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  • 1.
    Aaro, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen Designhögskolan.
    En intuitiv & lättillgänglig flyktmask för gruvmiljö2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    I have always lived around mines and around people work­ing with mines. They are a natural part of my life and, inev­itably, a great interest of mine. When time came to make a decision for a degree project, focusing on the mine context felt as natural as breathing.

    In LKABs underground mines, safety in fire accidents is a great priority. Of outmost importance for the escape is to have a personal gas filter for filtration of smoke and/or gas. My design project resulted in a concept which is aimed at shortening the user journey from the start of the accident until the user has applied the personal safety solution and is ready to escape.

    Throughout the project I’ve been working with a context which is heavily regulated, and all problems are serious, important ones. I have been striving towards keeping a high level of innovation during the process, whatever the result in the end might be. I’ve been heavily relying on scenarios/workflows, product testing, observation, and I’ve had the great joy to be able to take part of LKABs accident reports.

    The concept can be divided into three parts, but it is the way these collaborate that makes out the main part of the concept.

    1: An escape station, providing a standardized placement of escape hoods.

    2: A container for the vacuum sealed escape hood.

    3: An escape hood which enables a personalized fit for the user.

    Interactive surfaces are color coded with the goal to provide an intuitive workflow. When the container is opened, the vacuum seal is immediately broken and the user gains access to two handles, one white and one red. The handles are used to lift and apply the escape hood, and the red handle is then used, by pulling, to tighten the throat fit.

    Combined, these solutions help the user applying her escape hood in shorter time, and a large head size, glasses, beard and a thick neck are no longer problematic for the applica­tion

     

  • 2.
    Abbasi, Jasim Aftab
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Test of Rapid Control System Development using TargetLink2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to employ and evaluate an evaluation board with the standard microprocessor freescale MPC5554EVB board for implementation of control algorithms which are created in Matlab/Simulink instead of using dSPACE prototyping hardware. The Simulink real-time model shall be compiled to the MPC5554EVB board. TargetLink is a powerful software tool which allows an automatic generation of efficient C code from Simulink and facilitates model-based control design. The goal of this thesis is to learn how to use TargetLink in a control design workflow from model to real code and what are the limitations of a microprocessor platform and to evaluate the capabilities of TargetLink to generate a working code for a generic microprocessor.

  • 3.
    Abed, Ahmed Ghafel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Energieffektivisering vid renovering av Lamellhus på Mariehemsvägen2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige byggs det mer än någonsin och hustillverkningen går framåt. Samtidigt ökar medvetenheten kring byggnaders energianvändning och dess medföljande påverkan på klimat och hållbarhet. Därför höjer Boverket ständigt kraven på nyproducerade och renoverade byggnaders energiprestanda.

    Enligt nuvarande krav från Boverket (BBR, 2017) får primärenergitalet för flerbostadshus högst vara 85 kWh per kvadratmeter tempererad golvyta och år. Detta gäller även enligt kommande krav år 2021, men med skillnaden att U-värdet kommer att minska 0,4 till 0,35 W/m2 K vilket innebär att flerbostadshus måste byggas på ett mer effektivt sätt för att minska energianvändningen. En stor del av nybyggnationer och nyrenoverade flerbostadshus måste därefter genomföra energieffektiviserande åtgärder på sina byggnader för att uppfylla kommande krav.

    Detta examenarbete har genomförts i samarbete med Rikshem AB och undersöker vad för effekt olika energieffektiviserande åtgärder har för påverkan på deras Lamellhus. Syftet är att teoretiskt minska Lamellhusets specifika energianvändning från 187,4 till 70 kWh/m2 Atemp, år och därmed reducera primärenergitalet tillräckligt för att uppfylla kommande krav enligt BBR nära-nollenergibyggnad.

    För att teoretiskt sänka specifik energianvändning och därmed primärenergital kommer projektet genom manuella beräkningar och med hjälp av datorverktyg undersöka olika energieffektiviserande åtgärder på husets konstruktion och installationssystem.

    Resultaten visar att åtgärderna på fastigheten klimatskal är tillräckliga för att uppfylla kraven. Om alla åtgärder enligt paket 1 eller 2 på konstruktionen kombineras kommer att specifik energianvändning enligt BBR 16 (2010) ligga på 83-94 kWh/m2 Atemp, år och enligt primärenergital BBR 25 (2017) ligger på 68-77 kWh/m2 Atemp, år.

    Resultaten visar även på hur stor del av en byggnads energianvändning som ventileras ut. Att byta ut ventilationssystemet från F-system till FTX-system på referenshuset i grundfallet, är den åtgärd som ger en av de största effekterna, med en värmebesparing (25,5-26,7 %). I kombination FTX-systemet med fjärrvärme kan specifik energianvändningen minskas så långt som möjligt. Om åtgärden med FTX-system tillämpas tillsammans med befintlig fjärrvärme och alla åtgärder på konstruktion enligt paket 1 eller 2 ger detta en minskning på cirka (70-75 %) jämfört med grundfallhuset vilket motsvarar 42-51 kWh/m2 Atemp, år enligt BBR 16 och enligt BBR 25 är siffrorna ännu lägre. Om beräkningen tar hänsyn till köldbryggor och luftläckage i huset kommer resultatet att öka.

    Resultaten visar även på att en sådan investering återbetalar sig efter 15-16 år. Att ta hänsyn till kalkylränta på 5 % är det lönsamt över 30-31 år eller mer, men med en kalkylränta på 8 % förlorar man lönsamheten.

  • 4.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Bring Your Body into Action: Body Gesture Detection, Tracking, and Analysis for Natural Interaction2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the large influx of computers in our daily lives, human-computer interaction has become crucially important. For a long time, focusing on what users need has been critical for designing interaction methods. However, new perspective tends to extend this attitude to encompass how human desires, interests, and ambitions can be met and supported. This implies that the way we interact with computers should be revisited. Centralizing human values rather than user needs is of the utmost importance for providing new interaction techniques. These values drive our decisions and actions, and are essential to what makes us human. This motivated us to introduce new interaction methods that will support human values, particularly human well-being.

    The aim of this thesis is to design new interaction methods that will empower human to have a healthy, intuitive, and pleasurable interaction with tomorrow’s digital world. In order to achieve this aim, this research is concerned with developing theories and techniques for exploring interaction methods beyond keyboard and mouse, utilizing human body. Therefore, this thesis addresses a very fundamental problem, human motion analysis.

    Technical contributions of this thesis introduce computer vision-based, marker-less systems to estimate and analyze body motion. The main focus of this research work is on head and hand motion analysis due to the fact that they are the most frequently used body parts for interacting with computers. This thesis gives an insight into the technical challenges and provides new perspectives and robust techniques for solving the problem.

  • 5.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Human Motion Analysis for Creating Immersive Experiences2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    From an early age, people display the ability to quickly and effortlessly interpret the orientation and movement of human body parts, thereby allowing one to infer the intentions of others who are nearby and to comprehend an important nonverbal form of communication. The ease with which one accomplishes this task belies the difficulty of a problem that has challenged computational systems for decades, human motion analysis.

    Technological developments over years have resulted into many systems for measuring body segment positions and angles between segments. In these systems human body is typically considered as a system of rigid links connected by joints. The motion is estimated by the use of measurements from mechanical, optical, magnetic, or inertial trackers. Among all kinds of sensors, optical sensing encompasses a large and varying collection of technologies.

    In a computer vision context, human motion analysis is a topic that studies methods and applications in which two or more consecutive images from an image sequences, e.g. captured by a video camera, are processed to produce information based on the apparent human body motion in the images.

    Many different disciplines employ motion analysis systems to capture movement and posture of human body for applications such as medical diagnostics, virtual reality, human-computer interaction etc.

    This thesis gives an insight into the state of the art human motion analysissystems, and provides new methods for capturing human motion.

  • 6.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Smart Baggage in Aviation2011Ingår i: 2011 IEEE International Conferences on Internet of Things, and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing / [ed] Feng Xia, Zhikui Chen, Gang Pan, Laurence T. Yang, and Jianhua Ma, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, s. 620-623Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, the Internet has dramatically changed the way people take the normal course of actions. By the recent growth of the Internet, connecting different objects to users through mobile phones and computers is no longer a dream. Aviation industry is one of the areas which have a strong potential to benefit from the Internet of Things. Among many problems related to air travel, delayed and lost luggage are the most common and irritating. Therefore, this paper suggests anew baggage control system, where users can simply track their baggage at the airport to avoid losing them. Attaching a particular pattern on the bag, which can be detected and localized from long distance by an ordinary camera, users are able to track their baggage. The proposed system is much cheaper than previous implementations and does not require sophisticated equipment.

  • 7.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design.
    Kouma, Jean-Paul
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design.
    Direct hand pose estimation for immersive gestural interaction2015Ingår i: Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, E-ISSN 1872-7344, Vol. 66, s. 91-99Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach for performing intuitive gesture based interaction using depth data acquired by Kinect. The main challenge to enable immersive gestural interaction is dynamic gesture recognition. This problem can be formulated as a combination of two tasks; gesture recognition and gesture pose estimation. Incorporation of fast and robust pose estimation method would lessen the burden to a great extent. In this paper we propose a direct method for real-time hand pose estimation. Based on the range images, a new version of optical flow constraint equation is derived, which can be utilized to directly estimate 3D hand motion without any need of imposing other constraints. Extensive experiments illustrate that the proposed approach performs properly in real-time with high accuracy. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the system performance in 3D object manipulation On two different setups; desktop computing, and mobile platform. This reveals the system capability to accommodate different interaction procedures. In addition, a user study is conducted to evaluate learnability, user experience and interaction quality in 3D gestural interaction in comparison to 2D touchscreen interaction.

  • 8.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Direct three-dimensional head pose estimation from Kinect-type sensors2014Ingår i: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 50, nr 4, s. 268-270Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct method for recovering three-dimensional (3D) head motion parameters from a sequence of range images acquired by Kinect sensors is presented. Based on the range images, a new version of the optical flow constraint equation is derived, which can be used to directly estimate 3D motion parameters without any need of imposing other constraints. Since all calculations with the new constraint equation are based on the range images, Z(xyt), the existing techniques and experiences developed and accumulated on the topic of motion from optical flow can be directly applied simply by treating the range images as normal intensity images I(xyt). In this reported work, it is demonstrated how to employ the new optical flow constraint equation to recover the 3D motion of a moving head from the sequences of range images, and furthermore, how to use an old trick to handle the case when the optical flow is large. It is shown, in the end, that the performance of the proposed approach is comparable with that of some of the state-of-the-art approaches that use range data to recover 3D motion parameters.

  • 9.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Gesture Tracking for 3D Interaction in Augmented Environments2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Real 3D Interaction Behind Mobile Phones for Augmented Environments2011Ingår i: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, s. 1-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Number of mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs has been dramatically increased over the recent years. New mobile devices are equipped with integrated cameras and large displays which make the interaction with device easier and more efficient. Although most of the previous works on interaction between humans and mobile devices are based on 2D touch-screen displays, camera-based interaction opens a new way to manipulate in 3D space behind the device in the camera's field of view. This paper suggests the use of particular patterns from local orientation of the image called Rotational Symmetries to detect and localize human gesture. Relative rotation and translation of human gesture between consecutive frames are estimated by means of extracting stable features. Consequently, this information can be used to facilitate the 3D manipulation of virtual objects in various applications in mobile devices.

  • 11.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Sonning, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Sonning, Sabina
    3D Head Pose Estimation Using the Kinect2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Head pose estimation plays an essential role for bridging the information gap between humans and computers. Conventional head pose estimation methods are mostly done in images captured by cameras. However accurate and robust pose estimation is often problematic. In this paper we present an algorithm for recovering the six degrees of freedom (DOF) of motion of a head from a sequence of range images taken by the Microsoft Kinectfor Xbox 360. The proposed algorithm utilizes a least-squares minimization of the difference between themeasured rate of change of depth at a point and the rate predicted by the depth rate constraint equation. We segment the human head from its surroundings and background, and then we estimate the head motion. Our system has the capability to recover the six DOF of the head motion of multiple people in one image. Theproposed system is evaluated in our lab and presents superior results.

  • 12.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Active human gesture capture for diagnosing and treating movement disorders2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement disorders prevent many people fromenjoying their daily lives. As with other diseases, diagnosisand analysis are key issues in treating such disorders.Computer vision-based motion capture systems are helpfultools for accomplishing this task. However Classical motiontracking systems suffer from several limitations. First theyare not cost effective. Second these systems cannot detectminute motions accurately. Finally they are spatially limitedto the lab environment where the system is installed. In thisproject, we propose an innovative solution to solve the abovementionedissues. Mounting the camera on human body, webuild a convenient, low cost motion capture system that canbe used by the patient in daily-life activities. We refer tothis system as active motion capture, which is not confinedto the lab environment. Real-time experiments in our labrevealed the robustness and accuracy of the system.

  • 13.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design.
    Head operated electric wheelchair2014Ingår i: IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI 2014), IEEE , 2014, s. 53-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, the most common way to control an electric wheelchair is to use joystick. However, there are some individuals unable to operate joystick-driven electric wheelchairs due to sever physical disabilities, like quadriplegia patients. This paper proposes a novel head pose estimation method to assist such patients. Head motion parameters are employed to control and drive an electric wheelchair. We introduce a direct method for estimating user head motion, based on a sequence of range images captured by Kinect. In this work, we derive new version of the optical flow constraint equation for range images. We show how the new equation can be used to estimate head motion directly. Experimental results reveal that the proposed system works with high accuracy in real-time. We also show simulation results for navigating the electric wheelchair by recovering user head motion.

  • 14.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Yousefi, Shahrouz
    Ostovar, Ahmad
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    A Direct Method for 3D Hand Pose Recovery2014Ingår i: 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2014, s. 345-350Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach for performing intuitive 3D gesture-based interaction using depth data acquired by Kinect. Unlike current depth-based systems that focus only on classical gesture recognition problem, we also consider 3D gesture pose estimation for creating immersive gestural interaction. In this paper, we formulate gesture-based interaction system as a combination of two separate problems, gesture recognition and gesture pose estimation. We focus on the second problem and propose a direct method for recovering hand motion parameters. Based on the range images, a new version of optical flow constraint equation is derived, which can be utilized to directly estimate 3D hand motion without any need of imposing other constraints. Our experiments illustrate that the proposed approach performs properly in real-time with high accuracy. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the system performance in 3D object manipulation. This application is intended to explore the system capabilities in real-time biomedical applications. Eventually, system usability test is conducted to evaluate the learnability, user experience and interaction quality in 3D interaction in comparison to 2D touch-screen interaction.

  • 15.
    Abedin, Reaz Ashraful
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Autonomous Object Category Learning for Service Robots Using Internet Resources2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the developments in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), robots are becoming smarter, more efficient and capable of doing more dififcult tasks than before. Recent progress in Machine Learning has revolutionized the field of AI. Rather than performing pre-programmed tasks, nowadays robots are learning things, and becoming more autonomous along the way. However, in most of the cases, robots need a certain level of human assistance to learn something. To recognize or classify daily objects is a very important skill that a service robot should possess. In this research work, we have implemented a fully autonomous object category learning system for service robots, where the robot uses internet resources to learn object categories. It gets the name of an unknown object by performing reverse image search in the internet search engines, and applying a verification strategy afterwards. Then the robot retrieves a number of images of that object from internet and use those to generate training data for learning classifiers. The implemented system is tested in actual domestic environment. The classification performance is examined against some object categories from a benchmark dataset. The system performed decently with 78:40% average accuracy on ve object categories taken from the benchmark dataset and showed promising results in real domestic scenarios. There are existing research works that deal with object category learning for robots using internet images. But those works use Human-in-the-loop models, where humans assist the robot to get the object name for using it as a search cue to retrieve training images from internet. Our implemented system eliminates the necessity of human assistance by making the task of object name determination automatic. This facilitates the whole process of learning object categories with full autonomy, which is the main contribution of this research.

  • 16. Abel, Olubunmi
    et al.
    Shatunov, Aleksey
    Jones, Ashley R.
    Andersen, Peter M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Powell, John F.
    Al-Chalabi, Ammar
    Development of a Smartphone App for a Genetics Website: The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Online Genetics Database (ALSoD)2013Ingår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 1, nr 2, artikel-id e18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ALS Online Genetics Database (ALSoD) website holds mutation, geographical, and phenotype data on genes implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and links to bioinformatics resources, publications, and tools for analysis. On average, there are 300 unique visits per day, suggesting a high demand from the research community. To enable wider access, we developed a mobile-friendly version of the website and a smartphone app. Objective: We sought to compare data traffic before and after implementation of a mobile version of the website to assess utility. Methods: We identified the most frequently viewed pages using Google Analytics and our in-house analytic monitoring. For these, we optimized the content layout of the screen, reduced image sizes, and summarized available information. We used the Microsoft. NET framework mobile detection property (HttpRequest. IsMobileDevice in the Request. Browser object in conjunction with HttpRequest. UserAgent), which returns a true value if the browser is a recognized mobile device. For app development, we used the Eclipse integrated development environment with Android plug-ins. We wrapped the mobile website version with the WebView object in Android. Simulators were downloaded to test and debug the applications. Results: The website automatically detects access from a mobile phone and redirects pages to fit the smaller screen. Because the amount of data stored on ALSoD is very large, the available information for display using smartphone access is deliberately restricted to improve usability. Visits to the website increased from 2231 to 2820, yielding a 26% increase from the pre-mobile to post-mobile period and an increase from 103 to 340 visits (230%) using mobile devices (including tablets). The smartphone app is currently available on BlackBerry and Android devices and will be available shortly on iOS as well. Conclusions: Further development of the ALSoD website has allowed access through smartphones and tablets, either through the website or directly through a mobile app, making genetic data stored on the database readily accessible to researchers and patients across multiple devices.

  • 17.
    Abouhachem, Khalil
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Implementering av Lean Production på Hedson Technologies AB2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är avslutningen på min maskiningenjörsutbildning på Umeå universitet. Rapporten är resultatet av arbetet som utförts på Hedson Technologies AB i Malmö. Hedson är marknasledande inom hjultvättar, torkredskap och billyftar. De har två anläggningar i Sverige och en anläggning i Tyskland. Detta arbete begränsas till anläggningen i Arlöv, Malmö.

    För att förbli marknadsledande och konkurrenskraftiga har Hedson insett att de behöver ett effektivare produktionsflöde. För att få ett effektivare och ett resurssnålt flöde vänder sig företag till Lean Production. Lean är en filosofi som genomsyrar hela företaget och dess produktionsflöde, från leverans av material till att kunden mottagit varan. Syftet är att påbörja ett arbete inom Lean på företaget. Arbetet ska lägga grunden för en Lean satsning som företaget senare bygger vidare på för att nå en så effektiv produktion som möjligt.

    Genom en analys av produktionsflödet och intervjuer med marknads- och produktansvariga har jag skapat mig en helhetsbild om hur företaget fungerar. Denna information har jag sedan använt mig av tillsammans med förstudien för att hitta det optimala tillvägagångssättet för Hedson att starta ett arbete inom Lean.

    Tack vare ett gott samarbete med personalen på företaget har ett framgångsrikt resultat tagits fram. Eftersom produktionsanläggningen var väldigt oorganiserad och rörig skulle implementering av 5S metoden vara den bästa starten på en lång och framgångsrik resa igenom Lean Production. Slutligen gjordes en introduktion till Lean och 5S i form av en presentation för att skapa förståelse och medvetenhet på företaget.

  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Värmeöverföring från smälta till vattenkyld tapputrustning2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är utfört på smältverket Rönnskärsverken på uppdrag av Boliden Mineral AB. Kopparhyttan är en elektrisk smältugn för smältning av kopparslig och sekundära material i form av askor, fragmenterat skrot, krossad skärsten, slagger och slam. Beroende på hur det ingående materialet varierar kommer smältans kemiska sammansättning att variera. Variationerna i smältans kemiska sammansättning medför också att de fysikaliska egenskaperna hos smältan varierar och därmed också värmeöverföringen mellan smälta och tapputrustning. En hög värmelast på tapputrustningen medför ett ökat slitage på tapputrustningen och därför behövs en förståelse för de bakomliggande orsakerna för att förebygga och om möjligt undvika detta.

    De genomförda analyserna visar på att en hög värmelast på tapputrustningen framförallt är kopplad till kopparhalten. En lägre kopparhalt medför att smältpunkten sänks och dessutom minskar viskositeten, vilket leder till ett ökat massflöde. En ökad värmelast indikerar således ett ökat massflöde i kombination med en sänkt smältpunkt, vilket innebär att tillfrysningen av ett erosionsskyddande skikt skärstenen på insidan av tappkanalens väggar försvåras och därmed en ökad erosion av tapputrustningen. Svavelunderskottet, som beräknas utifrån en kemisk analys av skärstensproven, visade ingen korrelation mot en hög värmelast vid tappning och ingen koppling mellan svavelunderskott och erosion av tapputrustningen kunde därmed konstateras.

    De åtgärder som föreslås för att minska slitaget på tapputrustningen är ökning av kylvattenflödet samt minskning av tapphålsdiametern för att öka tillfrysning av ett skyddande lager samt reducera flödet vid tappning.

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Matilda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Metoder för utredning av inomhusmiljö: En studie inom hälsoskyddet med delsyfte att utföra dammätningar i skolor2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for inspection of the indoor environment – a study within health protection where a part of the aim is to perform measurements of dust in schools

    In Sweden the communities are responsible for the health protection in many agencies. The control of the indoor environment can be done in different ways and with different means. The aim of this report was to study in which way the inspectors made this kind of inspections and if there was anything in their approach that could be developed. A part of the aim of the report was to study how fast a clean surface in a school become dusty. Interviewes with healthinspectors in Uppsala, Håbo and Tierp was made. Together with them also some inspections were performed. To get a larger view of methods to investigate the indoor environment some inspections of schools and dwellings were done with an employee at the unit of Arbets- och miljömedicin at the University Hospital in Uppsala. The dust study was performed at two schools in Knivsta. The results were that the inspectors had well developed methods for assessings of the indoor environment. The approach differed in some matters between the larger and the smaller communities. Regardless of the size of the communities the inspectors rarely used instruments as a tool for the inspections. The communication and agreement between the inspectors was also shown as an important part in their work. In general the inspectors felt secure in their role and to make decisions. It appeared some shortcomings in the general advice and guidelines from the national board of health and welfare, which is the national supervisory authority that shall guide inspection of health protection. For example there was shown a lack in the guidelines regarding cleaning in schools and kindergardens. The study of dust in schools showed that there was more dust after five days than after one day.

  • 20.
    Abrahamsson, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Elkvalitet på ett industrinät2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En tung industri har oftast utrustning installerad som kan bidra till övertoner på ett elnät. Samtidigt är oftast elnäten starka inom dessa industrier vilket ska bidra till att reducera spänningsövertonerna som går att finna på respektive fas.Studien har arbetat med de villkor och föreskrifter som gäller både för en ansluten elanläggning till Vattenfalls elnät, men även hur en elkvalitetsmätning ska genomföras och vilka krav som behöver uppfyllas.Åkers Sweden AB, där studien har ägt rum, har induktionsugnar för smältning av metaller. Det förekommer olika tekniska lösningar samt 3 olika fabrikat. Mätningar har genomförts på samtliga dessa fabrikat för att kontrollera om någon av dessa urskiljer sig gentemot de övriga.Genomförda mätningar indikerar att spänningsövertoner förekommer men inte i sådan utsträckning att man inte uppfyller gällande regelverk. Det finns dock anledning till att fortsätta arbetet och utöka mätningarna till övriga objekt inom företaget som inte har ingått i denna studie.Företaget har ett effektabonnemang och en kontroll av detta med avseende på nu gällande effekt och förbrukning under 2015 har genomförts för att kunna ge förslag på eventuella förändringar. Eftersom företaget har ungefär samma produktionsvolym 2016 som 2015 finns anledning till att se över nu gällande avtal för att kunna erhålla en kostnadsreducering.En enkät har skickats ut till samtliga anställda inom företaget med syfte att både upplysa de anställda om vilka kvalitetsproblem som kan förekomma inom ett elnät, men även få en återkoppling på hur de anställda upplever nuvarande situation. Enkäten fick låg svarsfrekvens men svaren som inkom indikerade att de anställda upplever att företaget har en god elkvalitet.

  • 21.
    Abrahamsson, Simon
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ny lösning för uppvärmning av Nordanås provbana2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    BAE Systems Hägglunds testbana är belägen i Nordanås nordväst om Örnsköldsvik. Detta projekt hade till avsikt att på BAE Systems förfrågan inventera testanläggningens nuvarande oljebaserade värmesystem för att finna ett mer ekonomiskt och miljövänligt alternativ. Utifrån en omfattande litteraturstudie samt kontakt med flera olika leverantörer, undersöktes vilka eventuella värmesystem som skulle kunna vara intressanta utifrån de krav som fanns i Nordanås.

    De alternativa värmesystemen som ansågs vara tekniskt hållbara var följande; bergvärme med lätt biooljepanna, tung biooljepanna eller pelletspanna; pelletspanna, lätt biooljepanna och tung biooljepanna. Dessa alternativ är de som undersökts noggrant i studien och därefter jämförts med det nuvarande värmesystemet i form av ekonomi och miljöpåverkan.

    I en ekonomisk kalkyl jämfördes de olika alternativens kapitalvärde och återbetalningstid. För att jämföra deras miljöpåverkan skapades en kalkyl som utifrån framtagna värden på olika bränslens utsläpp beräknade varje alternativs förväntade årliga utsläpp i form av koldioxidekvivalenter.

    Slutligen konstaterades att om BAE Systems Hägglunds ska byta ut nuvarande systemet bör man antingen investera i ett bergvärmesystem med en lätt biooljepanna som spetspanna eller en konvertering till lätt biooljepanna. Med priser från den tid då rapporten skrevs skulle alternativet med bergvärme ha en beräknad återbetalningstid på ca 6,4 år och kapitalvärdet 1,0 Mkr. Motsvarande värden för alternativet med enbart en lätt biooljepanna uppgick till 1,0 års återbetalningstid samt 0,8 Mkr i kapitalvärde. Den stora skillnaden i återbetalningstid berodde på bergvärmesystemets höga investeringskostnad. Att investera i ett bergvärmesystem ansågs trots detta som ett bra alternativ på grund av den förväntade prisökningen av eldningsolja.

  • 22.
    Abu-Hamam, Anas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Li, Haibo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Georgakis, Apostolos
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Understanding Web Users Behaviour From A Web Video Camera2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To develop a Real-Time system, which can capture and track the web user’s head motion. Based on the head motion information, the system should be able to identify whether the user is interested in the current homepage or not. A future system property would be to find out in which area of the homepage the user’s interest is moving.

  • 23.
    Adebiyi, Abdulafeez
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
    Alkandari, Rawan
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506, USA.
    Valiev, Damir
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Center for Combustion Energy, Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of the Ministry of Education of China, Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Akkerman, V’yacheslav
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.
    Effect of surface friction on ultrafast flame acceleration in obstructed cylindrical pipes2019Ingår i: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 9, nr 3, artikel-id 035249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bychkov model of ultrafast flame acceleration in obstructed tubes [Valiev et al., “Flame Acceleration in Channels with Obstacles in the Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition,” Combust. Flame 157, 1012 (2010)] employed a number of simplifying assumptions, including those of free-slip and adiabatic surfaces of the obstacles and of the tube wall. In the present work, the influence of free-slip/non-slip surface conditions on the flame dynamics in a cylindrical tube of radius R, involving an array of parallel, tightly-spaced obstacles of size αR, is scrutinized by means of the computational simulations of the axisymmetric fully-compressible gasdynamics and combustion equations with an Arrhenius chemical kinetics. Specifically, non-slip and free-slip surfaces are compared for the blockage ratio, α, and the spacing between the obstacles, ΔZ, in the ranges 1/3 ≤ α ≤ 2/3 and 0.25 ≤ ΔZ/R ≤ 2.0, respectively. 

    For these parameters, an impact of surface friction on flameacceleration is shown to be minor, only 1-4%, slightly facilitating acceleration in a tube with ΔZ/R = 0.5 and moderating acceleration in thecase of ΔZ/R = 0.25. Given the fact that the physical boundary conditions are non-slip as far as the continuum assumption is valid, the presentwork thereby justifies the Bychkov model, employing the free-slip conditions, and makes its wider applicable to the practical reality. Whilethis result can be anticipated and explained by a fact that flame propagation is mainly driven by its spreading in the unobstructed portion ofan obstructed tube (i.e. far from the tube wall), the situation is, however, qualitatively different from that in the unobstructed tubes, wheresurface friction modifies the flame dynamics conceptually.

  • 24.
    Adebiyi, Abdulafeez
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106, United States.
    Idowu, Gbolahan
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106, United States.
    Valiev, Damir
    Center for Combustion Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.
    Akkerman, V'yacheslav
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6106, United States.
    Computational simulations of nonequidiffusive premixed flames in obstructed pipes2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of the Lewis number, Le, on the dynamics and morphology of a premixed flame front, spreading through a toothbrush-like array of obstacles in a semi-open channel, is studied by means of the computational simulations of the reacting flow equations with fully-compressible hydrodynamics and Arrhenius chemical kinetics. The computational approach employs a cell-centered, finite-volume numerical scheme, which is of the 2nd-order accuracy in time, 4th-order in space for the convective terms, and of the 2nd-order in space for the diffusive terms. The channels of blockage ratios 0.33∼0.67 are considered, with the Lewis numbers in the range 0.2≤Le≤2.0 employed. It is shown that the Lewis number influences the flame evolution substantially. Specifically, flame acceleration weakens for Le>1 (inherent to fuel-lean hydrogen or fuel-rich hydrocarbon burning), presumably, due to a thickening of the flame front. In contrast, Le<1 flames (such as that of rich hydrogen or lean hydrocarbon) acquire an extra strong folding of the front and thereby accelerate even much faster. The later effect can be devoted to the onset of the diffusional-Thermal combustion instability. © 2018 Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Quality assurance for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiotherapy2017Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilizes the magnetic properties of tissues to generate image-forming signals. MRI has exquisite soft-tissue contrast and since tumors are mainly soft-tissues, it offers improved delineation of the target volume and nearby organs at risk. The proposed Magnetic Resonance-only Radiotherapy (MR-only RT) work flow allows for the use of MRI as the sole imaging modality in the radiotherapy (RT) treatment planning of cancer. There are, however, issues with geometric distortions inherent with MR image acquisition processes. These distortions result from imperfections in the main magnetic field, nonlinear gradients, as well as field disturbances introduced by the imaged object. In this thesis, we quantified the effect of system related and patient-induced susceptibility geometric distortions on dose distributions for prostate as well as head and neck cancers. Methods to mitigate these distortions were also studied.

    In Study I, mean worst system related residual distortions of 3.19, 2.52 and 2.08 mm at bandwidths (BW) of 122, 244 and 488 Hz/pixel up to a radial distance of 25 cm from a 3T PET/MR scanner was measured with a large field of view (FoV) phantom. Subsequently, we estimated maximum shifts of 5.8, 2.9 and 1.5 mm due to patient-induced susceptibility distortions. VMAT-optimized treatment plans initially performed on distorted CT (dCT) images and recalculated on real CT datasets resulted in a dose difference of less than 0.5%.

     The magnetic susceptibility differences at tissue-metallic,-air and -bone interfaces result in local B0 magnetic field inhomogeneities. The distortion shifts caused by these field inhomogeneities can be reduced by shimming.  Study II aimed to investigate the use of shimming to improve the homogeneity of local  B0 magnetic field which will be beneficial for radiotherapy applications. A shimming simulation based on spherical harmonics modeling was developed. The spinal cord, an organ at risk is surrounded by bone and in close proximity to the lungs may have high susceptibility differences. In this region, mean pixel shifts caused by local B0 field inhomogeneities were reduced from 3.47±1.22 mm to 1.35±0.44 mm and 0.99±0.30 mm using first and second order shimming respectively. This was for a bandwidth of 122 Hz/pixel and an in-plane voxel size of 1×1 mm2.  Also examined in Study II as in Study I was the dosimetric effect of geometric distortions on 21 Head and Neck cancer treatment plans. The dose difference in D50 at the PTV between distorted CT and real CT plans was less than 1.0%.

    In conclusion, the effect of MR geometric distortions on dose plans was small. Generally, we found patient-induced susceptibility distortions were larger compared with residual system distortions at all delineated structures except the external contour. This information will be relevant when setting margins for treatment volumes and organs at risk.  

    The current practice of characterizing MR geometric distortions utilizing spatial accuracy phantoms alone may not be enough for an MR-only radiotherapy workflow. Therefore, measures to mitigate patient-induced susceptibility effects in clinical practice such as patient-specific correction algorithms are needed to complement existing distortion reduction methods such as high acquisition bandwidth and shimming.

  • 26.
    Adolfsson, Sebastian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Expanding operation ranges using active flow control in Francis turbines2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains an investigation of fluid injection techniques used in the purpose of reducing deleterious flow effects occurring in the draft tube of Francis turbines when operating outside nominal load. There is a focus on implement ability at Jämtkrafts hydroelectric power plants and two power plants were investigated, located in series with each other named Lövhöjden and Ålviken. The only profitable scenario found with some degree of certainty was an increase in the operating range upwards to allow overload operation.

    Findings show that both air and water can be introduced in various locations to improve hydraulic efficiency around the turbine parts as well as reduce pressure pulsations in harmful operating regions. Investments in such systems have proven useful and profitable at several facilities with poorly adapted operating conditions. But due to losses in efficiency when operating injection systems, it turns out unprofitable in situations where it does not improve the operating range in a way that is resulting in increased annual or peak production.

  • 27.
    Afzaal, Qasim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Ahmad, Usman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Audio Video Streaming Solution for Bambuser2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio/Video streaming has widely been used in different applications but the social communication applications have especially raised its usage. The aim of this thesis is to design and develop an improved Audio/Video streaming solution for a Swedish company Bambuser and can easily be extended with new features where necessary. Currently Bambuser is using the Flash Media Server (FMS) for streaming the media, but it is license based and adds the extra cost to the company's budget. It does not support a wide range of platforms (e.g. OpenBSD and various Linux distributions) and also has limited options for the streaming. There is no real time monitoring and controlling functionality, which can show the status of essential services to the user, needed for the streaming (for example if the camera is working, microphone is turned on, battery power status. etc.).

    In order to solve these issues the GStreamer is used, which is an Open source multimedia streaming framework. The GStreamer environment was tested on different Linux distributions. The research and implementation includes the creation of the streaming pipeline and analyzing which options (i.e. GStreamer elements and plugins) are required to stream the media. It also includes the testing of different pipeline parameters (for example video rate, audio rate etc.) and noting their effects in a real working environment. Python binding with GStreamer is used to have better control over the pipeline. Another requirement of this project was to add the functionality of monitoring and control that shows the status of essential services to the user. Implementation of this part is done by using server and client side coding. Further improvements and suggestions are also proposed in this report.

  • 28. Agogo, George O.
    et al.
    van der Voet, Hilko
    van 't Veer, Pieter
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Muller, David C.
    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio
    Bamia, Christina
    Braaten, Tonje
    Knuppel, Sven
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    van Eeuwijk, Fred A.
    Boshuizen, Hendriek C.
    A method for sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of measurement error in multiple exposure variables using external validation data2016Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 16, artikel-id 139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. Methods: We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association), due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data. The method combines prior information on the validity of the self-report instrument with the observed data to adjust for the bias in the association. We compared the proposed method with the method that ignores the confounder effect, and with the method that ignores measurement errors completely. We assessed the sensitivity of the estimates to various magnitudes of measurement error, error correlations and uncertainty in the literature-reported validation data. We applied the methods to fruits and vegetables (FV) intakes, cigarette smoking (confounder) and all-cause mortality data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Using the proposed method resulted in about four times increase in the strength of association between FV intake and mortality. For weakly correlated errors, measurement error in the confounder minimally affected the hazard ratio estimate for FV intake. The effect was more pronounced for strong error correlations. Conclusions: The proposed method permits sensitivity analysis on measurement error structures and accounts for uncertainties in the reported validity coefficients. The method is useful in assessing the direction and quantifying the magnitude of bias in the association due to measurement errors in the confounders.

  • 29.
    Agrell, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Optimerad design och tillverkningsmetod av koncentrerande solfångare2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 300 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The sun is our most important source of energy for us to be able to cope with the evermore pressuring climate threats. This has always been very clear for Absolicon Solar Collector AB in Härnösand, developers of concentrating solar collectors. The company has so far produced solar collectors which can produce both thermal and electrical power for mid-sized installations such as hotels and hospital. Now however, they are changing direction. Absolicon wants to address the many bigger industries with a demand for steam, in countries rich with solar radiation. Absolicon also wants to develop a production line for production of their solar collector, for deployment in the countries where the demand is the biggest.

     

    In a project partially financed by the Swedish energy department, a demonstrational production line will be built in Härnösand. The production line will be used to build a demonstrational field at HEMAB (Härnösands Energi och Miljö AB) with a new generation of solar collectors, optimized for steam production. The solar collectors built today has a problem with the reflector not getting an optimized shape throughout the whole collector. This has to be rectified since the demand on the shape of the reflector is higher on the new generation of solar collectors. This Is due to the use of a smaller receiver. Furthermore a mounting carriage using a new production method is to be developed for the production line. The mounting carriage should, by using vacuum, form and fixate the reflector of the collector while it also optimizes its shape.

     

    Tests was performed to examine how to optimize the shape of the reflector. A test rig was used to examine how a thin sheet of metal can be formed and fixated using vacuum while developing an optimized production method. A prototype carriage for production of 2 m long collectors using the new method was designed and constructed for evaluation.

     

    The results of the evaluation showed that the developed method is working well and that a receiver diameter of 19 mm can be used. The method is based on letting the edges of the reflector sheet hang free, which eliminates unwanted tensions in the reflector.

     

    The prototype which was built is ready for upscaling to a 6 m mounting carriage which will be able to produce the new generation of solar collectors for the demonstration field. A mounting process for production of solar collectors in a production line has been proposed which can shorten the mounting time and work load to less than 45 minutes and 1-2 persons per collector.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2025-09-01 20:46
  • 30.
    Agrell, Elias
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Analys av massapumps- och mixerarbete vid Metsä Board Sverige AB, Husums Fabriker: Energibesparingsåtgärder vid blekeri 4 & 5 med jämförelse mot ny utrustning2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Metsä Board Husum har idag ett flertal olika modeller av massapumpar vid blekeri 4 och 5. Dessa är av deplacerande typ (HC-pump, Sunds Defibrator PTD-60) samt centrifugalmodell (MC-pump, MCA 42-200, MCP 30/20), centrifugalmodellen regleras med strypventiler vilket innebär en extra förlust, speciellt märkbar är denna då produktionen tas ned. Vid blekeriet finns även kemikaliemixrar för att mixa in ClO2 innan pappersmassan pumpas till ett uppehållstorn där blekprocessen sker.

    Anläggningens nuläge genomgick en mindre kartläggning där specifikationer och mätdata samlades in för att ge en bakgrund till det energibehov som finns idag. Tillgänglighet för reservdelar har varit av intresse för de äldre HC-pumparna.

    Tillsammans med Sulzer har uppfordringshöjd beräknats för positioner utrustade med PTD -60 då uppgifter för denna saknades. Sulzer och Valmet har offererat ny utrustning för dessa positioner som jämförs mot uppmätta värden för att beräkna återbetalningstid. Inkomna offerter förutsätter frekvensomriktare och baseras på en önskad produktionsökning till 50 ADMt/h för blekeri 4 och 60 ADMt/h för blekeri 5. Detta är en ökning på 10 ADMt/h och blekeri. Erforderlig effekt för drifter i inkomna offerter och uppmätt effekt är ej angiven vid samma driftpunkt. De offererade pumparnas driftpunkt har därför räknats om för att motsvara driftpunkt vid tillfället för insamling av data. Detta för att enkelt kunna jämföra offerter mot nuläge.

    På blekeri 4 återfinns en MC-pump av modell MCA 42-200 med posnummer 441PU255. Vid denna position gjordes en djupare undersökning då nivåregleringen ej fungerar som tänkt. Nivåhållning sker via reglerventil och varvtalsreglering med frekvensomriktare. För att kunna köra driften har frekvensomriktaren manuellt ställts i ett fast varvtal och reglerventilen lagts i automatik. Ventilen styr därmed nivå i fallröret och har vid normal drift en öppningsgrad på 40-50 %. Vid genomgången upptäcktes att parametrar i styrsystem gällande de varvtal motorn skall arbeta vid inte korrigerats efter en ombyggnation. Detta har medfört att nivån inte gått att reglera i automatik utan att systemet börjat självsvänga. För att undersöka skillnad mellan varvtalsstyrning och strypreglering gjordes ett försök där varvtalet sänktes från 1520 rpm till 1100 rpm vilket resulterade i en effektminskning på 82 kW eller 342 081 kr per år jämfört med strypreglering; detta var vid en produktion av 36 ADMt/h. Försöket gjordes med något lägre produktion än önskvärt; på grund av detta kommer besparingen minska något vid högre produktion.

    Samtliga positioner uppvisar minskat energibehov med ny utrustning. Dock gör hög investeringskostnad och krav på kort återbetalningstid att endast några få positioner är lämpliga kandidater för ombyggnad i dagsläget. För MC-pumparna kan däremot majoriteten av besparingen uppnås genom att bygga om dagens strypreglering till varvtalsreglering. Detta sker till en betydligt lägre kostnad än vid uppgradering av pump.

    Arbetet visar att det finns stor potential att minska energikonsumtion vid blekning av pappersmassa, detta gäller speciellt för de befintliga MC-pumparna som är kraftigt överdimensionerade och regleras med strypventil. De gamla kemikaliemixrarna använder stora mängder energi för att mixa in ClO2, nya mixrar använder mindre än hälften av energin och ger överskådliga återbetalningstider.

  • 31. Aguilar, Luis T.
    et al.
    Boiko, Igor M.
    Fridman, Leonid M.
    Freidovich, Leonid B.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Generating oscillations in inertia wheel pendulum via two-relay controller2012Ingår i: International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, ISSN 1049-8923, E-ISSN 1099-1239, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 318-330Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of generating oscillations of the inertia wheel pendulum is considered. We combine exact feedback linearization with two-relay controller, tuned using frequency-domain tools, such as computing the locus of a perturbed relay system. Explicit expressions for the parameters of the controller in terms of the desired frequency and amplitude are derived. Sufficient conditions for orbital asymptotic stability of the closed-loop system are obtained with the help of the Poincare map. Performance is validated via experiments. The approach can be easily applied for a minimum phase system, provided the behavior of the states of the zero dynamics is of no concern. Copyright (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 32.
    Aguilar, Luis T.
    et al.
    CITEDI, National Polytechnic Institute, Tijuana, BC, Mexico.
    Freidovich, Leonid
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Orlov, Yury
    CICESE Research Center, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.
    Merida, Jovan
    CITEDI, National Polytechnic Institute, Tijuana, BC, Mexico.
    Performance Analysis of Relay Feedback Position Regulators for Manipulators with Coulomb Friction2013Ingår i: Proc. 12th European Control Conference, NEW YORK, NY 10017 USA: IEEE , 2013, s. 3754-3759Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze the performance of several global position regulators for robot manipulators with Coulomb friction. All the controllers include a proportional-differential part and a switched part whereas the difference between the controllers is in the way of compensation of the gravitational forces. Stability analysis is also revisited within the nonsmooth Lyapunov function framework for the controllers with and without gravity pre-compensation. Performance issues of the proposed controllers are evaluated in an experimental study of a five degrees-of-freedom robot manipulator. In the experiments, we choose two criteria for performance analysis. In the first set of experiments, we set the same gains to all the controllers. In the second set of experiments, the gains of the controller were chosen such that the work done by the manipulator is similar.

  • 33. Aguirre-Hernandez, Baltazar
    et al.
    Campos-Canton, Eric
    Villafuerte-Segura, Raul
    Vazquez, Carlos
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Loredo-Villalobos, Carlos-Arturo
    Open Challenges on the Stability of Complex Systems: Insights of Nonlinear Phenomena with or without Delay2019Ingår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, artikel-id 5209636Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Ahlgren, Benjamin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Tian, Zhiyong
    Perers, Bengt
    Dragsted, Janne
    Johansson, Emma
    Umeå universitet.
    Lundberg, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet.
    Mossegard, Jonatan
    Bystrom, Joakim
    Olsson, Olle
    A simplified model for linear correlation between annual yield and DNI for parabolic trough collectors2018Ingår i: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 174, s. 295-308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a simple method for estimating annual thermal performance of parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) based on a linear relation with annual DNI for a certain latitude. A case study with simulations for a novel concentrating solar collector in 316 locations for three operating temperature scenarios worldwide was carried out and showed promising results for the latitudes and continents investigated. For a certain latitude and mean operating temperature, the annual yield of a PTC was found to be linearly proportional to yearly DNI. The proposed method will serve as a simplified alternative to the steady-state and quasi-dynamic methods already used. Estimating performance based on yearly DNI can be used by design engineers to do quick preliminary planning of solar plants. Customers can also use this method to evaluate existing solar collector installations. A TRNSYS/TRNSED tool that uses a steady-state model has been developed to carry out the simulations and it has been validated against a PTC array at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The results show that the simplified method can give reliable estimates of long-term performance of parabolic trough collectors.

  • 35.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Kostromina, Elena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Imaging the pancreatic beta cell: chapter 132011Ingår i: Type 1 diabetes: pathogenesis, genetics and immunotherapy / [ed] David Wagner, InTech, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is a compilation of reviews about the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes. T1D is a classic autoimmune disease. Genetic factors are clearly determinant but cannot explain the rapid, even overwhelming expanse of this disease. Understanding etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is essential. A number of experts in the field have covered a range of topics for consideration that are applicable to researcher and clinician alike. This book provides apt descriptions of cutting edge technologies and applications in the ever going search for treatments and cure for diabetes. Areas including T cell development, innate immune responses, imaging of pancreata, potential viral initiators, etc. are considered.

  • 36.
    Ahlqvist, Emil
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Implementing a Resume Database with Online Learning to Rank2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to Rank is a research area within Machine Learning. It is mainly used in Information Retrieval and has been applied to, among other systems, web search engines and in computational advertising. The purpose of the Learning to Rank model is to rank a list of items, placing the most relevant at the top of the list, according to the users' requirements. Online Learning to Rank is a type of this model, that learns directly from the users' interactions with the system.

    In this thesis a resume database is implemented, where the search engine applies an Online Learning to Rank algorithm, to rank consultant's resumes, when queries with required skills and competences are issued to the system. The implementation of the Resume Database and the ranking algorithm, as well as an evaluation, is presented in this report. Results from the evaluation indicates that the performance of the search engine, with the Online Learning to Rank algorithm, could be desirable in a production environment.

  • 37.
    Ahmed, Shibbir
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Micro-wave synthesis of co-doped transition metal oxides anchored on reduced graphene oxide and their implementation as catalysts for water oxidation2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Artificial photosynthesis is a very attractive and a desirable way to solve the rising energy demand. In order to harvest energy directly from sunlight catalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reaction are at the core of key renewable-energy technologies including fuel cells and water splitting. Herein, tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide (WO3-rGO), cobalt oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Co3O4-rGO) and tungsten oxide-cobalt oxide-reduced graphene oxide (WO3-Co3O4-rGO) nano-composites were synthesized via a facile, efficient, one-pot microwave assisted method as an efficient electro-catalyst for water oxidation. The structural and chemical compositions of the produced nano-structures were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Raman Spectroscopy as well as thremogravimetric analysis. Catalytic performances of the engineered nano hybrids for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) were evaluated using a standard three electrode system in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution, with a coiled Pt wire as the counter electrode and an Ag/AgCl as the reference electrode. In the produced nano-composites, WO3 and Co3O4 nano-particles are uniformly decorated on the reduced graphene oxide sheets without any agglomeration. The WO3-Co3O4-rGO hybrids afforded current density 1 mA/cm2 at 1.693 V vs RHE and the Co3O4-rGO reached the current density 1 mA/cm2 at 1.769 V vs RHE regarding the catalytic performance for OER in alkaline solution. The over potential was significantly reduced by 76 mV after co-doping of WO3 with Co3O4-rGO nano hybrids. The WO3-Co3O4-rGO gives current density 1 mA/cm2 at 1.658 V vs RHE. We also show that the over potential for oxygen evolution of the WO3-Co3O4-rGO was further reduced by illuminating the catalyst to visible light thus manifesting the photo-catalytic properties of the hybrid catalyst.

  • 38.
    Aimaiti, Nuerrennisahan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    A Comparison of Rotation Parameterisations for Bundle Adjustment2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Bundle Adjustment is an iterative process where 3D information is estimated from 2D image measurements. Typically, the position of object points are estimated simultaneously with the position and orientation of the cameras. While the object points and camera positions have a straightforward "natural" parameterisation, several possibilities exist for the rotation. In this thesis, seven parameterisation of the rotation were investigated; Euler angles (two variants), the Rodriguez representation, the axis-and-angle representation, unit quaternions, and two variants of the direction cosine matrix (DCM). The Euler and Rodriguez parameterisation are common in photogrammetry and each has three parameters. The other parameterisations have more parameters and one or more constraint between them.

    The parameterisations were analyzed with respect to singularities, i.e. well-defined rotations that do not have any bounded and/or unique set of parameters. Four bundle adjustment experiments were setup, each corresponding to a singularity for one or more parameterisations. A fitth, singularity-free, experiment was also added. The experiments were perturbation studies that investigated the convergence properties of each parameterisation. The unconstrained parameterisations were solved by a damped and undamped Gauss-Newton algorithm, whereas the parameterisations with constraints were solved using damped and undamped algorithms based on the Gauss-Helmert estimation model.

    As expected, the parameterisations corresponding to the constructed singularity had higher failure rates and required more iterations and execution time than the others when it did converge. Excluding their singular cases, the Euler xyz and Rodriguez representations were the fastest with about 37% of the dcm. Of the singularity-free parameterisation, the unit quaternion was the fastest with 79% of the dcm.

    Surprisingly, the undamped bundle algorithms converged more often and faster than the damped bundle algorithms, even close to singularities. However, the undamped convergence was to a higher degree associated with numerical warnings and convergence toward angular values outside the nominal 2 range.

    The results suggest that if singularities are not expected, the Euler xyz and Rodriguez representations are the best of the tested parameterisations. Otherwise, the unit quaternion is the best. As an alternative to the latter case, the switching algorithm by Singla may be used, at the expense of a more complex algorithm.

  • 39.
    Akkerman, Vyacheslav
    et al.
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States.
    Bilgili, Serdar
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States.
    Bychkov, Vitaly
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Valiev, Damir
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Demir, Sinan
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States.
    Morella, Haley
    West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States.
    Impacts of the Lewis and Markstein numbers effects on the flame acceleration in channels2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of flame stretch and thermal/molecular diffusion on the flame acceleration in channels are quantified by means of the analytical and computational endeavours. The internal transport flame properties are accounted in the theory by means of the Markstein number, Mk. Being a positive or negative function of the thermal-chemical combustion parameters, such as the thermal expansion ratio and the Lewis and Zeldovich numbers, the Markstein number either moderates or promotes the flame acceleration. While Mk may provide a substantial impact on the flame acceleration rate in narrow channels, this effects diminishes with the increase of the channel width. The analysis is accompanied by extensive computational simulations of the Navier-Stokes combustion equations, which clarify the impact of the Lewis number on the flame acceleration. It is obtained that, for Le below a certain critical value, at the initial stage of flame acceleration, a globally-convex flame front is splits into two or more "fingers", accompanied by a drastic increase in the flame surface area and associated enhancement of the flame acceleration. Overall, the thermal-diffusive effects substantially facilitate the flame acceleration scenario, thereby advancing a potential deflagration-to-detonation transition. 

  • 40.
    Akkerman, V'yacheslav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Bychkov, Vitaly
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Bastiaans, R. J. M.
    de Goey, L. P. H.
    van Oijen, J. A.
    Eriksson, L. E.
    Flow-flame interaction in a closed chamber2008Ingår i: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 055107-055121Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies of flame interaction with a single vortex andrecent simulations of burning in vortex arrays in open tubesdemonstrated the same tendency for the turbulent burning rate$\propto U_{rms}\lambda^{2/3}$, where  $U_{rms}$ is theroot-mean-square velocity and $\lambda$ is the vortex size. Here itis demonstrated that this tendency is not universal for turbulentburning. Flame interaction with vortex arrays is investigated forthe geometry of a closed burning chamber using direct numericalsimulations of the complete set of gas-dynamic combustion equations.Various initial conditions in the chamber are considered, includinggas at rest and several systems of vortices of different intensitiesand sizes. It is found that the burning rate in a closed chamber(inverse burning time) depends strongly on the vortex intensity; atsufficiently high intensities it increases with $U_{rms}$approximately linearly in agreement with the above tendency. On thecontrary, dependence of the burning rate on the vortex size isnon-monotonic and qualitatively different from the law$\lambda^{2/3}$. It is shown that there is an optimal vortex size ina closed chamber, which provides the fastest total burning rate. Inthe present work the optimal size is 6 times smaller than thechamber height.

  • 41.
    Akkerman, V’yacheslav
    et al.
    Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow, Russia.
    Ivanov, Mikhail
    Department of Physics and Power Engineering, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russia.
    Bychkov, Vitaly
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Turbulent flow produced by Piston Motion in a Spark-ignition engine2009Ingår i: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 317-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulence produced by the piston motion in spark-ignition engines is studied by 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations in the cylindrical geometry as in the theoretical and experimental work by Breuer et al (Flow Turb. Combust. 74 (2005) 145, Ref. [1]). The simulations are based on the Navier-Stokes gas-dynamic equations including viscosity, thermal conduction and non-slip at the walls. Piston motion is taken into account as a boundary condition. The turbulent flow is investigated for a wide range of the engine speed, 1000-4000 rpm, assuming both zero and non-zero initial turbulence. The turbulent rms-velocity and the integral length scale are investigated in axial and radial directions. The rms-turbulent velocity is typically an order-of-magnitude smaller than the piston speed. In the case of zero initial turbulence, the flow at the top-dead-center may be described as a combination of two large-scale vortex rings of a size determined by the engine geometry. When initial turbulence is strong, then the integral turbulent length demonstrates self-similar properties in a large range of crank angles. The results obtained agree with the experimental observations of [1].

  • 42.
    Akkerman, Vyacheslav
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States .
    Valiev, Damir
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Effect of gas compression on flame acceleration in obstructed cylindrical tubes2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of gas compression on the process of extremely fast flame acceleration in obstructed cylindrical tubes is studied analytically and validated by computational simulations. The acceleration leading to a deflagration-to-detonation transition is associated with a powerful jet-flow produced by delayed combustion in spaces between the obstacles. This acceleration mechanism is Reynolds-independent and conceptually laminar, with turbulence playing only a supplementary role. In this particular work, the incompressible formulation [Combust. Flame 157 (2010) 1012], Ref. 15 is extended to account for small but finite initial Mach number up to the first-order terms. While flames accelerate exponentially during the initial stage of propagation, when the compressibility is negligible, with continuous increase in the flame velocity with respect to the tube wall, the flame-generated compression waves subsequently moderate the acceleration process by affecting the flame shape and velocity, as well as the flow driven by the flame. It is demonstrated that the moderation effect is substantial, and as soon as gas compression is relatively small, the present theory is in good quantitative agreement with the computational simulations. The limitations of the incompressible theory are thereby underlined, and a critical blockage ratio for with this acceleration mechanism can be evaluated.

  • 43.
    Al Khodor, Rami
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Rörelseanalyssystem2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag ses ett ökat intresse för användandet av rörelseanalys inom olika sammanhang t.ex. övervakning, dataspel och diagnostisk undersökning av personers rörelsemönster med mera. Optisk rörelseanalys är den teknik som finns mest idag, men de systemen är dyra och saknar lämplig mjukvara för klinisk användning.

    En forskargrupp vid centrum för medicinsk teknik och strålningsfysik (CMTS) forskning och utvecklings avdelning (MT-FoU) vid Norrlands universitetssjukhus har sedan 2007 jobbat med en produktidé som bygger på att skapa ett nytt mobilt system för rörelseanalys som kan användas i medicinska undersökningar. Ett Arduino pro mini kort samt ett 9-axligt prototypkort som består av MPU-6000 och en magnetometer HMC5883L är anskaffat för att tillverka ett system i detta syfte.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att skapa ett verktyg som kan samla in rörelsemönster för att sedan presentera resultatet i ett diagram. Systemet skulle kunna samla in data från en sensor som inkluderar en 3D-accelerometer ett 3D-gyroskop och en 3D magnetometer för att därefter skicka det vidare till en dator där mätdata presenteras visuellt och sparas undan i en textfil.

    En viktig detalj att ta hänsyn till vid konstruktionen av det nya systemet var att konstruktionen gjordes med hjälp av billiga standardkomponenter och kretskort. Projektet har genomförts och några testmätningar har gjorts. Ett resultat sparades undan i en textfil och ett diagram har tagits fram som beskriver ett lårs rörelsemönster vid normal gång.

  • 44.
    Alaa, Alaqra
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    The Thing about gaming experience2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing popularity in the academic and practical fields of digital gaming, little has been explored and documented about gaming experience, especially firsthand account. This study uses Bruno Latour’s concept of the Thing while investigating digital gaming experience from frequent gamers’ standpoint using focus groups methodology. Additionally in-depth interviews were conducted with developers in order to gain a business perspective on the status of digital games development with regard to gamers. From the findings, Reality, Game, and Player were identified as agencies and their associations with the experiences of the gamers were gathered in making the Thing about gaming experience a matter of concern providing new meanings and further understandings of the abstract sets of experiences.

  • 45.
    Al-Alosi, Muhammed
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Framtidsmöjligheter med 5G mobilnät2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport introduceras de olika mobilnätsteknologierna, 1G till 5G. Fokus ligger på hur det framtida 5G-mobilnätet kommer att fungera och vilka möjligheter som kommer att finnas med det. Andra saker som rapporten tar med är de basstationer som kommer att användas i det framtida mobilnätet samt en kort beskrivning utav terminalen i 5G-nätet och de tjänster som kommer att finnas tillgängliga i den. Protokollstacken i 5G-nätet tas också upp. Dessutom presenteras Wi-Fi 802.11u standarden som kommer att vara en del av det framtida mobil-nätet. Vi får också läsa om hur 5G-nätet kommer att lösa vissa problem som är relaterade till dagens mobilnätsteknologier. Avslutningsvis beskrivs de olika åtkomstteknikerna som används inom telekommunikationssystemen. 

  • 46.
    Alam, Md Khorshed
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Fabrication of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) active substrates based on vertically aligned nitrogen doped carbon nanotube forest2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work describes the fabrication and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) characterization of vertically aligned nitrogen (N) doped multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forests coated by silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles. In the present work, the CNT forests were grown from a catalyst metal layer by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process at temperature of 800 oC and a physical vapor deposition (PVD) and annealing processes were applied subsequently for the evaporation and diffusion of noble metal nanoparticles on the forest.

    Transistor patterning of 20, 50 and 100 μm were made onto the silicon-oxide (SiO2) wafers through the photolithography process with and without depositing a thickness of 10 nm titanium (Ti) buffer layer on the Si-surfaces. Iron (Fe) and cobalt (Co) were used together to deposite a thickness of 5 nm catalyst layer onto the Single Side Polished (SSP) wafers. As carbon and nitrogen precursor for the CNT growth was used pyridine. Two different treatment times (20 and 60 minutes) in the CVD process determined the CNT forest height. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging was employed to characterize the CNT forest properties and Ag and Au nanoparticle distribution along the CNT walls.

    The existence of “hot spots” created by the Ag and Au nanoparticles through the surface roughness and plasmonic properties was demonstrated by the SERS measurements. Accordingly, the peak intensity at wave number of 1076 cm-1 was picked up from each SERS spectra to establish the Ag- and Au-trend curves with different concentrations of 4-ATP solution. The SERS mapping was also carried out to study the Ag- and Au-coated CNT surface homogeneity and “hot spots” distribution on the CNT surface. The SERS enhancement factors (EF) were calculated by applying an analyte solution of ethanolic 4-ATP on the CNT surface. The calculated values of EF from Ag- and Au-coated CNT forests were 9×106 and 2.7×105 respectively. 

  • 47.
    Albano, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Exploratory statistical study of long-term variability in echocardiographic indices (echocardiovariability) in healthy and diseased1987Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hjärtfrekvensvariabilitet, HRV, är ett väl utforskat område sedan några årtionden tillbaka. Svängningarna i hjärtfrekvensen studeras över tidsperioder av några minuter upp till 24 timmar och mäts med elektrokardiografi, EKG. Från det har man kunnat sluta sig till att signalen för hjärtfrekvensen oscillerar enligt signalen för andningen, kärlresistans etc.

    Den mest använda undersökningsmetoden på hjärtat utförs med ultraljud, ekokardiografi. De intressanta variablerna mäts en i taget och för ett hjärtslag åt gången. Med inspiration från studierna av HRV fokuserar det här projektet på några av variablerna som mäts med ultraljud, men som tidsserier och simultant mätta. De intressanta variablerna är tagna från hjärtmuskeln och blodflödet i den vänstra delen av hjärtat. Mätningarna görs över två minuter. För att komplettera dessa variabler mäts de välkända variablerna HR och Resp med EKG och läggs till analysen.

    Metoderna för att analysera datat är först av allt beskrivande statistik, såsom medelvärde och standardavvikelse. I ett andra steg görs en spektralanalys för att undersöka inom vilka frekvenser signalerna oscillerar. Genom koherens jämförs detta med spektrum för HR där de tre topparna har känt ursprung. Slutligen utförsen principalkomponentanalys, PCA, som en metod för att jämföra alla variabler samtidigt.

    Analyserna utförs på sju mätninger från fem (5) friska personer och fem mätningar från fyra (4) patienter med FAP (“Skelleftesjukan”). Variablerna undersöks och beskrivs först för de friska personerna, sedan jämförs de friska och sjuka personerna.

    Resultatet av studien visar att största delen av eko-variablerna oscillerar i enighet med andningen och hjärtfrekvensen. För en frisk person är svängningarna inom normala värden och den relativa avvikelsen är ungefär 10%. För patienterna med FAP påverkas framförallt variablerna kopplade till hjärtmuskeln förutom HR som man visste sedan tidigare.

    Koherensen mellan eko-variablerna och HR är låg i antingen VLF-, very low frequency, eller LF-, low frequency, området och hög i den andra. I HF-, high frequency, området är koherensen hög för alla variabler.

    Slutligen görs PCA på mätningarna från alla friska personer som ett dataset, på en av de friska personerna och på en av patienterna med FAP. Analysen visar att för friska personer är andningen den process som orsakar mest variation och alla eko-variabler har en korrelation till andningen. För en patient med FAP är andningen inte lika framträdande. En PCA av block ur datat vid olika tidpunkter i signalen visar dock att signalerna inte svänger multivariat på samma sätt genom hela tidsserien.

  • 48.
    Albán Reyes, Diana Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Svedberg, Anna
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundman, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The influence of different parameters on the mercerisation of cellulose for viscose production2016Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 1061-1072Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative analysis of degree of transformation from a softwood sulphite dissolving pulp to alkalised material and the yield of this transformation as a function of the simultaneous variation of the NaOH concentration, denoted [NaOH], reaction time and temperature was performed. Samples were analysed with Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis and these results were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Gravimetry was used to measure the yield. The resulting data were related to the processing conditions in a Partial Least Square regression model, which made it possible to explore the relevance of the three studied variables on the responses. The detailed predictions for the interactive effects of the measured parameters made it possible to determine optimal conditions for both yield and degree of transformation in viscose manufacturing. The yield was positively correlated to the temperature from room temperature up to 45 A degrees C, after which the relation was negative. Temperature was found to be important for the degree of transformation and yield. The time to reach a certain degree of transformation (i.e. mercerisation) depended on both temperature and [NaOH]. At low temperatures and high [NaOH], mercerisation was instantaneous. It was concluded that the size of fibre particles (mesh range 0.25-1 mm) had no influence on degree of transformation in viscose processing conditions, apparently due to the quick reaction with the excess of NaOH.

  • 49.
    Albán Reyes, Diana Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Stridh, Kjell
    AkzoNobel, Stenungsund, Sverige.
    de Wit, Paul P.
    AkzoNobel, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
    Sundman, Ola
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Is there a diffusion of alkali in the activation of dissolving cellulose pulp at low NAOH stoichiometric excess?2019Ingår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 1297-1308Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a quantitative study, following the degree of activation (i.e. the transformation to alkali cellulose, denoted as DoA) over time for dissolving cellulose pulp treated with different [NaOH] at low NaOH/anhydroglucose unit stoichiometric ratio (denoted as (r) ≤ 2.6). Our quantitative approach was based on Raman spectroscopy data, evaluated by partial least squares regression modelling. The results show strong influence of the (r) on DoA (increasing from DoA= 45% at (r) = 0.8, to DoA = 85% at (r) = 2.6), and its complex dependence on [NaOH]. At (r) = 0.8 the highest DoA (DoA ≳ 60%) was found at 30% [NaOH], while at (r) =1.3 it was found at 20% [NaOH] (DoA ≳ 80%). Although activation of cellulose happens in minutes at the studied temperature (30 °C), it was found that the reaction may be slow when a low (r) is used. A gradual increase of the DoA from ≈ 30% to ≈ 70% in time was seen when samples were activated with 30% [NaOH] at (r) = 0.8. At the same (r), a similar increase of DoA from ≈ 30 % to ≈ 60 % was also observed when 40% [NaOH] was used. Slow diffusion of NaOH through poorly swollen cellulose fibres is proposed as an explanation for this phenomenon. Lastly, solid-state CP/MAS NMR measurements suggest that at a fixed temperature, the Na-Cell allomorph mostly depends on [NaOH]. However, in the transition area between Na-Cell I and Na-Cell II, its influence might be affected by (r). 

  • 50. Aldea, Steliana
    et al.
    Snåre, Mathias
    Eränen, Kari
    Grenman, Henrik
    Rautio, Anne-Riika
    Kordás, Krisztian
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Salmi, Tapio
    Murzin, Dmitry Y.
    Crystallization of Nano-Calcium Carbonate: The Influence of Process Parameters2016Ingår i: Chemie Ingenieur Technik, ISSN 0009-286X, E-ISSN 1522-2640, Vol. 88, nr 11, s. 1609-1616Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitated calcium carbonate was synthesized by carbonation of calcium hydroxide in the presence and absence of ultrasound (conventional stirring) at atmospheric as well as at elevated pressures and different initial concentrations of Ca(OH)2. Spherical morphology of the formed calcite was favored at high Ca(OH)2 concentrations and low CO2 pressures. The presence of ultrasound did not show any influence on the reaction rate in case of efficient mixing. A small increase of the reaction rate was observed at lower CO2 pressures. Elevated pressures in combination with ultrasound did not lead to notable changes of reaction rate or particle morphology.

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