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• 1.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Implementering av Lean Production på Hedson Technologies AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This report is the conclusion of my bachelor degree in mechanical engineering at Umeå University. The report is the result of the work that has been done at Hedson Technologies AB in Malmö. Hedson is the number one on the market for producing wheel washers, dry equipment and car lifts. They have two constructions in Sweden and one in Germany. This work is limited to the building in Malmö, Sweden.

To continue being the market leading company Hedson have realized that they need to improve the production line. To obtain a more efficient flow companies usually use Lean Production. Lean is a philosophy that permeates the whole company, from supply delivery until the product has reached the customer. The purpose of this thesis is to begin a work within Lean at Hedson. The work is supposed to act as groundwork for a Lean initiative that the company later can build on to get the production as efficient as possible.

I have through an analysis of the production line and interviews with the market and the product manager shaped an overall picture of how the company operates. I have then done a pilot study and manipulated the information I have gathered to find the optimal course of action for Hedson to begin their work within Lean.

It was thanks to a great cooperation with the staff of the company that a successful result was possible. Since the production was much unorganized and disordered the implementation of the 5S method was a perfect start for a long and successful journey through Lean Production. At last an introduction to Lean and 5S was done through a presentation to create an understanding at the company.

• 2.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Värmeöverföring från smälta till vattenkyld tapputrustning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This thesis work is done on behalf of Boliden Mineral AB at Rönnskärsverken.

Kopparhyttan is an electric copper furnace for melting of copper concentrates and secondary materials in the form of ashes, metal scrap, crushed matte, slag and sludge.

Depending on how the input material varies, the chemical composition of the melt will vary as well. Variations in the chemical composition of the melt also imply that the physical properties of the melt vary and the heat transfer between melt and tap block.

A high heat load on the tap block during tapping of matte, results in increased wear and severe erosion of the tap channel and therefore the need of an understanding of the underlying causes to prevent and if possible avoid the high heat load.

The completed analysis shows that a high heat load on the tap equipment mainly is associated with the copper content. A lower copper content leads to the melting point is lowered and also reduces the viscosity, leading to an increased mass flow. The increased heat load thus indicate an increased mass flow in combination with a reduced melting point, which means that the freezing of an erosion protective coating of matte on the inside of tapping channel walls becomes more difficult and thus increases the erosion on the tap equipment. Sulphur deficit, which is calculated from a chemical analysis of matte, showed no correlation to a high heat load and no connection between the sulfur deficit and the erosion of the tap equipment were successfully concluded.

Measures proposed to reduce the wear on the tap equipment are increasing the flow of cooling water and a possible reduction of the tap channel diameter.

• 3.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Expanding operation ranges using active flow control in Francis turbines2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This report contains an investigation of fluid injection techniques used in the purpose of reducing deleterious flow effects occurring in the draft tube of Francis turbines when operating outside nominal load. There is a focus on implement ability at Jämtkrafts hydroelectric power plants and two power plants were investigated, located in series with each other named Lövhöjden and Ålviken. The only profitable scenario found with some degree of certainty was an increase in the operating range upwards to allow overload operation.

Findings show that both air and water can be introduced in various locations to improve hydraulic efficiency around the turbine parts as well as reduce pressure pulsations in harmful operating regions. Investments in such systems have proven useful and profitable at several facilities with poorly adapted operating conditions. But due to losses in efficiency when operating injection systems, it turns out unprofitable in situations where it does not improve the operating range in a way that is resulting in increased annual or peak production.

• 4.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Optimerad design och tillverkningsmetod av koncentrerande solfångare2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis

The sun is our most important source of energy for us to be able to cope with the evermore pressuring climate threats. This has always been very clear for Absolicon Solar Collector AB in Härnösand, developers of concentrating solar collectors. The company has so far produced solar collectors which can produce both thermal and electrical power for mid-sized installations such as hotels and hospital. Now however, they are changing direction. Absolicon wants to address the many bigger industries with a demand for steam, in countries rich with solar radiation. Absolicon also wants to develop a production line for production of their solar collector, for deployment in the countries where the demand is the biggest.

In a project partially financed by the Swedish energy department, a demonstrational production line will be built in Härnösand. The production line will be used to build a demonstrational field at HEMAB (Härnösands Energi och Miljö AB) with a new generation of solar collectors, optimized for steam production. The solar collectors built today has a problem with the reflector not getting an optimized shape throughout the whole collector. This has to be rectified since the demand on the shape of the reflector is higher on the new generation of solar collectors. This Is due to the use of a smaller receiver. Furthermore a mounting carriage using a new production method is to be developed for the production line. The mounting carriage should, by using vacuum, form and fixate the reflector of the collector while it also optimizes its shape.

Tests was performed to examine how to optimize the shape of the reflector. A test rig was used to examine how a thin sheet of metal can be formed and fixated using vacuum while developing an optimized production method. A prototype carriage for production of 2 m long collectors using the new method was designed and constructed for evaluation.

The results of the evaluation showed that the developed method is working well and that a receiver diameter of 19 mm can be used. The method is based on letting the edges of the reflector sheet hang free, which eliminates unwanted tensions in the reflector.

The prototype which was built is ready for upscaling to a 6 m mounting carriage which will be able to produce the new generation of solar collectors for the demonstration field. A mounting process for production of solar collectors in a production line has been proposed which can shorten the mounting time and work load to less than 45 minutes and 1-2 persons per collector.

The full text will be freely available from 2025-09-01 20:46
• 5.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Analys av massapumps- och mixerarbete vid Metsä Board Sverige AB, Husums Fabriker: Energibesparingsåtgärder vid blekeri 4 & 5 med jämförelse mot ny utrustning2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis

Husums plant has a selection of different pulp pumps at bleaching plant 4 and 5. The displacement- (HC-pump, Sund Defibrator PTD-60) and centrifugalpumps (MC-pump, MCA 42-200, MCP 30/20) are of interest in this report. The centrifugal pumps are controlled by throttle valves, which result in an energy loss. Chemical mixers are used to mix ClO2 into the pulp before proceeding into a holding tower where the bleaching process occurs.

The energy demand of the different positions has been measured or calculated to be used in comparisons against new equipment. Quotations were requested and delivered from Valmet and Sulzer. The quotations were made with a production increase of 10 ADMt/h and plant compared to current equipment. Therefore energy need of the equipment in the quotation had to be recalculated to the same production output as when measurements were conducted to be comparable. Quotation of the pumps assumes the use of frequency inverters.

A deeper investigation was made for 441PU255 which is located at bleaching plant 4. The drop leg level of the pump is controlled via a throttle valve. A frequency inverter is installed but not utilized to maintain constant pulp level in the drop leg. This was due to physical changes in the process not being compensated for in the control system. This caused the drop leg level to oscillate when automatic control was used. As a workaround the drive had been set at a constant speed. To investigate the potential savings, an attempt was made in which the speed was lowered from 1520 rpm to 1100 rpm, resulting in a power reduction of 82 kW or 342,081 Sek per year at a production of 36 ADMT/h. The experiment was done with slightly lower production output than desirable; because of this, savings will decrease slightly at higher outputs.

Comparisons showed that considerable amounts of energy could be saved at all positions. However the investment cost is high and therefore favorable payback times can only be seen for some of the positions. The MC-pumps are oversized and in need of constant throttling therefore the majority of the energy savings is made through the installation of frequency inverters and not the pump upgrade.

• 6.
Umeå University.
Umeå University. Umeå University.
A simplified model for linear correlation between annual yield and DNI for parabolic trough collectors2018In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 174, p. 295-308Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper proposes a simple method for estimating annual thermal performance of parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) based on a linear relation with annual DNI for a certain latitude. A case study with simulations for a novel concentrating solar collector in 316 locations for three operating temperature scenarios worldwide was carried out and showed promising results for the latitudes and continents investigated. For a certain latitude and mean operating temperature, the annual yield of a PTC was found to be linearly proportional to yearly DNI. The proposed method will serve as a simplified alternative to the steady-state and quasi-dynamic methods already used. Estimating performance based on yearly DNI can be used by design engineers to do quick preliminary planning of solar plants. Customers can also use this method to evaluate existing solar collector installations. A TRNSYS/TRNSED tool that uses a steady-state model has been developed to carry out the simulations and it has been validated against a PTC array at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The results show that the simplified method can give reliable estimates of long-term performance of parabolic trough collectors.

• 7.
West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States.
West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States.
Impacts of the Lewis and Markstein numbers effects on the flame acceleration in channels2016In: 2016 Spring Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, ESSCI 2016, Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)

The effects of flame stretch and thermal/molecular diffusion on the flame acceleration in channels are quantified by means of the analytical and computational endeavours. The internal transport flame properties are accounted in the theory by means of the Markstein number, Mk. Being a positive or negative function of the thermal-chemical combustion parameters, such as the thermal expansion ratio and the Lewis and Zeldovich numbers, the Markstein number either moderates or promotes the flame acceleration. While Mk may provide a substantial impact on the flame acceleration rate in narrow channels, this effects diminishes with the increase of the channel width. The analysis is accompanied by extensive computational simulations of the Navier-Stokes combustion equations, which clarify the impact of the Lewis number on the flame acceleration. It is obtained that, for Le below a certain critical value, at the initial stage of flame acceleration, a globally-convex flame front is splits into two or more "fingers", accompanied by a drastic increase in the flame surface area and associated enhancement of the flame acceleration. Overall, the thermal-diffusive effects substantially facilitate the flame acceleration scenario, thereby advancing a potential deflagration-to-detonation transition.

• 8.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Flow-flame interaction in a closed chamber2008In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 055107-055121Article in journal (Refereed)

Numerous studies of flame interaction with a single vortex andrecent simulations of burning in vortex arrays in open tubesdemonstrated the same tendency for the turbulent burning rate$\propto U_{rms}\lambda^{2/3}$, where  $U_{rms}$ is theroot-mean-square velocity and $\lambda$ is the vortex size. Here itis demonstrated that this tendency is not universal for turbulentburning. Flame interaction with vortex arrays is investigated forthe geometry of a closed burning chamber using direct numericalsimulations of the complete set of gas-dynamic combustion equations.Various initial conditions in the chamber are considered, includinggas at rest and several systems of vortices of different intensitiesand sizes. It is found that the burning rate in a closed chamber(inverse burning time) depends strongly on the vortex intensity; atsufficiently high intensities it increases with $U_{rms}$approximately linearly in agreement with the above tendency. On thecontrary, dependence of the burning rate on the vortex size isnon-monotonic and qualitatively different from the law$\lambda^{2/3}$. It is shown that there is an optimal vortex size ina closed chamber, which provides the fastest total burning rate. Inthe present work the optimal size is 6 times smaller than thechamber height.

• 9.
Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences B. Tulskaya 52, 115191 Moscow, Russia.
Department of Physics and Power Engineering, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region, Russia. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Turbulent flow produced by Piston Motion in a Spark-ignition engine2009In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 317-337Article in journal (Refereed)

Turbulence produced by the piston motion in spark-ignition engines is studied by 2D axisymmetric numerical simulations in the cylindrical geometry as in the theoretical and experimental work by Breuer et al (Flow Turb. Combust. 74 (2005) 145, Ref. [1]). The simulations are based on the Navier-Stokes gas-dynamic equations including viscosity, thermal conduction and non-slip at the walls. Piston motion is taken into account as a boundary condition. The turbulent flow is investigated for a wide range of the engine speed, 1000-4000 rpm, assuming both zero and non-zero initial turbulence. The turbulent rms-velocity and the integral length scale are investigated in axial and radial directions. The rms-turbulent velocity is typically an order-of-magnitude smaller than the piston speed. In the case of zero initial turbulence, the flow at the top-dead-center may be described as a combination of two large-scale vortex rings of a size determined by the engine geometry. When initial turbulence is strong, then the integral turbulent length demonstrates self-similar properties in a large range of crank angles. The results obtained agree with the experimental observations of [1].

• 10.
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, United States .
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Effect of gas compression on flame acceleration in obstructed cylindrical tubes2016In: 2016 Spring Technical Meeting of the Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute, ESSCI 2016, Eastern States Section of the Combustion Institute , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)

The role of gas compression on the process of extremely fast flame acceleration in obstructed cylindrical tubes is studied analytically and validated by computational simulations. The acceleration leading to a deflagration-to-detonation transition is associated with a powerful jet-flow produced by delayed combustion in spaces between the obstacles. This acceleration mechanism is Reynolds-independent and conceptually laminar, with turbulence playing only a supplementary role. In this particular work, the incompressible formulation [Combust. Flame 157 (2010) 1012], Ref. 15 is extended to account for small but finite initial Mach number up to the first-order terms. While flames accelerate exponentially during the initial stage of propagation, when the compressibility is negligible, with continuous increase in the flame velocity with respect to the tube wall, the flame-generated compression waves subsequently moderate the acceleration process by affecting the flame shape and velocity, as well as the flow driven by the flame. It is demonstrated that the moderation effect is substantial, and as soon as gas compression is relatively small, the present theory is in good quantitative agreement with the computational simulations. The limitations of the incompressible theory are thereby underlined, and a critical blockage ratio for with this acceleration mechanism can be evaluated.

• 11.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Stereo Camera Calibration Accuracy in Real-time Car Angles Estimation for Vision Driver Assistance and Autonomous Driving2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The automotive safety company Veoneer are producers of high end driver visual assistance systems, but the knowledge about the absolute accuracy of their dynamic calibration algorithms that estimate the vehicle’s orientation is limited.

In this thesis, a novel measurement system is proposed to be used in gathering reference data of a vehicle’s orientation as it is in motion, more specifically the pitch and roll angle of the vehicle. Focus has been to estimate how the uncertainty of the measurement system is affected by errors introduced during its construction, and to evaluate its potential in being a viable tool in gathering reference data for algorithm performance evaluation.

The system consisted of three laser distance sensors mounted on the body of the vehicle, and a range of data acquisition sequences with different perturbations were performed by driving along a stretch of road in Linköping with weights loaded in the vehicle. The reference data were compared to camera system data where the bias of the calculated angles were estimated, along with the dynamic behaviour of the camera system algorithms. The experimental results showed that the accuracy of the system exceeded 0.1 degrees for both pitch and roll, but no conclusions about the bias of the algorithms could be drawn as there were systematic errors present in the measurements.

• 12.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Solar Heat in Industrial Processes: Integration of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors Dairy Plants and Pharmaceutical Plants2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The industry sector accounts for a high share of the final energy consumption, with industries in EU-28accounting for a quarter of the final energy demand. Studies also show that 45 % of the industrial heatdemand in EU-27 is in a temperature range that can be supplied with present day solar collectors. Despitethis large potential, solar heat faces obstacles hindering its growth in the industrial sector. The mostsignificant obstacle is the low insight of the industrial system designs and energy demands. Those arecrucial factors for the feasibility and dimensioning of solar heating systems. Three case studies aretherefore conducted in dairy and pharmaceutical plants in order to review the most promising integrationpoints for parabolic trough solar collectors in terms of annual heat demand, temperature level andintegration effort. Two case studies are performed in dairy plants and one in a pharmaceutical plant, alllocated in Sweden. The analyses comprised reviewing energy mappings, process and instrumentationdiagrams of processes and boiler systems, and hourly energy demand data. Simulations have beencarried out with Polysun for the processes with hourly energy data available.Four integration points have been determined to be high priority solar heat integration points in dairyplants, when considering annual thermal energy demand, temperature levels and integration effort.Those are the low pressure steam line, heating of feedwater, clean in place systems and pasteurizers.Solar heat integration concepts have been presented for all the aforementioned heat sinks andsimulations have been conducted for the low pressure steam line and heating of feedwater. A significantamount of excess heat is produced as a result of fluctuating heat demands and peak solar heat productionhours. Further investigation should be carried out, in order to review the potential of supplying excessheat to other heat sinks. Despite the reviewed potential of the clean in place systems and pasteurizers,lack of the hourly energy demand has hindered further analyses of those systems. It is thereforerecommended to conduct energy measurements before taking further measures.Two integration points have been identified in the pharmaceutical plant, namely autoclaves andmultiple-effect distillers. Solar steam generation concepts have been presented for both processes. Theautoclaves are provided with 4,5 bar steam intermittently, as they work with batches and can have ondutyand off-duty intervals ranging from 3-30 minutes. The multiple-effect distillers are providedwith 7 bar steam, which is of rather high pressure for the solar collectors model on which thesimulations are based. The heat demand of the distillers is more or less constant.It was generally easier to acquire data for the integration points at the supply level. For instance, all heatsinks at the supply level had energy demand data available, contrary to the process level. This inclinesadditional focus on integration to the supply level, if the extent of the feasibility study is to be kept to aminimum.

• 13.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Nära-nollenergibyggnader2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The new EU directive EPBD2, Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (recast), adopted 2010, specifies that all new buildings must be so-called nearly-zero-energy-buildings by year 2021. A nearly-zero-energy-building is a building with very high energy performance, which is provided with renewable energy to a large extent. How this should be interpreted and where the requirement is to be placed on energy usage is up to each country to decide. There is currently a debate about this going on in Sweden, and the Swedish Energy Agency has been asked to design a strategy to meet the goals for nearly-zero-energy-buildings. The environmental goal for reducing the carbon footprint by 2020 and 2050 is also closely linked to this question. In order to set a reasonable level of requirement for energy use, both economic-, technical- and environmental aspects must be taken into account. This report studies a new building area in Västra Sörhaga, Alingsås, to find out how to build it in order to achieve the standard for nearly-zero-energy-buildings. A wider study is also made to find out where it is reasonable to set the level of requirements for energy use for nearly-zero-energybuildings throughout the country. The energy calculation software VIP-energy is used for simulating four buildings, off different sizes, and studying their energy consumption.

Where the system boundary is placed has a big impact on the outcome of the measurement of a building's energy use. EPBD2 determines that the building's energy performance should be a priority, before the supply of renewable energy sources. In order to attain a building with a high energy performance, an optimized construction performance is first required, with an airtight and highly insulated building envelope and a ventilation system with heat recovery, and then an efficient energy system and an efficient energy supply should be ensured. When this is reached, the focus can then be put on making sure that the energy supplied is renewable to as large extent as possible. It is therefore important to optimize the building performance first and then take the energy supply system and energy sources into account, whereby the building also has a low primary energy use and is supplied with as much renewable and environmentally friendly energy as possible.

The Swedish Energy Agency’s proposes an energy requirement of half the current energy requirements as a goal for nearly-zero-energy-buildings. One example of energy reducing measures that would result in achieving this standard for a cottage in Kiruna is: elimination of thermal bridges, heat exchange of the ventilation air with 90 % efficiency, windows with a heat transfer coefficient of 0.7 W/m2K and doors with 0.6 W/m2K, airtightness of 0.2 l/s,m2 and a window proportion of 10 %. This is a stretch of what is possible to achieve with today’s technology. Heat exchangers with an efficiency of 90 % exist today, but since they require defrosting in cold climate, which decreases the real efficiency, it could be difficult to achieve in Kiruna. However, with future technological developments and experiences of building low energy buildings, this would be a reasonable standard for nearly-zero-energy-buildings throughout the country. It would also be advantageous to divide the country into more climate zones, or at least divide them more equally. The variation in energy use for a building is today much larger in the most northern climate zone than in the southernmost.

thermal bridges, heat exchange of the ventilation air with 90 % efficiency, windows with a heat transfer coefficient of 0.7 W/m2K and doors with 0.6 W/m2K, airtightness of 0.2 l/s,m2 and a window proportion of 10 %. This is a stretch of what is possible to achieve with today’s technology. Heat exchangers with an efficiency of 90 % exist today, but since they require defrosting in cold climate, which decreases the real efficiency, it could be difficult to achieve in Kiruna. However, with future technological developments and experiences of building low energy buildings, this would be a reasonable standard for nearly-zero-energy-buildings throughout the country. It would also be advantageous to divide the country into more climate zones, or at least divide them more equally. The variation in energy use for a building is today much larger in the most northern climate zone than in the southernmost.

It would be possible to use the passive house standard requirements for nearly-zero-energybuildings in the southern parts of Sweden, but it is not recommended in the north. Especially small buildings are very difficult to build in the passive house standard in cold climates today. To reach passive house standard for a small building in the northern most part of Sweden could require an indoor temperature no higher than 20°C and an airtightness of 0.1 l/s,m2. This is not reasonable, mostly because it is common to have a higher indoor temperature in Sweden and because this very high air tightness cannot be guaranteed today. The area in Västra Sörhaga, Alingsås, is realistic to build with requirements of passive house standard because it is in climate zone III, and that would almost certainly also satisfy the standard for nearly-zero-energy-buildings. If the area was built in the passive house standard it would result in a total specific energy consumption of around 50 kWh/m2 per year, which is 45 % of the energy use for the same area built to meet today’s energy requirements.

The national board of housing’s proposed energy requirements for the revision of the construction rules for 2011 are deemed not to be ambitious enough and makes it very difficult to achieve environmental objectives by 2020. Further studies need to be made on the economic viability of buildings with low energy use, and in order to assess the amount of energy in a uniform manner, primary energy factors need to be developed. These should include both efficiency in manufacturing, energy form and energy sources. Energy sources, in turn, should be judged by the degree of renewability, access and storage capacity. Construction of low-energy buildings requires a large change in the existing construction market and energy structure. We have to start now to achieve this by 2021!

• 14.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Energy evaluation of residential buildings: Performance gap analysis incorporating uncertainties in the evaluation methods2018In: Building Simulation, ISSN 1996-3599, E-ISSN 1996-8744, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 725-737Article in journal (Refereed)

Calculation and measurement-based energy performance evaluations of the same building often provide different results. This difference is referred as "the performance gap". However, a large performance gap may not necessarily mean that there are flaws in the building or deviations from the intended design. The causes for the performance gap can be analysed by calibrating the simulation model to measured data. In this paper, an approach is introduced for verifying compliance with energy performance criteria of residential buildings. The approach is based on a performance gap analysis that takes the uncertainties in the energy evaluation methods into consideration. The scope is to verify building energy performance through simulation and analysis of measured data, identifying any performance gap due to deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building based on performance gap analysis. In the approach, a simulation model is calibrated to match the heat loss coefficient of the building envelope [kWh/K] instead of the measured energy. The introduced approach is illustrated using a single-family residential building. The heat loss coefficient was found useful towards identifying any deviations from the intended design or flaws in the finished building. The case study indicated that the method uncertainty was important to consider in the performance gap analysis and that the proposed approach is applicable even when the performance gap appears to be non-existing.

• 15.
SP Processum.
SP Processum. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
Samförbränning av bioslam från massaindustrin i bubblande fluidiserad bädd2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
• 16.
Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
Discrete adjoint-based shape optimization for an edge-based finite-volume solver2003In: Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics 2003 / [ed] K. J. Bathe, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
• 17.
Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
Universita di Salerno, Italy. FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm. FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm. FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm.
Shape Optimization for Delay of Laminar-Turbulent Transition2006In: AIAA Journal, ISSN 0001-1452, E-ISSN 1533-385X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1009-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
• 18.
Uppsala University, Sweden.
Salermo University, Italy. FOI, Sweden. FOI, Sweden. KTH, Sweden.
Adjoint-Based Shape Optimization for Natural Laminar Flow Design2004In: ERCOFTAC Design Optimization: Methods & Applications / [ed] K.C. Giannakoglou, W. Haase, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
• 19.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Energiinventering av Universumhusets elanvändning2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Detta examensarbete utfördes på uppdrag av Akademiska Hus AB i Umeå under våren 2017. I det här arbetet utfördes en energiinventering av elanvändningen i Universumhuset på Campus i Umeå. Akademiska Hus planerar en större ombyggnation av Universumhuset. Mindre renoveringar och ombyggnationer har genomförts under åren, men vissa system och konstruktioner är från byggåret 1970. Idag finns ett flertal olika hyresgäster och verksamheter inom byggnaden.

I det här arbetet gjordes en inventering och fördelning av byggnadens årliga elanvändning. Fördelningen av elanvändningen beräknades dels efter objektskategorier men även för användningen av fastighets- och hyresgästel. Syftet med detta var att skapa ett underlag för energibesparande och energieffektiviserande åtgärder inför planerad ombyggnad. Utöver detta gjordes även analyser av byggnadens effektnivåer och utredningar för möjlighet till behovsstyrning av anläggningen.

Utifrån inventering konstateras att byggnadens totala elanvändning är ca 1200 MWh/år, var av fastighetsel står för 53 % och hyresgästel för 46 %. Resultat för beräknad fördelning av byggnadens totala elanvändning visar att storköksutrustning står för den enskilt högsta elanvändningen på 23 % följd av belysning 19 %, värmepump 16 % och fläktar 13 %.

Den årliga energianvändningen beror på utrustningens effekt och driftstid och fick i många fall antas. Elanvändnigen beror på flera olika anledningar och varierar under året. Stora delar av utrustningen är även behovsstyrd vilket ger stora variationer och ger en viss osäkerhet i den beräknade fördelningen.

För en effektivare elanvändning föreslås generellt en utökad behovsstyrning för styrning av byggnadens system. Universumhuset har idag en stor del äldre utrustning vilket föreslås bytas ut mot modern utrustning med ny teknik. Även förändring av beteendet för användningen av utrustningen rekommenderas, vilket skulle kunna resultera i en betydlig energibesparing.

• 20.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Förundersökning: Uppförande av vindkraftverk på Åsberget, Hudiksvalls kommun2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Wind power expansion is often preceded with an extensive procedure where the technical, environmental and economic circumstances are investigated. Alongside of this there are also different permits that need to be granted before a wind farm can be built. This whole process takes several years and is both very costly and risky since projects often are discontinued before being a finished project.

The aim of this thesis is to perform a preliminary investigation which examines the conditions for wind power expansion on Åsberget. The basis of this investigation has originated from a previously done initial assessment, made by a company that specializes in developing wind power projects. By using commonly used methods in the industry, the report tries to answer questions which are of great importance when developing wind power projects.

Åsberget shows potential for wind power although there are some complications that may prevent an establishment. The municipality’s approach to wind power on Åsberget is unknown and thus a big question mark. Some of the buildings around Åsberget may also prove to be problematic as they have shown to have a high historical value.

By relocating some of the wind power plants several of the presented problems can be minimized. If the project is continued suggestions for future work have been recommended.

• 21.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Framtagning av PLC-baserat styrsystem till sågrigg, avsedd för standardiserat test på sågskyddskläder2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

# Sammanfattning

Detta examensarbete är utfört på Svensk Maskinprovning AB´s  laboratorium i Umeå.

SMP Svensk Maskinprovning agerar som oberoende tredjepart och är ackrediterade av Swedac. I egenskap av ackrediteringen tar SMP på sig uppdrag att genomföra och ta fram tester för att verifiera att produkter uppfyller och följer den säkerhetsstandard de är tillverkad efter.

SMP arbetar bland annat med säkerhetsprovning av skyddskläder för användare av handhållna motorsågar och ser till att dessa uppfyller gällande krav för CE-märkning.

I arbetet med test av sågskyddskläder används för närvarande en specialbyggd, standardiserad testrigg. På grund av 20 år i drift och ökande säkerhetsrisker ska en ny enhet monteras. SMP har ett behov att uppdatera den nya testriggen med ett styrsystem som förenklar dagens arbete och ökar säkerheten för användaren. Målet med projektet var att ta fram ett förslag och bygga upp ett styrskåp kring en PLC-enhet och automatisera delar av de arbete operatör utför idag.

Metoderna som använts i uppbyggnaden kan delas in i tre delar. Del ett som innefattar intervjuer med användare av testrigg för att få ideér kring skåplayout och programfunktion. Del två är litteraturstudie inom ämnet automation samt styr och reglerteknik för att erhåll de teoretiska kunskaper som krävs. Del tre är montering av apparatskåp vilket även inkluderar programmering av PLC och testkörning.

Produkten av projekt Sågrigg är ett styrskåp som uppfyller kravspecifikationen. Styrskåpet består av ett apparatskåp där dörren agerar operatörspanel. Infälld i dörren är en HMI (Human Machine Interface) som kan styra testriggens alla funktioner. Som tillägg går det att styra alla delmoment från vred och knappar på operatörspanelen utifall HMI-panelen går sönder.

Projektet har trots uppfyllande av kravspecifikation vissa saker som bör förbättras eller slutföras innan systemet kan anses som färdigt. Vissa önskemål angående automatiserade funktioner prioriterades bort och den avslutande testkörningen fick senareläggas. Elfel i systemet som påverkar varvtalsreglering bör ses över innan systemet kan anses färdig att ta i drift.

• 22.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Energibesparande åtgärder i en fastighet med skilda verksamheter.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Houses in Sweden stand for a third of its annual final energy usage. Almost 60 % of this is used to heat the houses of the warm water used in it. A measure to reduce our impact on the environment is to increase of energy efficiency by the year 2020. The construction of new buildings in Sweden is relatively low when compared to the total amount of houses currently in use, this is why the need to not only build new efficient buildings, but to also refurbish the current housing stock is important.

HSB is one of Sweden’s largest housing cooperative and has associations and real estates all across the country. HSB Umeå is one of 31 regional associations and has approximately 8 000 members. In addition to administer the real estate of its housing associations they also own their own real estate. One of those is the house Balder 9, an apartment building with 39 apartments, one office, two stores and one restaurant and was built 1984.

The purpose with this study was to make a model of the house using current energy statistics, the energy usage of the house, and the blue prints of the house, this so that a number of energy saving measures could be tested on the energy usage of the house in the energy calculation program BV2. BV2 was chosen because the program is designed to examine similar problems, and has a flat learning curve in comparison to similar software. The measures that were tested were divided into three categories that affected the energy usage, one was measures on the climate shell of the house, one was measures affecting the heat usage and the last affected the electricity usage of the house. In addition to the three categories of measures, heat recovery from the exhaust air of the restaurant and the gray water from the house were calculated using values from the model.

When the measures had been simulated one by one and the result analyzed, three joint measure packages was simulated on the model. These three were divided into measures that lowered the energy usage, measures that paid back their investment cost, and measures that only were simulated in BV2.

The results given by the simulations was that the measures one by one lowered the energy usage of the house by 1,0 – 5,0 %. The measures that led to the highest saving in energy usage were the measures that lowered the electricity usage for lighting and power appliances, and the measure lowered the inside temperature. The simulation of the three joint measure packages resulted in a reduction in the energy usage by 14,4 – 20,8 %, and a reduction in the emission of carbohydrate equivalents by 15,9 – 18,3 %. The results showed that measures to increase the energy efficiency of buildings should be implemented in joint measure packages in order to attain a higher level of savings in buildings energy consumption that can be reached by individual saving measures.

• 23.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Utredning av värmesystem i Boliden AB:s anläggning vid Tara-gruvan2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

In the summer of 2009, WSP visited a facility adjacent to the Tara-mine at Navan, Ireland. The purpose of their visit was to control the ventilation system which was outdated. During the visit the inspector detected that their heating system also was in need of updating and that task led to this bachelor thesis.

The overall aim of this work is to investigate how a modern heating system can be assembled to improve the indoor climate compared to an older system, where the primary target is to develop a proposal for the formation of a new system that meet the power requirements and today's climate demands.

The study refers to a facility used as a changing room for the miners and as an office premise. The analysis focuses on the changing rooms as the indoor environment is especially inadequate with temperature and relative air humidity above recommendatory values for good indoor climate. In addition, the system is heated with large amounts of oil which contribute with large contaminations to the environment. Being able to moderate the impact the facility contribute to the surroundings is an additional motive for any investment.

The analysis began with an examination of the system demands from the facility’s needs, followed by a search of potential components which could optimize a contemplated system. In order to be able to build this system theoretically correct the thesis established a flow chart. On the basis of the flow chart, the system components is conform adjusted to the facility’s needs, which includes the heating of domestic hot water, ventilation- and heating systems, as well an air dehumidification unit in the locker room. To examine the possibilities of improving the energy efficiency of this heating system, the project will evaluate heat exchangers, a heat pump and a dehumidifier, and a coupling to the existing ventilation and heating systems.

The results are presented as a theoretical system that reduces the facility’s energy consumption and improves indoor climate. By utilizing the accessible thermal energy, the project also presents the economic advantages from choosing an efficient heat pump within the system.

• 24.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
A new energy strategy for controlling heating and ventilation systems for existing offices2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This project shows a house that consists of two identical offices. This model is implemented into the energy simulation software IDA ICE. The thermal characteristics of the building envelope are set according to the Swedish Building regulation code of 1975 (1). The heating ventilation air conditioning system consists of water panel radiators and an air handling unit. These components are designed in order to fulfill the winter design conditions. The heating system is connected to a hot stratified tank whereas a cooling tank provides the cold flow to the air handling unit during summer time. Different local controllers of the panel radiators are tested in order to investigate both the behavior of the indoor temperature and the mass flow of the fluid. The results shows the tradeoff between the temperature of indoor air and the mass flow rate provided to the panel radiators. The P-controller regulates the amount of mass flow rate to the panel radiator according to the level of indoor temperature. It shows a more stable indoor temperature but more instable mass flow rate. The ON/OFF thermostat, set as control, shows large oscillations of indoor temperature and mass flow rate meanwhile the P-controller with set-point signal shows good potential, but when a higher proportional band is used both the temperature and mass flow rate becomes more instable. A PI-controller shows an indoor temperature more stable than the other controllers but an instable mass flow rate. Moreover, the electrical consumption of the auxiliary devices, such as the circulating pump are analyzed for a whole year. Huge differences in the electrical consumption of the circulating pump are detected just by selecting different control strategy. The first strategy used is with a thermostat measuring the outside temperature, this resulted in an electrical consumption almost twice as high as the second strategy. The second strategy is a P-controller with set-point signal that constantly measures the indoor temperature, which showed to be a good strategy for controlling the circulating pumps.

• 25.
Department of Mechanics, KTH, Stockholm.
FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden. Department of Mechanics, KTH, Stockholm.
Optimal Disturbances in Boundary Layers1998In: Computational Methods for Optimal Design and Control, / [ed] J. Borggaard, J. Burns, E. Cliff, and S. Schreck, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
• 26.
FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma.
FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma. FFA, the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden, Bromma.
Optimal disturbances and bypass transition in boundary layers1999In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 134-150Article in journal (Refereed)
• 27.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Energieffektivisering genom dynamisk uppvärmning av en byggnad.2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Akademiska hus förvaltar Umeå Campus och har problem med att användningen av fjärrvärme överskrider den abonnerade effekten på deras abonnemang. Av den anledningen så valdes det att genomföra olika simuleringar av Teknikhuset där institutionen för Tillämpad Fysik och Elektronik är en av hyresgästerna. Med hjälp av simuleringar undersöktes möjligheten att undersöka olika konfigurationer och åtgärder.

En modell skapades i IDA-ICE efter ritningar och de verkliga årliga behoven för fjärrvärme och el. Därefter användes modellen för att testa olika konfigurationer under kalla dygn där temperaturen kontinuerligt är mellan -18 till -25. Resultaten indikerarar att det finns möjlighet att sänka värmen i vissa rum som resulterar i ett minskat effektbehov vilket stämmer väl överens med hypotesen för scenariot. Ett av det andra problemen som förutspåddes var det fanns möjlighet att det skulle bli ökat missnöje av det termiska klimatet. Det på grund utav problem i närliggande rum och lokaler men det visade sig vara mycket begränsad påverkan av det.

Det kalla dygnet visar att byggnaden uppvärm på det traditionella vis jämfört med en dynamisk uppvärmningsmodell skulle göra det möjligt att sänka effektbehovet med 9 % ifall man väljer att inte värma upp en av de tre våningarnas salar. Genom att göra en analys av hur bokningen av salarna visar det att det finns möjlighet att inför ett system där vissa lektionssalar som inte är bokade stängs för användning. Det skulle kunna skapa en lägre sänkning per dygn men på grund av de kontinuerliga användandet skulle det resultera i en större vinst. En simulering över möjligheterna att stänga av en lektionssal på våning två, tre och fyra i Teknikhuset gav en årlig effektsänkning med 1,2 % av fjärrvärmebehovet som om det extrapolerades ut över hela campus skulle spara på 100 000 kr per år.

• 28.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Utredning av slaggning vid förbränning av träpellets i värmeanläggningar: I sammarbete med Härjeåns Energi AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Abstract

The member states of the UN have united behind a convention on climate change 2015, the “Paris agreement”. To face the challenges of a required conversion to renewable energy, the dependence of fossil fuels need to be drastically reduced. Combustion of biomass has a god potential to replace fossil fuels in many applications. Pellets made from stemwood has a high energy value and is a good candidate to replace fossil fuels in small and medium scale heat and power production. To make pellets more attractive on the market, the delivered pellets need to have high quality and enable low maintenance and operational problems during combustion. Härjeåns Energi in Sveg would like to know more about the ash related issues like slagging and sintering, and how it can be avoided be measures related to handling, pellet production and end use (combustion). The overall objectives of the present work was to identify ash related problems during combustion of wood pellets in heating boilers, focusing on sintering and slagging, and to provide recommendations on measures how to avoid such problems for producers and individuals.

This work with the report was divided into two parts. The first part included a research review on the subject. The second part included an investigation of the handling by Härjeåns Energi and their subcontractors. The research review was carried out by reading the research, mainly in scientific peer- review papers from the last 25 years. The investigation of the handling was carried out by evaluating analysis data of pellets, raw material and slagg samples.

The results showed that the most important factor that influence slag formation is the concentrations of certain ash forming elements in fuel, such as silicon, potassium, calcium, sodium, magnesium aluminum and iron. Also ash content, combustion technology and combustion temperature are of importance. Substances in the fuels that are associated with slagging tendencies originate mainly from different kinds of contaminations, e.g. sand, soil and clay. This is most likely the case for Härjeåns Energi. The results also showed that the ash fusion temperatures of the raw material ash where constantly high during the weeks of the summer 2016. The remaining weeks of the year showed more varying ash melting temperatures. The produced pellets from Härjeåns Energi 2016 had a high ash molting temperature during the year of 2016, except in October. The exact reason behind the relative low ash melting temperatures is difficult to point out specifically in this work, and need more careful investigations. Overall, it is the pellets producer, the subcontractors and the manufacturer of the heating devices that have the possibilities to develop product and measures which avoid or reduces slagging related problems. The end users (customers) have very small opportunities to influence the outcome of the combustion of pellets.

• 29.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Rosterkylning för biopanna-Ålidhems värmeverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Rosterpannor är en väl beprövad förbränningsteknik som är vanligaste pannan för små och medelstora anläggningar i Sverige. Det finns många utföranden på rosterpannans rosterbädd som alla har sina för och nackdelar. Dock delar de samma problematik vid eldning av bränsle med ett högt värmevärde såsom biobränslen. Det höga värmevärdet leder till en hög förbränningstemperatur som tillsammans med många andra parametrar ger upphov till korrosion på pannans inre delar, däribland rosterbädden. Det finns två typer av rosterkylning, där ena är luftkylning och andra mer effektiva metoden är vattenkylning.

Panna 7 är en del av Ålidhems värmeverk som används av Umeå Energi till att kapa effekttoppar hos fjärrvärmen. Denna panna eldar returträ med högt värmevärde och har problem med rosteröverhettning i rosterzon 2 vilket är i mitten av längden på hela rosterbädden. Rosteröverhettningen ger upphov till att rostret bryts ned och förutom det försämrar rosterbäddens alla funktioner för en optimal förbränning hos pannan. Denna rapport agerar som en dokumentationshandling åt UE som stöd  för P7:ans brister och lösningar på rosteröverhettningen. Rapporten innehåller kvantitativa lösningar som sedan fungerar som en förstudie vid intresse att genomgå en fördjupad undersökning innan förlagen implementeras i P7:an.

Efter att ha undersökt rosteröverhettningen lokaliserats åtta olika förbättringsåtgärder som innefattar: kylning av stavarna i rosterbädden, utjämna primärlufts- och bränsleflödet, sänkning av värmevärdet hos det befintliga bränslet, konvertera till fluidbäddspanna och rökgaskondensering för att ta tillvara på fukten som vissa lösningar tillsätter till förbränningen. Där antingen konvertera till fluidbäddspanna eller installera vattenkylda stavar är dem mest tänkbara lösningarna vid fortsatt eldning av returträ. Konverteringen anses vara den mest framtidssäkra lösningen, men också den mest omfattande. Vattenkylda stavar är därför den åtgärd som verkar mest lovande eftersom en sådan lösning inte bara kyler stavarna, utan även gör så att förvärmningen av primärluften och luftmängdsfaktorn till förbränningen optimeras. Tidigare studier visar att det inte är tillräckligt ekonomiskt försvarbart med en rökgaskondensering för den aktuella returtemperatur på fjärrvärmen som kommer in till anläggningen. Vidare undersökning måste utföras för att kontrollera ifall anläggningen Graniten, som i dagsläget värmer returvattnet, kan förbikopplas.

• 30.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Energisparåtgärder i samband med påbyggnad av nya bostäder: En fallstudie av Röda längan i IDA ICE2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

As older buildings in our housing stock are in increasing need of extensive renovations, it further enhances our social requirements. It is then needed alongside with renovations to find whole measures that yields energy savings which also is financially profitable.

In this report, we examine the possible energy savings alongside with the profitability of the energy measures connected with extensions of new housing on top of an existing housing. The current heating system of the building is replaced with geothermal heating, which is also working through to the ventilation system. Thereafter the building is extended with three new floors. The report also evaluates if an extension of new housing in the individual case is to be seen as an extension or a reconstruction, together with the demands of which are put on an altered building in accordance to PBL and BBR.

With the help of the computational energy software IDA ICE, the affect from the different energy measures could be studied. The yearly economical savings was then compared to the cost of the different measures. The measures were deemed profitable if the value of the yearly savings exceeded the initial cost.

For the specific case, the measures of energy savings gave an considerable improvement for the extension, both in energy but also in the economical sense. The investment of the extensions is to be seen payed via sales of apartments, and the payback on the actions taken on the existing building is estimated to within 10 to 15 years. for the individual case the possible yearly energy savings, after completed measures, is upwards of 74 percent, which translates to 130 kWh/m2 per year. This report also states that, in specific case, extensions of new housing is to be seen as an extensions and that four geothermal heating pumps are enough to reach sufficient energy savings together with economical profitability.

• 31.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Våningspåbyggnad av miljonprogrammets flerbostadshus: Simulering av energiprestanda i IDA ICE2016Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis

During the years 1965-1974 around one million new housing were built in Sweden, this was also known as the “miljonprogrammet”. Today, nearly a third of the Swedish housing stock is from this particular period, and many buildings are reaching the end of their technical lifetime. After the new EU directives Sweden have decided on developing it's on national goals to achieve smart energy consumption. To speed up this development can the renovations of the existing "miljonprogrammet" executed in combination with storey extension.

Sweden is also facing growing housing shortage, much like during construction of the “miljonprogrammet” as well as limited areas both in urban and densely populated areas. By refurbishing buildings from the “miljonprogrammet” in conjunction with a storey extension, new housing can be built in a resource and energy efficient way. This should also improve the energy performance of the existing building.

In this project, the energy performance of an apartment building, typical from this time, was evaluated and then compared to a modified building with a storey extension. A reference house located in Nacka, Sweden was used to simulate the annual energy usage in the software IDA ICE. The simulation yielded an energy usage of 197.1 kWh/m2 for the reference building and 167.1 kWh/m2 for the building with a storey extension.

After the project it became clear that a storey extension on a building from the “miljonprogrammet” improved the existing building's energy consumption. At best, a building like the reference house can improve the energy classification from energy class G to E. Residential densification using storey extension is beneficial in many aspects. In addition to lowering the total energy consumption of the building it also creates new homes in a resource efficient manner. Society must seek to create enticements for property owners to renovate and execute energy efficient measures on their properties. One such example would be three-dimensional property formation which is also an alternative form of financing investment such as a renovation.

• 32.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Utvärdering av energieffektiva armaturer2015Report (Other academic)

Rapporten redovisar en genomförd uppföljning av den erhållna minskningen av varm- respektive kallvattenanvändningen genom installation av energieffektiva armaturer. Utvärderingen baseras på 23 månaders mätningar av den individuella vattenanvändningen i sjuttiosju lägenheter (21 test-samt 56 referenslägenheter). Testlägenheterna utrustades först med en tidigare generations vattenarmaturer, FM Mattsson serie 9000, vilka senare ersattes med den senaste generationens armaturer FM Mattson serie 9000E. I fem av dessa lägenheter har dessutom komplementerande mätningar gjorts vid de olika tappställena, WC undantagen. Användningen av varm- och kallvattenanvändningen i varje lägenhet har loggats med en tidsupplösning om 10 minuter. För att undvika påverkan av boendes frånvaro från lägenheterna har uppföljningen baserats på den genomsnittliga dygnsanvändningen av vatten för de tider de boende har nyttjat lägenheten. Lägenheter där byte av hyresgäster har skett under utvärderingsperioden har lämnats utanför utvärderingen. De erhållna resultaten visar på en besparing om cirka 30% avseende varmvattenanvändningen samt 15% avseende kallvatten jämfört med referensgruppen. Den erhållna uppskattningen är också konsistent med en teoretisk uppskattning av besparingen baserad på den mätta förändringen av kvoten mellan varmvatten- och kallvattenanvändningen i testlägenheterna.

• 33.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Inventering av småskalig vattenkraft: En undersökning av gamla vattenkraftsdammars potential i Västerbotten och Västernorrland2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
• 34.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Metodutveckling för Testning av Skivstänger2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Baltic Fitness sells and produces functional training equipment. The company wants to develop and create its own barbell brand. In order for this to be possible, it is necessary to provide the basis for the production of barbells and the barbells need to pass different tests to ensure that the quality is at the level desired.

During the work, a survey of different barbell tests has been compiled that ensures the barbell meets the standard. Around the selected tests, a thorough study has been made to find out how and when the tests are to be performed, what safety is required, what components are required to perform the test and the result that must be achieved in order for the barbells to be approved in the test. A manual has been compiled to describe the approaches to the tests. The manual describes the importance of the tests and a price estimate for the necessary components has been compiled.

• 35.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Energieffektivisering av en gammal kulturmärkt prästgård2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Reducing and improving the use of energy is something that is relevant in the current situation for both economic and environmental aspects. Energy goals have been set up to achieve a better and more efficient use of energy. This leads to buildings constructed as efficient as possible but it also involves existing buildings. This report investigates an old heritage rectory from the 1700’s that, with its high use of energy, will be analyzed and then simulated with a few measurements in the energy calculation program VIP Energy.

The information about the rectory is limited. Many assumptions regarding the building’s construction and the occupants’ behavior were applied since documentation has been missing and since the building is currently empty. Svenska kyrkan is currently rebuilding the rectory since they intend to conduct business there in the future. A model was created in VIP with the goal to simulate the rectory when there still was activity in the building. The model were then simulated various measures that were additional insulation, renovation of windows and an installation of a FTX-system. The culture label has made measures that affect the façade, such as external insulation or replacing windows, disregarded.

The results from the model showed that with all the measures together it is possible to reduce the specific use of energy of the rectory from 252 kWh/m

2 to 111 kWh/m2 and thereby live up to the guidelines posted by The National Board of housing, Building and planning. Certain factors have deliberately been ignored such as moisture, due to time restrictions. The same thing applies to the economic part except for the ventilation where a lifecycle cost between a rotating heat exchanger and a plate heat exchanger has been compared to replace the existing exhaust system. The reason is that the ventilation is the most feasible solution for adaption to future use. LCC analysis showed a benefit to the rotary heat exchanger favor with a price difference for about 70 000 SEK towards the existing system, without installation costs or future reparations.

• 36.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Konstant eller behovsstyrd ventilation i grundskolan: En jämförelse med hjälp av LCC-analyser2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Demand controlled ventilation is recognized as an option to constant air volume (CAV) ventilation. Capable of reducing the cost of energy usage, but having higher initial costs. This thesis investigates both these factors in order to see what gives the lowest LCC (life cycle cost).Using the case of a 1000 m2 primary school in Stockholm, Sweden, four different ventilation systems were analyzed: constant air volume (CAV) ventilation, CO2 controlled ventilation, CO2 and temperature controlled ventilation as well as occupancy controlled ventilation.All of the systems were constructed in the AutoCAD software, using the add-on MagiCAD. This made it possible to acquire detailed bills of materials that were exported to the accounting software Sektionsdata, which was used to calculate the initial costs of the systems down on a component level.The energy calculation software IDA ICE was used to perform simulations on both energy usage and indoor climate. Each system was simulated with three different sizes of occupancy.LCC was calculated for each system and occupancy using the net present value method, where CAV got the lowest with a wide margin. CO2 controlled ventilation got the second lowest LCC followed by CO2 and temperature controlled ventilation. Occupancy controlled ventilation got the highest LCC with a wide margin. This order did not depend on the size of the occupancy, but the LCC of the carbon dioxide controlled systems got smaller in comparison with the other systems when the occupancy was reduced.

• 37.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Undersökning av smarta energilösningar för en planerad livsmedelsbutik2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

På uppdrag av Hifab AB har detta examensarbete utförts under vårterminen 2015. En ny livsmedelsbutik ska etableras i Umeå, där Hifab AB har anlitats som generalkonsult av Coop Nord. I dagsläget finns endast ett utkast på hur byggnaden ska se ut eftersom byggnationen av butiken beräknas starta våren 2016. Detta innebär att det finns stora möjligheter att undersöka smarta energilösningar som kan appliceras på den framtida butiken. För att erhålla energistatistik att utgå från användes en Coop-butik i Kramfors som invigdes våren 2012 som referensbutik i detta projekt.

Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka olika energialternativ och energieffektiviserande byggtekniska lösningar för den planerade butiken. Detta för att den planerade Coop-butiken, tillsammans med andra framtida butiker, ska kunna byggas energieffektiv redan från början och för att driftkostnaden för butiken ska bli så låga som möjligt samtidigt som påverkan på miljön blir minimal. Detta projekt ska vara en vägledning i val av energisystem och byggtekniska lösningar för den aktuella Coop-butiken och även vid projektering av framtida livsmedelsbutiker i Sverige, framförallt i norra delen av landet.

Projektet har innehållit två olika delar och ett flertal mål. Det första delmålet var att undersöka vilket av alternativen fjärrvärme eller bergvärme som är det mest ekonomiskt lönsamma för den nya butiken. Nästa delmål var att undersöka möjligheten och kostnaden för att installera solceller på den nya butiken. Målet var även att undersöka om det fanns alternativa sätt att tillgodose kylbehovet på jämfört med de kompressorkylmaskiner som finns i referensbutiken. I den andra delen av projektet var målet att bygga upp en modell av referensbutiken i ett energiberäkningsprogram och att simulera energieffektiviserande lösningar på denna. Detta för att undersöka hur mycket energibesparingar som kunde erhållas, framförallt i minskat uppvärmningsbehov per år.

De metoder som användes för utförandet av detta arbete var studiebesök, intervjuer, kontakt med företag, litteratursökning och datorsimuleringar. Inledningsvis utfördes ett studiebesök på referensbutiken för att få en överblick över dess utformning och uppbyggnad. För undersökningen av fjärrvärme, bergvärme och solceller upprättades kontakt med olika leverantörer medan undersökningen av alternativa kylmetoder utfördes som en litteraturstudie. För den andra delen av projektet valdes IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE) att användas som energiberäkningsprogram. Referensbutiken modellerades i programmet och fick sedan fungera som grundfall på vilken ett antal, utvalda energieffektiviserande lösningar testades.

De viktigaste slutsatserna i detta projekt är att när värmesystem ska väljas för den nya butiken så är fjärrvärme ett mer lönsamt alternativ när valet står mellan fjärrvärme och bergvärme. Slutsatsen för den del i projektet där solceller undersöktes är att det är en lönsam investering att installera solceller på den nya butiken utifrån de beräkningar som har erhållits från två leverantörer. Det bästa alternativet var en tunnfilmssolcell som gav en återbetalningstid på cirka sju år och en investeringskostnad på cirka 1,5 miljon kronor om statsbidraget erhålls. Av det totala elbehovet skulle då cirka 20 % täckas av produktionen från solcellspanelerna. Slutsatserna som kan göras när de energieffektiviserande lösningarna testades var att de två som gav störst energibesparing var behovsstyrning av ventilationsflödet och minskad belysningseffekt. Dessa två energieffektiviserande lösningar rekommenderas att undersökas närmare för att utreda möjligheten att implementera i den nya butiken.

• 38.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Energikartläggning av LKAB:s underjordsgruva i Malmberget2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The LKAB mine in Malmberget used 258 GWh of energy in 2011, broken down by different types of energy where the share is shown as a percentage in the brackets below. • Electricity 183 GWh (71%) • Diesel 4897m

3 or 49 GWh (19%) • Fuel oil 2378 m3 or 26 GWh (10%) • Energy consumption per tonnes of production was 15.91 kWh/ton The total quantity of crude ore mined in 2011 amounted to 16 193 tonnes and energy consumption was 257 609 MWh. Corresponding figures for 2005 were 14 035 tonnes of crude ore and energy use was 219 392 MWh, which gives a figure for energy consumption per tonne of 15.63 kWh/ton. Production has increased by 15.4% and energy consumption by 17.4% from 2005 to 2011. The increase is mostly because the mining occurs at greater depths and more energy is required to transport the ore to ground level. The energy audit has been carried out with respect to the mine in Malmberget and a comparison of energy use is made with information from a previous compilation from year 2007 (base year 2005). Year 2011 is chosen as the base year for this energy audit and it is then compared to the 2005 values to get a picture of how energy use has changed since then. The survey is updated with the new main level M1250 which began to be operational during the first half of 2011. The proposed efficiency measures in chapter 5 are discussed and anchored within the company. A sectioning of responsibility for the different areas of action is made with PS, PE / PI, TP and EP included as head responsible. The proposed measures with the greatest potential savings have been identified for each area of responsibility and should be prioritized. Priority actions are ventilation heat recovery, measurement and monitoring, and interventions for behavior change.

• 39.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
When a new industry meets traditional and declining ones: An integrative approach towards dialectics and social movement theory in a model of regional industry emergence processes2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 290-308Article in journal (Refereed)

This paper takes an integrative approach towards dialectics and social movement theories in a model of regional industry emergence processes. Based on an inductive qualitative investigation we describe how a new industry emerges in a declining and peripheral region dominated by struggling and traditional local industry. The emanating model of regional industry emergence is based on four main processes; framing processes, movement mobilisation processes,inter-industry relational processes and dialectical processes, which together shape the emerging regional industry. This exemplifies how new regional industry mobilisation efforts provide an ‘anti-thesis’ to traditional industry, and how established industry actors respond with contestation to protect their business concepts. Furthermore we illustrate how new industry actors reframe their concepts to complement dominating traditional industry and to overcome tensions and conflicts. Following dialectic interaction between new and traditional industry wenoticed signs of acceptance and synthesis between the newly formed and old industry actors; ultimately resulting in a revitalisation of the region’s traditional industry. As such, this article makes a point of accounting for agency and productive conflict when understanding regional industry renewal and emergence.

• 40.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Greppmekanism för avgasutsug på moderna bilar2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This report has been carried out in cooperation with Fumex AB, which operates in Skellefteå, Sweden and develops environmental products. Auto repair shops and vehicle inspection companies today use exhaust extraction when working with vehicles to maintain a good working environment. The exhaust gas pipe design and location on the cars have changed over time, and today, most extraction nozzles have problems being attached to the exhaust pipes on modern cars.

The aim of the project was to develop and produce a gripping mechanism that can attach a nozzle to almost all modern cars, and also develop a design proposal of the nozzle. A requirement specification was created and formed the basis for the development process.

Systematic methods were used for concept generation and screening of ideas because design problems are often difficult to solve solely on intuition. A brainstorming session was held for the generation of ideas and the decisions was taken by means of elimination- and decision matrixes together with gut feeling. In the decision matrix the generated concepts were benchmark tested against the market-leading product.

The gripping mechanism and the nozzle was designed in PTC Creo which is a CAD software, and the prototype of the gripping mechanism was manufactured by Nordramp AB in Skellefteå. The result is a product with relatively low complexity and which has a total production cost of 453SEK which is about 54 % of the competing company's market leading product. The product grasps exhaust tailpipes with lateral dimensions 30-95mm with about the same force regardless of the cross-sectional dimensions and shape. The weight of the product including the nozzle is calculated to be 2.2kg which is the same as the aforementioned market leading product.

It is further proposed that the prototype of the nozzle is produced and the entire product is evaluated so that knowledge is obtained if it meets the given requirements of the requirement

• 41.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Analys av jordning för kraftproducerande anläggningar2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The safety regulations for grounding have been made stricter during later years; there are new rules and laws as well as recommendations and methods for how modern power producing facilities are to be grounded in a correct and safe manner. The purpose of this thesis has partly been to gather knowledge on these regulations as well as conducting an analysis of the grounding carried out at Vattenfalls hydro power plant G5 in Stornorrfors.

A study of literature has been conducted and a site study was conducted with testing of earthing sites, measurement of currents and inspection of the hydro power plant G5 from a grounding perspective.

Measurements show that the G5 power plant is a thorough and exemplary facility with very good qualities for handling earth faults., transients and preventing stray currents. The facility has a rigorous equipotential bonding where cableladders, stairs, pipes and exposed metal surfaces are all equipotentially bonded. The facility holds a good connection to earth at earthing sites when measurements revealed all earth sites having an earth resistance value less than 1 Ω. The earth sites and earth system showed only slight increases in impedance when measurements with high-frequency currents were carried out and the facility is deemed to be able to handle high-frequency currents in a satisfying manner.

Through measurements of earth currents it was revealed that currents run in the earth wires, most likely due to the strong magnetic field generated by the generator, and it is unclear how these currents affect the earthing system and equipment over longer periods of time when some currents exceeded 10 A.

No surge arresters were found by the facility or the transformer next to it, some were found however where the cable is replaced by hanging wires after the emergency power building. An inventory of surge arresters is recommended. The lighting protection system found on the roof of the facility should be repaired and possibly adressed in order to withstand damage caused by heavy snowfall. The facility is very exposed to the public and access to the facility should be restricted through fences and gates.

Grounding a power producing facility today incorporates many different areas within electrical technology and therefore also holds a broad variation in how a safe installation is classified and examined. Making a facility "completely safe" is not obvious there will always be a need for compromises and considerations as no situation is similar to the next one in real life.

• 42.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Konstruktion av forcerat komponentprov: Metod för utförande av utmattningsprov på delkomponent i skördaraggregat.2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This report comprises a construction of an fatigue testing equipment for a certain component at Komatsu Forest in Umeå. Testing components fatigue limit can act as compliment to the theoretical calculations. Fatigue testing equipment facilitates redesign by components because it gives fast response on whether changes was good or bad.The component this report deals with is a shaft mounted in a c144 harvester head. The axle is analysed regarding cracks, failure and through calculations with finite element method. The analysis indicates that the axle is exposed to bending forces that ultimately leads to its failure. The analysis and practical restrictions becomes the base for the design of the equipment. The equipment is designed to re-create the axles fatigue breaking through bending. Different designs regarding the equipment is discussed and also their advantages and disadvantages.The report result in complete manufacturing documents with drawings for all components and exploded views of the equipment. How the fatigue tests are done, measured, monitored and evaluated is also included in the report.

• 43.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
The effect of resident related input data on the specific energy use2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
• 44.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Processkartläggning och metodstudier på Ålö AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
• 45.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Processkartläggning och metodstudier på Ålö AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis

Denna rapport är resultatet av examensarbete för högskoleingenjörsexamen i maskinteknik förlagt vid Ålö AB.

Ålö är en världsledande tillverkare av frontlastare, redskap och fundament för jordbrukstraktorer. Vid produktionsanläggningen i Brännland utanför Umeå tillverkas en mängd olika varianter av lastare.

Projektet omfattar processkartläggning av förbehandlingsprocessen som en lastare genomgår innan den målas. Vid en internrevision uppdagades brister inom processorientering vid förbehandlingen. Processorientering är en av Ålös bärande principer och viktigt för att säkerställa att arbetet sker enligt korrekta rutiner, instruktioner och system. Detta säkerställs delvis genom att Ålö beskriver sin verksamhet med processkartor, nedbrytbara i flera nivåer.

Projektets mål var att skapa en processkarta över arbetsmoment och rutiner vid förbehandlingen. Syftet var att på sikt hjälpa Ålö standardisera sina arbetssätt och förbättra sitt processorienterade arbete.

Information om processen inhämtades genom workshops, praktik och litteraturstudier. Arbetet resulterade i en processkarta över förbehandlingsprocessen samt en tillhörande handbok för att ge en sammanfattande beskrivning av processen. Rapporten avhandlar även grundläggande begrepp och metoder relaterade till processkartläggning.

Resultatet visar att processen överlag har en hög mognadsgrad, där det huvudsakliga problemet är bristande dokumentation. En brist som detta projekt delvis avhjälper, men som kräver fortsatt arbete med processkartläggning och arbetsinstruktioner.

• 46.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Maskin för simulering av tuggprocessen: - för utveckling av implantat inom protetik2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

En vanlig behandling av tandlöshet i underkäken är att operera in fyra titanimplantat och på implantaten göra en tandbrygga. Om munhygienen är bristfällig kan komplikationer uppstå med risk för att implantaten lossnar. Med färre implantat skulle den risken kunna minska.

Syftet var att konstruera och tillverka en maskin för simulering av tuggprocessen. Användningen av maskinen ska kunna avgöra om hållfastheten är tillräcklig med endast två implantat. Maskinen tillverkades enligt en kravspecifikation i verkstaden i Teknikhuset, Umeå universitet, på uppdrag av Tomas Lindh vid Institutionen för odontologi vid Umeå universitet. Maskinen skulle b la kunna belasta implantaten och tandbryggan med en kraft som maximalt kan uppkomma i underkäken på en människa, ca 1 kN.

Maskinen konstruerades med elmotor som driver en växel med kuggremsdrift som sköter den mekaniska tuggningen. Kamhjulet bestod av fyra kammar för jämna tryckpulser. Resultatet blev en maskin med en acceptabel konstruktion som uppfyllde de ställda kraven och gav en tryckkraft från ca 350 till 1 kN beroende på hur fjäderns förspänning ställdes. Tillverkningen begränsades framför allt av ekonomi och tid, vilket gjorde att en alternativ konstruktion med vevaxel och en färdig inköpt växel inte gick att välja.

• 47.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Underhållsarbete på krafttransformator: En studie på genomförande av underhållsarbete i transformatoranläggningen med optimeringsförslag.2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
• 48.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Modifiering av klaffskopa på uppdrag av Swekip Sweden AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This is a Bachelor thesis in Mechanical Engineering as a result of work situated at Swekip AB Sweden in spring 2015. The work was about reconstructing of an existing snow clearing bucket which is assembly designed in software Inventor and the product manufactures in China.Snow clearing bucket and the other parts in term of wear steels would be reconstructed and they had to follow Swedish and European standard in terms of bushing, wear resistance steel etc.The manufacturing company in China does not have the same technical possibilities as a Swedish manufacturing company. For example sheet metal bending, laser cuttings machine etc.Therefore wishes the company that the new design of snow clearing bucket leads to a simple documentation/construction design which in turn make it easier for the manufacturer production.

• 49.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
Comparative Study of Influential Factors on Implementation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Single-Family Houses in Cold Climate2018Conference paper (Refereed)

A combination of factors, which include occupants and building related aspects, could motivate homeowners to implement energy renovation (ER). This study applies a comparative approach to assess perspectives of single-family homeowners towards different energy efficiency measures (EEMs). The aim is to unveil the factors that are effective on the residents’ attitude and decision making to implement an EEM or a set of EEMs. The analysis is based on a questionnaire survey conducted during spring 2017 among1550 owners of single-family houses in seven municipalities in northern Sweden. Approximately, 35% of respondents expressed their interest to install energy efficient household appliances and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. The analysis suggests significant relations between the homeowners’ interest to implement thermal envelope measures and the quality of the house such as age and indoor environmental problems such as cold surfaces. The group of respondents, who reported their heating cost to be high, are more likely to be interested in implementing thermal envelope measures than other measures such as HVAC. Several socio-economic factors are found to be significantly related with homeowners’ interest to implement EEMs.

• 50. Backman, Anders
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, High Performance Computing Center North (HPC2N). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
Democratizing CAE with Interactive Multiphysics Simulation and Simulators2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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