Autonomous Language2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automation will challenge our notions about communication between the vehicle and its surroundings. This thesis explores how an autonomous Peugeot vehicle could look like if the exterior design would be smart and aware about the world around it. 

    Using as reference the needs of a small family and inspired by ripple effects as a reaction to an impulse, the design process also included research, ideation and form development using analog and digital tools. Animation and video were also used for testing and visualising the ‘autonomous language’. 

    The result is a concept vehicle with an active skin and a unique sculpture reflecting its new architecture, enabled by an electric powertrain and autonomous driving technology. New light mode that lets the lights be projected towards the vehicle instead of the road will enhance the volume description of the vehicle to be visible especially at night.

    The design process included context research, needs of people inside and outside of the vehicle, interviews, ideation, package study, digital form development and physical model. It is important to me that my concept fits into a believable context of the future and creates a vision upon issues that we strive to develop today.

  • 21.
    Nyström, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Particle emissions from residential wood and biodiesel combustion2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions from anthropogenic combustion sources, such as vehicles and biomass combustion, contribute significantly to ambient particulate matter (PM) both on a local and global scale. Exposure to ambient PM and air pollution in general is linked to a variety of different health effects and it has been estimated that as many as 2.1 million premature deaths each year, due to cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, are caused by the changes in anthropogenic air pollution since pre-industrial times. There is today still a lack of information regarding the emissions of different specific particulate emission components, e.g. soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxy-PAHs combined with details about the behaviour of different fuels under varying combustion conditions. The overall objective of this work was to provide new knowledge regarding physical and chemical properties of PM from solid and liquid biofuels, which are important for the viewpoint of human health and atmospheric pollution. This was achieved by experimental studies of the combustion of biomass using a residential wood stove and by introducing biodiesel to an off-road engine, thereby investigating two major emission sources for PM and gaseous emissions.

    From the two papers regarding biodiesel included in this thesis, it can be concluded that the introduction of the biodiesel, and potentially other renewable fuels, can in a considerable way change the exhaust particle emissions. This could have implications for the assessment of exhaust from engines running on biodiesel fuels, especially when introducing biodiesel in existing and older engines.

    The results from the wood combustion research performed showed some important considerations regarding both specific particle properties and the influences of different burning conditions and fuels. One major finding, based on several of the included studies, was that a proper operation of a wood stove is of major importance to avoid unfavourable burning condition and elevated emissions of soot and organic particles, regardless of the wood species used. Some specific occasions during the burning phases in batch wise wood combustion were also identified as important for the overall emissions. The results from this research has given new specific insights into the emissions from wood stoves and should be of relevance for both technological development of residential appliances, emission testing/certification, information to users and legislation.

  • 22.
    Persson, Erik
    Lunds universitet.
    Interplanetär etik2013In: Extrema världar : om sökandet efter liv i rymden / [ed] David Dunér, Lund: Pufendorfinstitutet , 2013, 123-132 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Persson, Erik
    Lunds Universitet.
    Vad är Liv?2013In: Extrema världar: om sökandet efter liv i rymden / [ed] David Dunér, Lund: Pufendorfinstitutet , 2013, 73-83 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Persson, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Möjligheter för naturturism i Borgsjö2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Increased interest in nature tourism may be what saves small and dying villages, like Borgsjö in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden, from disappearing. The nearly untouched nature in these areas is in many cases an unused resource, since true wildlife experiences are sought by many travelers. The purpose with this report is to investigate if Borgsjö has the potential and abilities to become a destination for nature tourists, and how this should be done to avoid negative effects on nature, wildlife and culture. To find the answers of these questions I have sought information in reports relevant for the subject and organizations that handles hunting, wildlife- and nature care. I have also interviewed local villagers for their opinion and knowledge. A lot of the information about the nature and wildlife comes from my own experience and knowledge, since I have spent a lot of time in the area during several years.

    Several studies in the area regarding the status of wildlife populations, the production of fish in the waters and the recreational bearing capacity of the land have to be made before any organized tourism can take place. Borgsjö has a big potential for nature tourism, and the villagers agree. Most of the villagers are rather old and the project requires an entrepreneur experienced in nature tourism, a new way of thinking and possibilities to invest.

    Nature tourism, Borgsjö, ecotourism 

  • 25.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet och ETC Piteå.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Westerholm, Roger
    Stockholms universitet, Analytisk kemi.
    Boström, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Stove performance and emission characteristics in residential wood log and pellet combustion: Part 2: Wood stove2011In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 25, no 1, 315-323 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics and quantities of a large number of gaseous and particulate emission components during combustion in a residential wood log stove with variations in fuel, appliance and operational conditions were determined experimentally. The measurement campaign included CO, NOx, organic gaseous carbon (OGC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total particulate matter (PMtot) as well as particle mass and number concentrations, size distributions, and inorganic composition. CO varied in the range of 1100 to 7200 mg/MJfuel, while OGC varied from 210 to 3300 mg/MJfuel. Dominating VOCs were methane, followed by ethene, acetylene, and benzene. Methane varied from 9 to 1600 mg/MJfuel. The nonmethane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions were in the range of 20−2300 mg/MJfuel. The PAHtot emissions varied from 1.3 to 220 mg/MJfuel, in most cases dominated by phenantrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. PMtot were in all cases dominated by fine particles and varied in the range 38−350 mg/MJfuel. The mass median particle diameters and the peak mobility diameters of the fine particles varied in the range 200−320 and 220−330 nm, respectively, and number concentrations in the range of 1−4 × 1013 particles/MJfuel. Air starved conditions, at high firing intensity, gave the highest emissions, especially for hydrocarbons. This type of condition is seldom considered, though it may occur occasionally. The emissions from Swedish wood stoves, comparing a Swedish field study, are covered fairly well with the applied methodology, but other field studies report considerably higher emissions especially for diluted particle sampling.

  • 26.
    Reinklou, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Livscykelanalys av granulärt svavel respektive torv: Vilken produkt genererar minst utsläpp av växthusgaser?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to investigate which of the two products peat and granular sulphur that generates the least greenhouse gas emissions. The study was performed by doing a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on the two different products. To perform the LCA, a standard from the Swedish Standards Institute was used. Data to put into the calculation was obtained from both Umeå Energi, their contractors and different internet-sources. The data was then multiplied with specific emission factors to get the total emission of greenhouse gases, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents. Since peat is considered both a fossil energy source and a renewable energy source two calculations were made in the case of peat production. Results showed that granular sulphur generated the least emissions (23.0), peat classified as a renewable energy source second most emissions (71.5) and peat classified as a fossil energy source by far the most emissions (978.2). The conclusion to be made by this study is that if only the emission of greenhouse gases are important when choosing a product, granular sulphur should be used.

    Key words: peat, greenhouse gases, LCA, sulphur.

  • 27.
    Sandås, Sophia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Verksamheters kemikaliehantering: En undersökning hur restauranger och lantbruk lever upp till lagstiftningen kring deras kemikaliehantering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Spoerry, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Seele, Jana
    Valentin-Weigand, Peter
    Baums, Christoph G.
    von Pawel-Rammingen, Ulrich
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Identification and Characterization of IgdE, a Novel IgG-degrading Protease of Streptococcus suis with Unique Specificity for Porcine IgG.2016In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 291, no 15, 7915-7925 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streptococcus suis is a major endemic pathogen of pigs causing meningitis, arthritis, and other diseases. Zoonotic S. suis infections are emerging in humans causing similar pathologies as well as severe conditions such as toxic shock-like syndrome. Recently, we discovered an IdeS family protease of S. suis that exclusively cleaves porcine IgM and represents the first virulence factor described, linking S. suis to pigs as their natural host. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel, unrelated protease of S. suis that exclusively targets porcine IgG. This enzyme, designated IgdE for immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of S. suis, is a cysteine protease distinct from previous characterized streptococcal immunoglobulin degrading proteases of the IdeS family and mediates efficient cleavage of the hinge region of porcine IgG with a high degree of specificity. The findings that all S. suis strains investigated possess the IgG proteolytic activity and that piglet serum samples contain specific antibodies against IgdE strongly indicate that the protease is expressed in vivo during infection and represents a novel and putative important bacterial virulence/colonization determinant, and a thus potential therapeutic target.

  • 29.
    Stenman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sportfisketurism i Emån: Beståndet av havsöring i Emån antas minska - vad kan ha orsakat minskningen och hur påverkas sportfisket?2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The dual purposes of this study were to define which problems that may be the cause for the probable decreasing stock of sea trout in the river Em, situated in the South Eastern parts of Sweden, and also to find out how the decreasing catch of sea trout affects the sport fishing tourism in this river. Specific questions were: What is the reason for the decreasing stock of sea trout in river Em (I) and how is it possible to solve or lower the impact of these problems (II)? How does the decreasing catch of sea trout in the river Em affect the sportfishing tourists (III)? The study is based mainly on data from a survey and already existing literature but also some parts at discussions with people who know the river Em well. The survey was distributed partly by the World Wide Web and partly shared with people along the riverside at Em and Fliseryds SFK. The results clearly show that a strong majority of the respondents thinks that the fishing for sea trout in river Em is worse now than before, but 94 % of the respondents still wants to come back again in the future. This might have an explanation in the significance of the history and atmosphere at Em, where most of the respondents to the survey are fishing. Despite obvious problems with for example hydro, land use and overfishing on the coast, people still want to visit Em while the visitors to other parts of the river decrease in numbers.

  • 30.
    Svensson, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biologisk behandling av oljeförorenad jord: Abiotiska faktorers inverkan och effekter av olika uppläggningssätt på nedbrytningshastigheten.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to investigate how the abiotic factors (temperature, pH, nutrients, oxygen levels and water content) would affect the decomposition of oil-contaminated soil and how a variance in structured soil would affect the decomposition-rate. A minor field-study was made and soil where structured in five different ways (one was a default pile and was used as a reference). The study took place over 137 days and three samples were taken (start, middle, end) and analyzed for aromatic and aliphatic compounds. The result of this study shows that there is a significant difference between all methods for the aliphatic compounds and no significant difference for the aromatic compounds. The abiotic factors that affect decomposition vary from organism to organism, depending on what type of environment it will function the best. In this type of environment it could be necessary to change temperature interval, nutrient availability or pH to optimize the conditions for the microorganisms. The conclusion of this report is that the structured of the soil-piles will affect decomposition rate, but it is unsure how much. Further research is needed to conclude how the soil should be structured to maximize the decomposition-rate. 

  • 31.
    Swärd, Ylva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Negativa miljöeffekter av mättade fosforfilter som gödningsmedel: En studie om utsläpp och miljöpåverkan vid gödsling med Polonite och Filtralite på olika jordar i Umeå2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental effects from saturated filter materials when used as fertilizers

    A study of emissions and environmental impacts from Polonite and Filtralite added to different soils in Umeå

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate environmental impacts from saturated filter materials for phosphorus removal in sewage systems when later used as fertilizers. The objectives were answered through a fertilizer experiment where different soils from Umeå were manured with the saturated filter materials Polonite and Filtralite and the traditional fertilizer NPK. The leakage waters from the different soil additives were analyzed and measurements were made for phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, pH and heavy metals. The result showed no obvious difference in leakage potential for ecologically harmful substances from the different fertilizers. The differences in leakage potential for the different soils from the fertilizer experiment are a result of original nutrient- and heavy metal contents in the soils rather than soil properties like porosity, organic content and grain size. Environmental disadvantages with using filter materials as fertilizers can be (i) difficulties with dosing the filter materials as the content of different substances depend on contents in the sewages, (ii) presence of heavy metals, (iii) sometimes unwanted increase in pH due to high calcium content in the filters and (iv) that relatively big amounts of filter material often is needed compared to traditional fertilizers. As this study was very small and many aspects were not included, more research is needed to determine the total environmental impact of filter materials used as fertilizers.

  • 32.
    Vickers, Kim
    et al.
    Department of Archaeology, University of Sheffield, UK.
    Buckland, Philip I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Predicting island beetle faunas by their climate ranges: the tabula rasa/refugia theory in the North Atlantic2015In: Journal of Biogeography, ISSN 0305-0270, E-ISSN 1365-2699, Vol. 42, no 11, 2031-2048 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This paper addresses two opposing theories put forward for the origins of the beetle fauna of the North Atlantic islands. The first is that the biota of the isolated oceanic islands of the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland immigrated across a Palaeogene–Neogene land bridge from Europe, and survived Pleistocene glaciations in ameliorated refugia. The second argues for a tabula rasa in which the biota of the islands was exterminated during glaciations and is Holocene in origin. The crux of these theories lies in the ability of the flora and fauna to survive in a range of environmental extremes. This paper sets out to assess the viability of the refugia hypothesis using the climatic tolerances of one aspect of the biota: the beetle fauna. Location: The paper focuses on Iceland, the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Methods: The known temperature requirements of the recorded beetle faunas of the North Atlantic islands were compared with published proxy climate reconstructions for successive climate periods since the severing of a North Atlantic land bridge. We used the MCR (mutual climatic range) method available in the open access BugsCEP database software. Results: We show that most of the MCR faunas of the North Atlantic islands could not have survived in situ since the Palaeogene–Neogene, and are likely to have been exterminated by the Pleistocene glaciations. Main conclusions: The discrepancy between the climatic tolerances of the North Atlantic beetle fauna and the estimated climatic regimes since the severing of a land bridge strongly support the tabula rasa theory and suggests that the North Atlantic coleopteran fauna is Holocene in origin.

  • 33.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Motivation for Learning Science and Mathematics: Identifying Personal and Environmental Factors2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several theories in motivation research aim at explaining or predicting the emotional experiences and behavior of students in academic situations as well as the quality of learning outcomes. However, there are still ambiguities regarding the mechanisms of motivation, how motivation can be influenced, and what effects motivation has on learning. As a first step to examine the role of situational and personal variables involved in some of the most influential motivation theories, their relative ability to predict student behavior, emotional experiences and learning outcomes were investigated by PLS analysis of questionnaire data from 658 upper secondary school students. As to outcomes, results show that experiences of anxiety, on one hand, are orthogonal to perceived degree of learning, enjoyment, and motivated behavior, on the other. Major predictors of anxiety emotions were; Attributions, pertaining to the perceived degree of control over outcomes; the nature of relations to peers; and whether the students perceived that the goal of the lesson was understanding or ‘production’. The degree of learning, motivated behavior, and enjoyment were, in descending order, predicted by students’ achievement goals and motivation type, the teacher’s engagement,  character of feedback, autonomy support and the level of teacher demands on students. To some extent, students’ epistemological beliefs regarding the complexity of knowledge also predicted these types of outcomes.

  • 34.
    Åstrand, Max
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ventilation Performance Monitoring in Underground Mines2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ventilation of underground mines is a critical, complex and expensive activity. Removing pollutants from e.g. diesel equipment is important to insure a safe and operable work environment in the mine. The energy consumption of ventilation for an underground mine typically comprises around 30-50% of the total energy consumption of underground mine operation. It is therefore vital that the performance of the ventilation system can be monitored and maintained as high as possible. The goal of this project is to develop methods  and algorithms which are useful in this context. The developed methods and algorithms are tested in two real mine case studies.

  • 35.
    Åström Ylivainio, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    En byggnads energibehov: En studie om energieffektivisering av en befintlig byggnad i södra Sverige2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the use and losses of energy in an existing older building. Another purpose was also to look through various options for heating systems with renewable energy in the building. The aim was to reduce the use and losses of energy. The first step was to study the related electricity bills of the building and also perform measurements and calculations of the building envelope and ventilation. The next step was to find out the possible actions for energy saving by performing measurements and calculations. To calculate the loss of energy a u-value was used, which describes a materials ability to conduct heat. The results of the energy calculations show what is reasonable to do in the building considering the energy savings versus economy. The study shows that it is important to first analyze and adjust the building envelope and ventilation before a new heating system is installed. That is to reduce the risk of an over-sizing of the heating system. It is not optimal to correct the entire building at energy efficiency because it is not economically feasible. All necessary actions of energy saving should be taken as a package where the most profitable should be picked out and executed. An older building is often of great value and therefore its appearance should be safeguarded at energy efficiency.

  • 36.
    Öhlund, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Anmälan till Länsstyrelsens djurskyddsenhet: Kan anmälningsärenden effektiviseras?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Notification of animal welfare

    Author: Helen Öhlund

    The purpose of this study was to examine the routines of the county administrations in Sweden when it comes to receiving notification from the public about the welfare of animals. According to Jordbruksverket at least 50 % of the screening of animal welfare should be based on routine controls on existing farmers. Today the routine controls only reach a 43 % average for the whole country. A big part of today’s result depends on the amount of time it takes the administrators of animal welfare to process the notifications from the public. To examine why the notifications from the public take too long time, the county administrations were interviewed through phone and e-mail. The interviews were made to see what routines the county administrations had and if the routines could be made more efficient. Jordbruksverket have developed aid to the county administrations in form of simpler checklists for pets and control cards to ease the burden in notification controls. This study shows that a lot of work can be done when it comes to receiving the notification. When receiving notification the administrators can decide if the notification is severe or not. Too little information makes it difficult to determine the gravity of the notification.

     

    Key words: animal welfare, legislation, county administration, notification, Jordbruksverket.

1 - 36 of 36
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