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  • 1.
    Albán Reyes, Diana Carolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden .
    Svedberg, Anna
    Eliasson, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundman, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The influence of different parameters on the mercerisation of cellulose for viscose production2016In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 1061-1072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A quantitative analysis of degree of transformation from a softwood sulphite dissolving pulp to alkalised material and the yield of this transformation as a function of the simultaneous variation of the NaOH concentration, denoted [NaOH], reaction time and temperature was performed. Samples were analysed with Raman spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis and these results were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Gravimetry was used to measure the yield. The resulting data were related to the processing conditions in a Partial Least Square regression model, which made it possible to explore the relevance of the three studied variables on the responses. The detailed predictions for the interactive effects of the measured parameters made it possible to determine optimal conditions for both yield and degree of transformation in viscose manufacturing. The yield was positively correlated to the temperature from room temperature up to 45 A degrees C, after which the relation was negative. Temperature was found to be important for the degree of transformation and yield. The time to reach a certain degree of transformation (i.e. mercerisation) depended on both temperature and [NaOH]. At low temperatures and high [NaOH], mercerisation was instantaneous. It was concluded that the size of fibre particles (mesh range 0.25-1 mm) had no influence on degree of transformation in viscose processing conditions, apparently due to the quick reaction with the excess of NaOH.

  • 2.
    Azam, Asad Muhammad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Ali, A.
    Khan, H.
    Yasin, T.
    Mehmood, M. S.
    Analysis of degradation in UHMWPE a comparative study among the various commercial and laboratory grades UHMWPE2016In: 14TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ADVANCED MATERIALS (ISAM 2015) / [ed] Qaisar, S., Khan, A.N., Mukhtar, E.A., IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2016, Vol. 146, article id 012025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative degradation of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene ( UHMWPE) limits the life of implants. This degradation can be monitored to estimate the service life of UHMWPE following the standard protocols as defined by American Standards for Testing Materials ( ASTM). In this work, a comparative study has been carried on two commercially available UHMWPE grades i. e. GUR 1020 and GUR 1050 and one laboratory grade UHMWPE which was purchased from Sigma Aldrich. These powder samples were pressed while using hot press with controlled heating and cooling setup in open air under 200 bar of external pressure. These sheets were then subjected to accelerated aging in an oven at 80 degrees C for three weeks. The degradation of the UHMWPE was monitored by ATR-FTIR techniquefor three weeks. The oxidation index ( OI) measurement showed that the commercial grade UHMWPE i. e. GUR-1020 and GUR-1050 degrade more as compared to laboratory grade UHMWPE. The values of OI after three weeks of accelerating aging were found 0.18, 0.14, and 0.09 for GUR-1020, GUR-1050, and Sigma Aldrich, respectively. In addition to this, it was found that commercial grades of UHMWPE suffer more structural alterations as compared to laboratory grade one. We hope that these results will be of particular and fundamental importance for the researchers and orthopaedic industry.

  • 3.
    Enevold, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Structure and morphology control of organic semiconductors for functional optoelectronic applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The functionality and application of organic semiconductors are largely dependent on their constituent structure and morphology. This thesis presents a number of functional and novel approaches for the control and tuning of structural and morphological features of a variety of organic semiconductor materials, and also demonstrates that these approaches can be utilized for improved device operation of field-effect transistors, organic solar cells and light-emitting electrochemical cells.

    The fullerene family is a particular group of closed-cage organic semiconductors, which can be photochemically coupled into larger dimeric or polymeric structures through the excitation of the fullerene molecules by light emission. In Paper I, we perform a detailed experimental and analytical investigation, which demonstrates that this photochemical monomer-to-dimer transformation requires that both constituent fullerene molecules are photoexcited. The direct consequence is that the initial probability for the photochemical transformation is dependent on the square of the light-emission intensity.

    The photochemical coupling of fullerene molecules commonly results in a distinctly lowered solubility in common hydrophobic solvents, which can be utilized for the direct patterning of fullerene films by resist-free lithography. In Paper II, we utilize this patterning opportunity for the fabrication of one-dimensional fullerene nano-stripes using two-beam laser interference lithography. A desired high contrast between the patterned and non-patterned fullerene regions is facilitated by the non-linear response of the photochemical transformation process, as predicted by the findings in Paper I. The patterned fullerene nano-stripes were utilized as the active material in field-effect transistors, which featured high electron mobility and large on-off ratio.

    This patterning was in Paper III extended into easy tunable two-dimensional fullerene structures by the design and development of an exposure setup, essentially comprising a laser and a spatial light modulator featuring >8 millions of independently controlled mirrors. With this approach, we could fabricate well-defined fullerene microdots over a several square-millimeter sized area, which was utilized as an internal out-coupling layer in a light-emitting electrochemical cell with significantly enhanced light output.

    Paper IV reports on the development of a new “spray-sintering” method for the cost-efficient solution-based deposition of the active material in light-emitting electrochemical cells. This carefully designed approach effectively resolves the issue with phase separation between the hydrophobic organic semiconductor and the hydrophilic electrolyte that results in a sub-par LEC performance, and also allows for the direct fabrication of LEC devices onto complex surfaces, including a stainless-steel fork.

    Paper V finally reports on the design and synthesis of a soluble small molecule, featuring a donor-acceptor-donor configuration. It acts as the donor when combined with a soluble fullerene acceptor in the active material of organic solar cells, and such devices with optimized donor/acceptor nanomorphology feature a high open-circuit voltage of ~1.0 V during solar illumination.

  • 4.
    Eta, Valerie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Deconstruction of Nordic hardwood in switchable ionic liquids and acylation of the dissolved cellulose2016In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 136, p. 459-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nordic hardwood (Betula pendula) was fractionated in a batch autoclave equipped with a custom-made SpinChem® rotating bed reactor, at 120°C using CO2 and CS2-based switchable ionic liquids systems. Analyses of the non-dissolved wood after treatment showed that 64 wt% of hemicelluloses and 70 wt% of lignin were removed from the native wood. Long processing periods or successive short-time treatments using fresh SILs further decreased the amount of hemicelluloses and lignin in the non-dissolved fraction to 12 and 15 wt%, respectively. The cellulose-rich fraction was partially dissolved in an organic superbase and an ionic liquid system for further derivatization. Homogeneous acylation of the dissolved cellulose in the presence or absence of catalyst resulted in cellulose acetates with variable degree of substitution (DS), depending on the treatment conditions. By varying the reaction conditions, the cellulose acetate with the desired DS could be obtained under mild conditions.

  • 5.
    Huuva, Ivan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Polymer structures for photovoltaics using colloidal self-assembly, thermal nanoimprinting and electrohydrodynamic annealing2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of an organic photovoltaic cell depends mainly on its morphology where an exciton has to migrate to a p-n junction to create a photocurrent. Therefore the distance from the bulk of the cell to a junction interface should not exceed the diffusion length of the exciton. In this thesis, two novel lithographical methods, to produce specific polymer morphologies, were developed and evaluated. In the first method, called embedded annealing, self-assembled polystyrene colloids were embedded in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film and annealed under an electric field to produce a bi-polymer structure consisting of polymer columns in a thin film of PDMS. Polymer colloids were successfully assembled into two dimensional hexagonally close packed arrays. However, the annealing process was unsuccessful. The second method, imprint annealing, aimed to increase the aspect ratio (height/width) of thermally imprinted micrometer sized polystyrene features by annealing them in uniform electric fields. The results showed that the aspect ratio of imprinted features can be significantly increased, 21-fold, while maintaining the periodicity of the original imprint. This is in contrast to previous results where smooth polymer films annealed in uniform fields where the periodicity of the resulting structures cannot be independently controlled, and are highly sensitive to the electrode spacing. Feature sizes down to 1 µm and aspect ratios up to 4.5 were achieved using imprint annealing.

  • 6.
    Liu, Mingquan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tran, Tri Minh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Elhaj, Ahmed Awad Abbas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Torsetnes, Silje Boen
    Jensen, Ole N.
    Sellergren, Borje
    Irgum, Knut
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Molecularly Imprinted Porous Monolithic Materials from Melamine-Formaldehyde for Selective Trapping of Phosphopeptides2017In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 89, no 17, p. 9491-9501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty-five melamine formaldehyde (MF) monolithic materials with bimodal pore distributions were synthesized in fused silica capillaries by catalyst-free polycondensation, starting with an aqueous MF precondensate, using acetonitrile as the macroporogen and a variety of aliphatic polyethers and triblock copolymeric surfactants as porogens and mesoporogens, respectively. By varying the prepolymer composition and the type and molecular weight of the polymeric porogen components, a library of porous monolithic materials was produced, covering a range of meso- and macroporous properties. A multivariate evaluation revealed that the amount of surfactant was the strongest contributor to specific surface area and pore volume and to the inversely related mesopore size, whereas the macropore dimensions were controlled mainly by the amount of aliphatic polyether porogen. One of these capillary monoliths, chosen based on the combination of meso- and macropores providing optimal percolative flow and accessible surface area, was synthesized in the presence of N-Fmoc and O-Et protected phosphoserine and phosphotyrosine to prepare molecularly imprinted monoliths with surface layers selective for phosphopeptides. These imprinted monoliths were characterized alongside nonimprinted monoliths by a variety of techniques and finally evaluated by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in the capillary format to assess their abilities to trap and release phosphorylated amino acids and peptides from partly aqueous media. Selective enrichment of phosphorylated targets was demonstrated, suggesting that these materials could be useful as trapping media in-affinity-based phosphoproteomics.

  • 7.
    Shanmugam, Kavitha
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Rova, Ulrika
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Upadhyayula, Venkata K.K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ecoefficiency of Thermal Insulation Sandwich Panels Based On Fly Ash Modified with Colloidal Mesoporous Silica2019In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 24, p. 20000-20012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current practice of landfilling fly ash generated by waste incineration is nonsustainable, so alternative ways of using this material are needed. Silanization effectively immobilizes the heavy metal contaminants in the incineration fly ash and enables its circular utilization because silanized fly ash (SFA) has market value as a low-cost filler for polymer composites. This study examines the ecoefficiency of a thermal insulation panel that consists of a polyurethane (PU) foam core sandwiched between two epoxy composite skins prepared by reinforcing glass fibers (GF) and SFA in epoxy resin. The ecoefficiency of such panels was evaluated by comparing their life cycle environmental externality costs (LCEE) to their life cycle costs (LCC). The LCEE was calculated by monetizing the panels' environmental impacts, which were quantified by performing a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results revealed that the ecoefficiency of the composite panels is positive (47%) and superior to that of market incumbent alternatives with PU foam or rockwool cores and steel skins. The two market incumbents have negative ecoefficiencies, primarily due to their high LCEE. The environmental performance of the panel with SFA GF epoxy composite skins can be further improved by using lignin-based epoxy resin or thermoplastic polypropylene as the polymer matrix of composite skins. Overall, application as a filler in fabricating polymer composite skins of sandwich panels is an upcycling pathway of SFA that combines circular economy prospects with sustainability benefits.

  • 8.
    Wang, Zhao
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Wu, Guochao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jönsson, Leif J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of impregnation of softwood with sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide on chemical and physical characteristics, enzymatic digestibility, and fermentability2018In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 247, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal pretreatment improves bioconversion of lignocellulose, but the effects of different acid catalysts are poorly understood. The effects of sulfuric acid (SA) and sulfur dioxide (SD) in continuous steam pretreatment of wood of Norway spruce were compared in the temperature range 195 degrees C-215 degrees C. The inhibitory effects of the pretreatment liquid on cellulolytic enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast were higher for SD-than for SApretreated material, and the inhibitory effects increased with increasing pretreatment temperature. However, the susceptibility to cellulolytic enzymes of wood pretreated with SD was 2.0-2.9 times higher than that of wood pretreated with SA at the same temperature. Data conclusively show that the superior convertibility of SDpretreated material was not due to inhibition phenomena but rather to the greater capability of the SD pretreatment to reduce the particle size through partial delignification and cellulose degradation. Particle size was shown to be correlated with enzymatic digestibility (R-2 0.97-0.98).

  • 9.
    Yu, Junchun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Yao, Mingguang
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sundqvist, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Tonpheng, Bounphanh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Liu, Bingbing
    Andersson, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Buckminsterfullerene: A Strong, Covalently Bonded, Reinforcing Filler and Reversible Cross-Linker in the Form of Clusters in a Polymer2013In: ACS Macro Letters, ISSN 2161-1653, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 511-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Buckminsterfullerene/polyisoprene (C60/PI) composite was synthesized at high-temperature, high-pressure (HP&HT) conditions. The composite has significantly improved tensile strength and Young’s modulus, by up to 49% and 88% per wt % C60, respectively, which is much higher than for corresponding composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) fillers. The reinforcing action of C60 fillers is different from that of CNTs as C60 becomes covalently bonded to PI chains, and C60 clusters in PI form C60–C60 covalent bonds. The latter are reversible and break by heating at 1 bar, which suggests improved recyclability of the material and indicates that carbon nanostructures can be used as strong reversible cross-linkers (“vulcanizers”) in elastomers.

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