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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Expanding operation ranges using active flow control in Francis turbines2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains an investigation of fluid injection techniques used in the purpose of reducing deleterious flow effects occurring in the draft tube of Francis turbines when operating outside nominal load. There is a focus on implement ability at Jämtkrafts hydroelectric power plants and two power plants were investigated, located in series with each other named Lövhöjden and Ålviken. The only profitable scenario found with some degree of certainty was an increase in the operating range upwards to allow overload operation.

    Findings show that both air and water can be introduced in various locations to improve hydraulic efficiency around the turbine parts as well as reduce pressure pulsations in harmful operating regions. Investments in such systems have proven useful and profitable at several facilities with poorly adapted operating conditions. But due to losses in efficiency when operating injection systems, it turns out unprofitable in situations where it does not improve the operating range in a way that is resulting in increased annual or peak production.

  • 2.
    Allard, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Achieving building energy performance: requirements and evaluation methods for residential buildings in Sweden, Norway, and Finland2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building energy performance has always been important in the cold climate of Sweden, Norway and Finland. To meet the goal that all new buildings should be nearly zero-energy buildings by 2020, set in the EU directive 2010/31/EU [1] on the energy performance of buildings (EPBD recast), the building sector in Europe now faces a transition towards buildings with improved energy performance. In such a transition, a discussion is needed about the objective of the improvement – why, or to what end, the building energy performance should be improved. The objective of improving building energy performance is often a political decision, but scientific research can contribute with knowledge on how the objectives can be achieved.

    This thesis addresses how the indicators used in the requirements used to achieve building energy performance in Sweden, Norway, and Finland, and the methods used to evaluate these requirements, reflect building energy performance. It also addresses difficulties in achieving comparable and verifiable indicators in evaluations of building energy performance. The research objective has two parts: to review, compare, and discuss (i) requirements and (ii) evaluation methods used to achieve energy performance of residential buildings in Sweden, Norway and Finland. The work in this thesis includes reviews of the requirements used in national building codes and passive house criteria to achieve building energy performance, of methods used to evaluate compliance with such requirements, and of methods used specifically to evaluate the indicator Envelope Air Tightness.

    The results show that different sets of indicators are used to achieve building energy performance in the studied building codes and passive house criteria. The methods used to evaluate compliance with requirements used to achieve building energy performance are also different, but calculation methods are generally more often used than measurement methods. The calculation- and measurement methods used are often simple. A methodology to analyze the deviation between predictions- and measurements of building energy performance (the performance gap) was developed, to investigate the effects of different evaluation methods on different indicators used to achieve building energy performance. The methodology was tested in a case-study. This study indicated that the choice of method affects which parts of the performance gap reflected in the indicators Supplied Energy (see Terminology), Net Energy (see Terminology), and Overall U-value. Among the reviewed methods to evaluate air tightness, the Fan/Blower Door Pressurization is well known and preferred by professionals in the field. The results in this thesis may be useful when choosing indicators and evaluation methods to achieve different objectives of improving building energy performance and in the quest towards comparable and verifiable indicators used to achieve building energy performance.

  • 3.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hassan, Osama
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Methods for air tightness analysis for residential buildings in Nordic countries2012In: Methods for air tightness analysis forresidential buildings in Nordic countries, Southampton: WIT Press, 2012, p. 311-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Envelope air tightness is one factor that has impact on the energy performance ofbuildings. The goals of the directive 2010/31/EU, on energy performance ofbuildings, raise the importance of building energy performance analysis in theprocess. Measurements of air tightness can be useful both when evaluatingbuilding energy performance and developing new building techniques. The aimof this paper is to review and evaluate methods to measure air tightness in bothnew and existing residential buildings in Sweden, Norway and Finland, based onan international literature study and a survey. The methods are categorized basedon a number of criteria to determine their suitability in different situations.Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed, as well ascommonly used methods in the three countries. The review shows that thestandard ISO 9972 is used for verification in all three countries, but alternativesexist that might be more suitable in certain situations. Simpler methods are usedin the building process to increase air tightness. To achieve a comparablemeasurement, both common methods and commonly defined units are needed.

  • 4.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hassan, Osama A. B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Methods for energy analysis of residential buildings in Nordic countries2013In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 22, p. 306-318Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the goals of the directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings, the building sector in Europe now faces a transition towards more energy efficient buildings. Research and development of new energy solutions and technology will be necessary for the transition and the importance of analyzing building energy performance increases. This paper aims to review and evaluate different methods that are commonly used to analyze energy performance in residential buildings in Nordic countries, primarily in Sweden, Norway and Finland. A short international review of regulations is also included. The goal is to find commonly used methods and possibilities for the future. The introduced methods are summarized, categorized and compared based on their advantages and disadvantages. Although the three Nordic countries have similar climate conditions and building traditions, the review shows relatively large variations in the definitions of energy performance for residential buildings, as well as variations in how measurements and calculations are used in the methods for energy performance analysis. In the conducted review, methods, or parts of methods, are also found to be used. The methods used to analyze energy performance are found to be more similar than the concepts of energy performance itself in the three countries. These aspects may be considered in further work to develop an international policy practice for energy performance of residential buildings in cold climate.

  • 5.
    Allard, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy performance indicators in the Swedish building procurement process2017In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, all new buildings need to comply with the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning’s requirement on specific purchased energy (kWh/m2). Accordingly, this indicator is often used to set design criteria in the building procurement process. However, when energy use is measured in finished buildings, the measurements often deviate significantly from the design calculations. The measured specific purchased energy does not necessarily reflect the responsibility of the building contractor, as it is influenced by the building operation, user behavior and climate. Therefore, Swedish building practitioners may prefer other indicators for setting design criteria in the building procurement process. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to understand the Swedish building practitioners’ perspectives and opinions on seven building energy performance indicators (envelope air leakage, U-values for different building parts, average U-value, specific heat loss, heat loss coefficient, specific net energy, and specific purchased energy); and (ii) to understand the consequences for the energy performance of multi-family buildings of using the studied indicators to set criteria in the procurement process. The study involved a Delphi approach and simulations of a multi-family case study building. The studied indicators were discussed in terms of how they may meet the needs of the building practitioners when used to set building energy performance criteria in the procurement process.

  • 6.
    Almgren, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effekten av dagsljus- och närvarostyrd LED-belysning i en befintlig kontorsbyggnad ur energi-, ekonomi- och ljusmiljösynpunkt2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An important measure to reduce buildings’ environmental impact is to make the artificial lighting more effective, which is the biggest electricity consumer of Swedish office buildings and accounts for more than 30 % of the total electricity consumption.A case study has been carried out in this master thesis as a part in an existing project with ÅF Lighting, where new strategic avenues has been explored in which to combine day- and electrical light in office landscapes in a smarter, more energy-efficient manner and at the same time improve the lighting environment.Two office spaces at the own head office of ÅF in Solna, Stockholm has been used in the case study, where two different LED lighting solutions got installed. One with pendant luminaries, desk lamps and downlights, and one with only recessed luminaires.Through several computer simulations, electricity and light measurements, questionnaires, interviews etc., it has been investigated how the heat and cooling load, electricity consumption, lighting quality and operating costs has been affected of the change of the lighting system. The lighting environment, daylight conditions, heat and cooling load, economical savings and electricity consumption for the two offices has been investigated in diaLUX, DIVA-for-Rhino, IDA ICE 4.7, ecoCALC and Mitec Monitor, respectively. The electricity measurements showed that the lighting solutions’ electricity consumption got reduced with 71,6 % on floor 5 and 68,1 % on floor 10 with the new LED lighting solutions and control systems during the investigated month.Through the IDA ICE energy simulations over a year it was shown that the total yearly cooling load to floor 5 and floor 10 got reduced with 19 % and 17 %, which can be explained by the lesser heat gain from the more energy efficient lighting and the controlling of this. Though a small increase in heating load, the total energy consumption got reduced with around 12-14 % on both floors. The simulations also showed that the total electricity consumption of the lighting got reduced with 70 % for floor 5 and 63 % for floor 10 after the change to the new LED lighting solutions and implementation of control systems.The LCC for the new lighting solutions showed that these have a higher investment cost than the total operation cost for the existing solution over the life cycle. However, the costs to run the LED solutions are less than a third of the operation costs for the existing solution, and after the exchange the carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced with close to 70 %.Through this case study it has been shown that the energy consumption from lighting can be highly reduced with the installation of energy efficient lighting in combination with smart control systems, and it can also have a positive effect on the lighting environment. However, the high investment costs of the LED solutions lead to the conclusion that installation of these solutions today is not economically justifiable.

  • 7.
    Almstedt, Kalle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energieffektiviseringsåtgärder på Gustavsvik resorts AB2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Badhus är den typ av svenska lokaler som använder mest energi, ofta med en energiprestanda som är långt högre än BBRs gränsvärden för ny- och ombyggnationer. Denna rapport är resultatet av ett examensarbete för Civilingenjörsprogrammet i energiteknik vid Umeå Universitet. Det har utförts på uppdrag av teknikkonsultföretaget KAMTechnology AB åt upplevelseanläggningen Gustavsvik resorts AB. Gustavsvik ligger i Örebro och består av bland annat äventyrsbad, motionsbad, gym, camping med mera. Detta examensarbete syftar till att utreda möjligheter och ta fram förslag till energieffektiviseringsåtgärder för Gustavsviks badanläggning. Studien har avgränsats till att behandla energisystemet för kyla och värme med fokus på kylkretsen och värmeåtervinning ur gråvatten.

    Potentialen för värmeåtervinningen ur Gustavsviks gråvatten har beräknats till cirka 130 000 kWh/år, vilket utgör ca 20 % av deras köpta energi för varmvattenberedning. Det finns en handfull produkter på marknaden för värmeåtervinning ur grå- och avloppsvatten, som hävdar god prestanda och lönsamma installationer. Det kan konstateras att det finns få utförda studier och genomförda projekt som presenterar mätvärden och prestanda för dessa typer av installationer. Intresset för dessa typer av anläggningar tycks ändå öka och branschorganisationer försöker skynda på utvecklingen genom bland annat tekniktävlingar vilket sammanfattas i, och styrks, av litteraturstudien som utgör en del av denna rapport.

    Platsbesök har utförts för att samla in data från anläggningens styr- och övervakningssystem. Insamlad data har loggats under 2013 och utgörs av temperaturer, flöden samt el- och fjärrvärmeanvändning. Kompletterande mätningar av kyl- och värmebärarens flöde utfördes även för att kunna uppskatta värmepumparnas kyl- och värmeproduktion En begränsad kartläggning av Gustavsviks kylkrets har utförts, där även anläggningens två värmepumpar har utvärderats. Värmepumparnas prestanda visade sig vara sämre än vad tillverkarna uppger och det finns därmed en möjlig besparingspotential i att förbättra och optimera deras drift. Datahanteringen och beräkningar har främst gjort i Microsoft Excel. Under examensarbetet har det identifierats flera fall där man kyler och värmer på samma ställe, vilket betraktas som möjligheter till energieffektiviseringsåtgärder. Slutsatserna av denna studie är att Gustavsvik har stora möjligheter till att sänka sin energiförbrukning. Detta genom att bland annat installera värmeåtervinning ur gråvatten, bygga bort konkurrerande värme och kyla samt att justera in sitt energisystem. Det som Gustavsvik rekommenderas att göra i första hand är en heltäckande energikartläggning av sitt energisystem. 

  • 8.
    Andersson, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utvärdering av möjligheten att tillvarata energi ur processvatten: En undersökning gjort vid Olofsfors AB på uppdrag av UMIA AB.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The company Olofsfors AB manufactures drive belts for forest machinery, known as ECO-Tracks, and abrasion-resistant steel and cutting edges for graders, excavators and tractors, known as Bruxite and SharqEdges. Manufacturing these products requires the steel to be heated and molded, then submerged in water and hardened. The water used in the hardening of steel is pumped to the process from pits below the floor and then pumped back to the pit after it’s been used. Since the temperature of this water rises after being used to harden the steel the temperature of the pumping pit needs to be adjusted to maintain its setpoint of 21°C. This is done by disposal of hot water from the pit to the river outside while new, cold water, from the river is pumped into the pit. The hot water that is being disposed of contains energy that has not at all been utilized, this has led to the purpose of this report which is to examine the possibility to utilize parts of the energy in the water.

     

    Two possible outlets for the energy at the plant has been selected as especially interesting: • Heating of ventilation supply air in two units with low thermal efficiency and relatively high airflows where the supply air temperature is to be increased from 9 °C to 15 °C. • Fan heaters installed with electric batteries of approximately 200 kW capacity, which heats the premises and serves as an air barrier at the intake ports for metal.

     

    Calculations of power available in one of the factory pump pits during the heating season from October to May and the power required for deposition areas were made. The result obtained is illustrated by means of duration charts from which required and available energy is deduced.

     

    The result of this:

    Pump pit                             887 MWh / October to May

    Ventilation                          642 MWh / year

    Fan heaters                         515 MWh / year

     

    A draft measure has been developed in which two heat pumps delivers hot water for heating of both the ventilation supply air and liquid batteries in air fan heaters. This measure proposal means a cost saving of approximately 390 000 SEK / year where pay-off time of the investment is approximately 5 years.

  • 9. Asthana, Arvind
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    ?.
    Big efficiency in small scale2001Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Axelsson, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Utredning av en potentiell installation av FTX-ventilation med värmeåtervinning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this degree project is to study and investigate a specific existing building to contribute to promoting a sustainable future on a larger scale. At the same time, shows that in many cases it can also be profitable to invest in a new energy-efficient system. After studying the structure and existing system of the building, it was found that a new ventilation system would be relevant.

    The building holds 83 apartments on a total area of 5 474 m2 and is located in northern part of Sweden, where temperatures of -30 °C are commen during winter time. The property is currently run by an exhaust air system for transporting consumed air, fresh air flows through outside valves directly into the recidence. Because the property is located in a place where cold outdoor temperatures occur many times a year, it's unlikely to transport cold air directly into the dwelling without preheating. This means that the current district heating consumption of the radiators will achieve unacceptable high values to maintain a good indoor envirement.

    The project that has been implemented shows that there are primarily an opportunity to install an FTX system in the homes. In many cases, there are a lack of space that contradicts an installation. Apart from the space, the result shows that district heating can be reduced by up to 600 MWh per year. This would mean a saving of 411 KSEK per year for the entire property. The cost of the required material is estimated at approximately 3.1 MSEK. This means that the investment is repaid after about 7-8 years. The figures mentioned above correspond to the material package that is reported in the report's results and assumes that existing air ducts present in the accommodation today remain but expanded. The design of the proposal presented is based on a balanced ventilation with heat recovery (80 %) with separate units for each apartement.

  • 11.
    Burlin, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Geoenergi med och utan värmepump2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete utfördes på uppdrag av Umeå Kommun. Uppgiften bestod av att utvärdera dagens användning av en borrhålsbrunn samt undersöka vad som är det optimala användningsområdet för borrhålsbrunnen. Borrhålsbrunnen används i dagsläget för att förvärma samt kyla utomhusluft in till kontorsbyggnaden Kubens ventilationsaggregat.

    Ventilationens förvärmning består av två delar, en markkanal och ett geoenergibatteri. Viktiga parametrar hos förvärmningen analyserades med hjälp av mätvärden för temperatur och flöde. Resultaten jämfördes därefter med alternativet att använda borrhålsbrunnen tillsammans med en värmepump. Då borrhålsbrunnens kapacitet inte var tillräcklig för att klara byggnadens hela uppvärmningsbehov, undersöktes det hur en värmepump skulle kunna köras i kombination med fjärrvärme. Två driftstrategier, Bas och Kapatoppar, undersöktes. Bas leverar en basproduktion under hela vinterperioden medan Kapatoppar startar vid -6°C för att sänka effekttoppar.

    Utvärderingen av förvärmningen visade att geoenergibatteriet är mer kompatibelt med ventilationsaggregat av VAV-typ (Variable Air Volume) än vad markkanalen är. Däremot är inte förvärmning i kombination med roterande värmeväxlare ett bra koncept för byggnaden som den används idag. På grund av att förvärmningen är placerad före den roterande värmeväxlaren så är bara 15-20 % av förvärmningseffekterna energibesparande. Detta kombinerat med en optimerad drift av aggregatet sett till tidsstyrning och behovsstyrning av flöde gör att förvärmningen har en liten påverkan både på byggnadens maximala effektbehov och totala energibehov.

    Att köra värmepump i kombination med fjärrvärme för uppvärmning var ekonomiskt lönsamt främst på grund av att värmepumpen kunde kapa byggnadens effektoppar. Kostnaden för storleken på den abonnerade effekten uppgår idag till drygt 40 % av den totala fjärrvärmekostnaden. Dagens relation mellan el- och fjärrvärmepriser bidrog naturligtvis också till att värmepumpsalternativet var lönsamt. För de undersökta förutsättningarna så blev paybacktiden för en värmepump med den lönsammaste driftstrategin, Bas, 4,4 år.

  • 12.
    Burman, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energianalys av MVG-gallerian, samt en jämförelse av beräkningsprogram2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis has been carried out in the spring of 2013, on behalf of Sweco Systems in Umeå. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibilities of using any energy simulation software in the work of mapping energy usage of existing facilities. In this study two of the softwares that is being used in the company are evaluated – VIP-Energy and IDA Indoor Climate and Energy.

    Initially a mapping of the energy usage was performed on the property Odin 12 in Umeå, which consists mainly of the mall MVG. The energy usage was then simulated with the two different softwares.

    The mapping of energy usage shows that the building has a low annually need of space heating. This is due to the fact that the consumption of electricity in the building is very high, which leads to very high internal loads and a low need for additional heating. For the same reason, a need of space cooling is present during the whole year.

    The evaluation of the two energy simulation softwares shows that VIP-Energy is a suitable program for energy mapping. The program is both simple and flexible which reduces the time needed for creating the model.  Considering the time for the actual calculations, VIP-Energy is the program that is by far the fastest.

  • 13.
    Bäcklund, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energieffektivisering av fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylanätet på campus i Umeå: Energy efficiency of the district heating and cooling systems on campus in Umeå2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete utfördes på uppdrag av Akademiska Hus som äger och förvaltar fastigheterna på campus i Umeå. Projektet bestod av att utifrån en övergripande bild på det interna fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylanätet på campus, ta fram alternativa utformningar på systemet i syfte om att göra det mer energieffektivt.

    Systemets interna fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylanät VP100 och KB100 växlar över värme och kyla från Umeå Energi som sedan distribueras vidare till fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylacentraler på campus. Några av centralerna har egenproduktion där returledningen från KB100 går till en värmepump som producerar både värme och kyla. Producerad värme används till att förvärma returledningen från uppvärmningssystemen från de byggnader som hör till respektive central. När behovet av värme är tillräckligt stort är systemet, tack vare värmepumparna, självförsörjande gällande kyla. Produktion sker alltså endast under de perioder då det finns behov i uppvärmningssystemen. Det leder till att systemet tvingas köpa både värme och kyla samtidigt under sommaren då behovet av kyla i stort sett är konstant under året.

    Två alternativa utformningar till det befintliga systemet har undersökts. Det första fallet har som syfte att reducera värmeförlusterna i VP100. Det andra fallet byggdes vidare på det första fallet med syftet att utvidga arbetsområdet för värme- och kylproduktionen i värmepumparna.

    Resultatet visar att det finns potential att mer än halvera värmeförlusterna i det befintliga VP100 och att produktionen av värme och kyla skulle kunna öka med 10 % respektive 6 %. Totalt skulle systemet kunna spara drygt 1,3 miljoner kWh per år genom en kombination av de två alternativa utformningarna. För att däremot få energibalans i systemet där det aldrig behöver köpas både värme och kyla samtidigt bör andra effektiviseringsåtgärder övervägas. 

  • 14. Carter, Ellison
    et al.
    Lam, Nicholas
    Chafe, Zoe
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Shan, Ming
    Ackerly, John
    Lancey, Forrest
    Household energy transitions to address air pollution exposure, health, and climate burdens associated with solid fuel burning2018In: Household energy transitions to address air pollution exposure, health, and climate burdens associated with solid fuel burning, Philadelphia, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential space heating and cooking are critical household energy service needs worldwide. Household transitions to clean-burning fuels at population scales are needed that do not contribute to poor indoor and outdoor air quality and the potential associated exposure, health, and climate burdens. We propose to discuss and debate research, implementation needs, and advances related to use of solid fuel for meeting residential energy needs with an express focus on residential heating demand, which has been less studied than residential cooking.We aim to identify knowledge gaps in the field of household energy systems in resource-constrained communities, set research priorities to address these gaps, and highlight opportunities for interdisciplinary and transnational learning and collaboration. 

  • 15.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lindgren, Robert
    García-Lopez, Natxo
    Nyberg, Gert
    Boman, Christoffer
    Household Bioenergy Transitions with Alternative Biomass Feedstocks and Technologies: An Integrated System to Mitigate Environmental Risks in Western Kenya2018In: Household Bioenergy Transitions with Alternative Biomass Feedstocks and Technologies: An Integrated System to Mitigate Environmental Risks in Western Kenya / [ed] École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, UNESCO, Lausanne, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Kenya, over 50% of the total primary energy consumption is from traditional solid-fuel cooking, being this a major cause of deforestation and household air pollution (HAP). Western Kenya has an agricultural biofuel feedstock of over 1.9 million Mt, which could be processed to supply cookstoves with crop-residue pellets and improved wood fallows. The sociotechnical viability of two novel bioenergy value chains were analysed using the Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning system. Three scenarios of transition to efficient cookstoves and decentralized biofuel and electricity production systems were tested. In the “Optimal scenario”, the current feedstock in the Kisumu and Siaya counties could satisfy over 80% of the cooking energy demand by 2030. Here, the net greenhouse gas emissions from charcoal production and HAP could be reduced by 87% to 12.6 thousand Mt CO2e. Further work should integrate socioeconomic indicators reflecting additional local/regional stakeholders´ collaboration channels (cost-effective) to support the bioenergy transitions. 

  • 16.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    et al.
    Danish Building Research Institute.
    Vicente, Estela
    Tarelho, Luís
    Jensen, Ole Michael
    Wood stove combustion air retrofits: a low cost way to increase energy savings in dwellings2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 164, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, wood-fired stoves remain as major renewable household heating and emission sources. This study focused on improving the performance of a wood stove (natural draft) traditionally used in Portugal by the adoption of alternative combustion air retrofits. Additionally, the performance of a new pellet stove (forced-air) was determined to investigate the highest achievable goal for solid-fuel stoves. In the wood stove, an outer chimney component was installed around the existing chimney to allow the vertical admission of outdoor air that was preheated before entering the combustion chamber. This measure increased the thermal efficiency of the wood stove from 62% to up to 79%. Another component was used to administrate secondary air to the wood stove reducing the carbon monoxide emissions by 39% to 2808 mg Nm−3. The two retrofits enhanced a more stable heat release from the wood stove, which reached a thermal efficiency 11% lower than that achieved by the pellet stove. This research suggests that retrofitting stoves with chimney components that allow the admission of combustion air can substantially increase energy savings in dwellings. Further efforts should focus on improving the interplay between the outdoor air and secondary air admission to achieve higher emission reductions at low-cost.

  • 17.
    Chavez-Rodriguez, Mauro F.
    et al.
    Energy Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Carvajal, Pablo E.
    UCL Energy Institute, University College London, UK.
    Martinez Jaramillo, Juan E.
    Institución Universitaria Politécnico Grancolombiano, Bogotá, Colombia .
    Egüez, Alejandro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Gonzalez Mahecha, Rosa Esperanza
    Energy Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Schaeffer, Roberto
    Energy Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Szklo, Alexandre
    Energy Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Lucena, Andre F. P.
    Energy Planning Program, COPPE/UFRJ - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitaria, Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
    Arango Aramburo, Santiago
    Department of Computing and Decision Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín, Colombia .
    Fuel saving strategies in the Andes: long-term impacts for Peru, Colombia and Ecuador2018In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 20, p. 35-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Crude oil exports and imports play a crucial role in the trade balance of Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. These countries are looking into fossil fuel saving measures as a way to deal with increasing demands and decreasing oil production rates. However, studies about the long-term effects of these measures is lacking. Using a combination of energy simulation technics, 17 fuel saving strategies ranging from fuel switching to the investment in underground transport and hydropower capacity expansion were modelled and assessed to evaluate their long-term effect on fossil fuels demand reduction. Our results show that the full implementation of strategies can account for cumulative oil savings of over 550 million barrels of oil by 2030. Findings also point out that Ecuador and Colombia could face the transition from net oil-exporters to importers as soon as the end of the next decade.

  • 18.
    Daniel, Petrovic
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Underlag till byte av värmekälla för skola i Adak.: Energi- och kostnadsbesparingar redovisas som kan göras för investering i ny värmekälla.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är skriven mot Malå kommun och syftar att ta fram en grund om vilken besparing som kan göras vid byte av energikälla för att sänka skolans energikostnader på ett miljövänligare sätt. Genom att göra en empirisk energibalans och beräkna den dimensionerande effekten ta fram underlag för rätt val av värmekälla. Den energikälla som idag betjänar skolans värmesystem är en gammal oljepanna som även förser en kallställd del av skolan med värme som inte används. Detta underhåll av den kallställda delen resulterar i att skolan idag lider av stora energiförluster. Diskussion har förts av Malås kommunstyrelse om att riva den kallställda delen. 

    En energikartläggning har gjorts av skolans fastighet för att utreda vilka alternativa uppvärmningslösningar som kan tillämpas. Avgränsning av uppvärmningslösningar har gjorts till värmepump och pelletspanna. För att kunna jämföra de olika uppvärmningslösningarna mot varandra har en livscykelkostnadsanalys (LCC) gjorts. Att bilda uppfattning om hur lång tid det skulle ta att betala av de olika investeringarna har även en pay off tid tagits fram.

    För en så verklighetstrogen bild som möjligt har problemet bemöts från tre olika angreppsvinklar. En överslagsberäkning av energifakturor inledde den första offensiven för att ta reda på nuvarande energibehov under dagens förutsättningar. Denna följdes av manuella energiberäkningarna av fastighetens olika byggnader. För att få stöd för de manuella beräkningarna gjordes energisimuleringar i programmet VIP-energy. För att sätta siffrorna i en kontext jämfördes dessa med statistiska nyckeltal hämtade från boverkets och energimyndighetens gemensamma rapport STIL 2. 

    Resultaten tyder på att värmepumpen är den mest lönsamma investeringen enligt livscykelkostnadsanalysen med en kalkylperiod på 20 år. Skolans teoretiska effektbehov som värmekällan bör dimensioneras efter är 77 kW. Den LCC de bägge värmekällorna visar i dagens penningvärde är:

    Värmepump: 2,1 Mkr

    Pelletspanna: 3,4 Mkr

     

    Med en pay off tid på 4,5 år jämfört med 18,5 år för pelletspanna visade sig värmepumpen även där som den lönsammare investeringen.

    Då den årlig uppvärmningen för skolan är 198 990 kWh kan 70-140 kkr sett till dagens penningvärde sparas per år beroende på uppvärmningslösning och kommunens beslut om fastighetens kallställda del.

    En hypotetisk analys av den årliga prisutvecklingen med hänsyn till inflationen för de olika energislagen olja, pellets och el har gjorts som antyder på att 50-80 % kostnadsbesparingspotential kan uppnås genom att byta från befintligt värmesystem med olja till pellets eller värmepump över kommande 20 års period.     

    Det radiatorsystem som idag används uppskattas kunna förse skolan med nödvändigt värmebehov utan att behöva om-dimensioneras vid installering av ny värmekälla. Därför föreslås att Malå kommun investerar i en värmepump som ersätter den befintlig oljepanna i Adaks förskola med hänsyn till effektivare slutanvändning av den inköpta energin.

  • 19.
    Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Fröling, Morgan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för ekoteknik och hållbart byggande, Östersund.
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings: a design for better energy efficiency and social interactions2013In: Passivhus Norden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Danielski, Itai
    et al.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Joelsson, Anna
    Fröling, Morgan
    Heated atrium in multi-storey apartment buildings, a design with potential to enhance energy efficiency and to facilitate social interactions2016In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 106, p. 352-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design concept of conditioned atria gains increasing popularity in commercial and service buildings all over the world, but is still not a common building design in the residential sector. This study investigates the potential of such design in residential buildings in Nordic climates as means to enhance both energy efficiency as well as social interaction among residents. Energy modelling was used to compare energy efficiency among designs of residential buildings with and without atrium and to identify important design parameters. Social interaction was analysed, based on a survey evaluating the perception of residents living in an existing multi-storey apartment building designed with a heated atrium in the north of Sweden. The results show that heated atrium in Nordic climates have a potential to reduce the total final energy demand while at the same time increase the conditioned space of the building. To positively impact energy efficiency, the atrium should fulfil three requirements: (i) it should be designed to reduce the shape factor for the whole building; (ii) it should have the minimum glazed area that comply with the building requirements concerning natural light and visual comfort; and (iii) adjustable solar shading should be installed in the atrium’s façades to avoid unwanted overheating. The survey results indicate that the additional space created by the atrium has a potential to facilitate and promote social interaction among residents and to increases a sense of neighbourliness and belongingness, which are often discussed as important parameters in relation to social sustainability.

  • 21. Das, Sujit
    et al.
    Graziano, Diane
    Upadhyayula, Venkata K. K.
    Masanet, Eric
    Riddle, Matthew
    Cresko, Joe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585, USA.
    Vehicle lightweighting energy use impacts in U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet2016In: Sustainable Materials and Technologies, ISSN 2214-9937, Vol. 8, p. 5-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we estimate the potential energy benefits of lightweighting the light-duty vehicle fleet from both vehicle manufacturing and use perspectives using plausible lightweight vehicle designs involving several alternative lightweight materials, low- and high-end estimates of vehicle manufacturing energy, conventional and alternative powertrains, and two different market penetration scenarios for alternative powertrain light-duty vehicles at the fleet level. Cumulative life cycle energy savings (through 2050) across the nine material scenarios based on the conventional powertrain in the U.S. vehicle fleet range from - 29 to 94 billion GJ, with the greatest savings achieved by multi-material vehicles that select different lightweight materials to meet specific design purposes. Lightweighting alternative-powertrain vehicles could produce significant energy savings in the U.S. vehicle fleet, although their improved powertrain efficiencies lessen the energy savings opportunities for lightweighting. A maximum level of cumulative energy savings of lightweighting the U.S. light-duty vehicle through 2050 is estimated to be 66.1billion GJ under the conventional-vehicle dominated business-as-usual penetration scenario. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 22.
    Ekerholm, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Cultural meanings of wood gas as automobile fuel in Sweden 1930-19452012In: Past and present energy societies: How energy connects politics, technologies and cultures / [ed] Nina Möllers & Karin Zachmann, Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag, 2012, p. 223-247Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Emil, Rönnmark
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energikartläggning av Kopparhuset i Skellefteå2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Engman Reed, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Plan for evaluation of Austin Energy Green Building’s Multifamily Rating Program2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Austin Energy Green Building (AEGB) started their multifamily rating program in 1999. It is a green building program where participants can receive different ratings, 1-5 stars, depending on how many requirements the building fulfills. AEGB wants to evaluate the projected energy and demand savings from the multifamily program to be able to report to Austin Energy at the end of the fiscal year.

    Buildings going through the multifamily rating program can either use a prescriptive approach or a performance approach. For the prescriptive approach the savings are evaluated with the help of a deemed savings value. For the performance approach the participant needs to turn in an energy model of the proposed buildings with modeled projected energy and demand savings.

    The purpose of this degree project was to develop a plan for evaluation of the projected savings from the multifamily rating program.  AEGB will need to be able to compare the projected energy and demand savings with the actual energy and demand savings from the buildings that have gone through the program. Focus has been on finding a suitable evaluation approach, based on the available data. Criteria for inclusion were determined. Evaluation of all buildings is not be possible and therefore a sample size needed to be determined for the population. The projected energy savings data was analyzed. A way to account for apartments without full year use data was studied as well as common criteria for uncertainty analysis.

    It was suggested that one year of full energy use data was enough as criterion for buildings to be a part of the population to be evaluated, which gave a population size of 29 buildings.  of the buildings received a 1-3 star rating and they account for about  or  of the projected energy savings. If a simple random sample is used with a confidence level of  and  relative precision the sample will be 21 buildings. If the relative precision is changed to  the sample will contain 11 buildings. Another option is to use stratified random sample, and sample sizes were calculated by star rating and size of the buildings. A number of different ways of accounting for vacant units were found however the latest vacancy rate for multifamily buildings in Austin was . This corresponds to about  in lost projected energy savings for the buildings that have gone through AEGB’s multifamily program. Lastly, post occupancy evaluation (POE) will be recommended for this evaluation effort of AEGB’s multifamily program.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Tillvaratagande av förlustvärme från frekvensomformarstationer2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För effektmatning av den elektrifierade järnvägen krävs att spänningens frekvens omformas från kraftnätets frekvens på 50 Hz till 16,7 Hz. Detta sker i dag med två olika metoder. En metod där frekvensen omformas på mekanisk väg då en motor på gemensam axel driver en generator som genererar elkraft av rätt frekvens, detta kallas för en roterande frekvensomformare. Den andra metoden ändrar spänningens frekvens med hjälp av kraftelektronik, detta kallas för en statisk frekvensomformare. Gemensamt för båda dessa metoder är att de har värmeförluster. För de roterande omformaraggregaten så är förlustvärmen till stor del luftburen medan de statiska frekvensomformarna har både vätske- och luftkylning. I många fall ser det i dagsläget ut så att förlusterna kyls bort mot omgivningen.

    Syftet med detta arbete är att bestämma huruvida dessa värmeförluster kan nyttjas för uppvärmning av stationsbyggnaderna där omformaraggregaten finns på ett lönsamt vis.

    I arbetet har två frekvensomformarstationer undersökts. En station med enbart roterande frekvensomformare i Gällivare samt en station med enbart statiska frekvensomformare i Boden. Båda omformarstationerna har idag energisystem för uppvärmning baserade på direktverkande el.

    I simuleringsmodeller och mätningar har de båda omformarstationernas energibehov för uppvärmning fastställts. För Gällivare omformarstation rör det sig om en specifik energiförbrukning för uppvärmning motsvarande ca 300 kWh/m2. För Bodens omformarstation är den sammantagna specifika energianvändningen 204 kWh/m2.

    Genom ytterligare mätningar har delar av frekvensomformaraggregatens effektförluster fastställts och analyserats med hänsyn till storlek och tidsvariationer. Rapporten fastslår att förlustvärmen från luftkylningen av de roterande omformarna räcker för att täcka stationens uppvärmningsbehov. Rapporten fastslår även att tomgångsförlusterna från ett omformaraggregat räcker för att förse omformarstationen i Boden med tillräcklig värmeenergi för uppvärmning. De båda omformarstationernas förlusteffekter uppvisade även en regelbundenhet i effektflödet vilket möjliggör för en värmeåtervinningslösning utan behov av ackumulator.

    För Gällivares omformarstation har ett utformat förslag på en teknisk lösning för uppvärmning av omformarstationen med förlustvärme från frekvensomformaraggregaten presenterats. Detta består av ett projekterat och dimensionerat överluftssystem för uppvärmning av byggnaden med den uppvärmda luften från frekvensomformaraggregatens kylsystem. Luftflödet för att möta det simulerade effektbehovet för uppvärmning uppgår i ca 9,5 l/(s ∙m2), ett flöde som kan orsaka problem med luftdrag och ljudalstring som gör arbetsmiljön dålig. Då omformarstationen i normala fall är obemannad föreslogs en strömbrytare som inaktiverar överluftssystemet vid besök på omformarstationen av underhållspersonal. En ekonomisk sammanställning baserad på LCC (Life cycle cost) har fastställt att en investering kan vara lönsam inom 5 år. För Bodens omformarstation har ingen teknisk lösning presenterats.

  • 26.
    Fossum, Heidi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Coordinated freight logistics in existing city districts- Evaluation of methods for calculating energy and environmental effects2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Norra Djurgårdsstaden is the largest ongoing construction project in Sweden and is planned to be completed in 2030. The city district is situated in north-eastern Stockholm, in a former industrial area where approximately 12 000 new homes and 35 000 workplaces are planned. The city district focuses strongly on reducing energy consumption and the negative impacts on the environment. One idea for realizing this goal is to implement coordinated freight logistics. This can be accomplished by building a consolidation centre where goods from different logistics companies and freight carriers can be loaded together on the same delivery vehicles and then be delivered in the same area in Norra Djurgårdsstaden.

     

    The purpose of this master thesis is to evaluate five earlier evaluation reports on consolidation centres. Based on these evaluation reports and other relevant literature, it is recommended how a coordinated freight logistic project should be organized in Norra Djurgårdsstaden and how the impact on the environment and energy consumption should be calculated. The evaluation reports are from the logistic centre in the Old Town of Stockholm, the pilot project Samlic in Linköping, the urban consolidation centre in Norwich, the micro-consolidation centre in London and several urban logistic practices in Utrecht. A thorough comparative analysis of the five different evaluation reports has looked at the initiators and the stakeholders, the delivery situation before and after the implementation of the consolidation centre as well as done a deeper evaluation analysis of all the evaluation reports. The comparative analysis showed that the consolidation centres have had a positive effect on decreasing the number of delivery vehicles in the city district and thereby reducing the emissions and the energy consumption from the delivery vehicles.

     

    Based on the comparative analysis and other literature it is suggested that the initiative to build a consolidation centre in Norra Djurgårdsstaden has to come from the City of Stockholm. The stakeholders should be the City of Stockholm, logistics companies, freight companies, the different businesses in the area and the Ports of Stockholm. To encourage even more businesses to have deliveries from the consolidation centre and get more environmentally friendly delivery vehicles in the city district it might be necessary to use several management control instruments. Examples of control instruments are environmental zones, time windows and implement different restrictions on the delivery vehicles. It is essential to gather information about the delivery vehicles in the city district to estimate emissions and the energy consumption. The collection of data from the delivery vehicles can be gathered from consignment notes, driver notes, invoice data or statistics of the number of vehicles that have delivered goods in the city centre from freight and logistics companies. Then the delivery vehicles impact on energy consumption and the environment can be estimated with the computer tool Network of transports and environment (NTM-method).

     

  • 27.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintlig bebyggelse: Report prepared for the Swedish Energy Agency2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential to improve energy efficiency in existing Swedish residential buildings. However, the successful implementation of efficiency measures depends on economical and technical factors, as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. A better understanding of their attitudes and perceptions may influence the design of suitable policy measures that increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. In this context, we conducted mail-in surveys completed by owners of detached houses, chairmen of co-operative housing associations (bostadsrättsförening) and municipality energy advisers in Sweden. We also interviewed window sellers/installers in Jämtland.

    Results show that it was important for the majority of homeowners to reduce their household energy use, with most undertaking no-cost measures (e.g., switching off lights). However, 70–90% of the responding homeowners had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. The main reason for non-adoption was that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition and thermal performance of their existing building envelope components. Homeowners who thought their energy cost was high were more likely to adopt an investment measure compared to those who thought their energy cost was low. Investment costs and annual energy cost savings were the most important factors in adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures. Therefore, economic incentives may induce homeowners to adopt energy efficiency investment measures. However, a large percentage (64%) of homeowners was unaware of the existence of government support for reducing household energy use. Information campaigns announcing the availability of economic incentives and the cost advantages of energy efficiency measures may be helpful in the adoption decision.

    Homeowners‘ considered interpersonal sources, builders, installers and energy advisers as important sources of information for their adoption of energy efficiency measures. Though a large percentage of respondents considered energy advisers as an important source of information, only 14% of homeowners had contacted an energy adviser in the past. Our findings suggest that the energy advice service is important for homeowners, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners‘ awareness of and satisfaction with such services. The majority of municipal energy advisers were of the opinion that more training in technical aspects of energy issues and increased financial support could improve their performance.

    Installers and material suppliers are important actors in homeowners‘ adoption of energy efficiency measures. For example, approximately 53% of responding homeowners to a survey in Jämtland/Västernorrland stated that the window seller/installer from whom they had bought windows had recommended a particular type of window, and 97% had installed the windows that were recommended. The window sellers/installers in Jämtland prefer a window that is ―reasonably‖ energy efficient. They believe that windows with a U-value of 1.2 W/m2K are good and there is no reason to further improve the energy efficiency. The majority did not recommend windows with U-value <1.2 W/m2K. They were concerned about the condensation issues and high prices of such windows. This may influence the diffusion of very energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses.

    About 80-95% of chairmen in co-operative housing associations who responded to our survey had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. They were satisfied with the existing building envelope components, which may be one of the reasons for this lack of intention. As in the case of owners of detached houses, economic factors, like annual energy cost savings and investment costs, guide the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures in co-operative housing associations. However, about 66% of the responding chairmen did not consider financial constraint as a barrier to implementing investment intensive energy efficiency measures. For 54% of the respondents limited in-house competency to evaluate the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the main barrier.

    The majority of owners of detached houses (80%) and chairmen of co-operative housing associations (70%) perceived that economic policy instruments, such as investment subsidies and tax deductions, would encourage them to implement energy efficiency measures. Other policy instruments, especially information instruments, were perceived as less effective. Among various information policies, increasing the frequency of meter reading received the highest approval with 38% of homeowners, whereas approximately 41% of housing association chairmen thought that individual metering of heating and hot water use could be effective. Approximately 30% of homeowners and housing association chairmen thought that energy declaration was effective.

  • 28.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementing energy efficiency measures in existing Swedish building stock2008In: World Sustainable Energy Days, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential for improving energy efficiency in the existing Swedish building stock. However, how successful the implementation of the efficiency measures will be, depends on economical and technical factors as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. In this paper we use Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to analyze various factors affecting implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish detached houses and apartment buildings. Results of recent Swedish household surveys concerning adoption of heating systems showed that majority of the respondents were satisfied with their heating systems and did not intend to install a new one. Economic aspects and functional reliability were important factors in the choice of heating systems, while installers/vendors were the most important sources of information on heating system. We discuss upcoming empirical studies on implementation of other energy efficiency measures, e.g. energy efficient windows and additional insulation, including that of heating systems, in detached houses and apartment buildings.

  • 29.
    Görtz, Steffen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Battery energy storage for intermittent renewable electricity production: A review and demonstration of energy storage applications permitting higher penetration of renewables2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by resource politics and climate change, the transition from conventional fossil fuel based and centralized energy generation to distributed renewables is increasing rapidly. Wind and solar power generation offer carbon dioxide neutral electricity but also present some integration difficulties for energy system operators and planners due to intermittent power output. A promising way of dealing with the intermittency from renewables is energy storage.

    The method of storing energy in the electricity grid, especially by the means of electrochemical storage, has gained a lot of attention over the last years in the energy sector. While most utilities and energy market stakeholders have the basic understanding of energy storage, a more profound knowledge of grid storage applications is often lacking. This thesis aims to highlight and explain possible energy storage applications with focus on renewables integration.

    Battery energy storage can allow higher amounts of renewable electricity generation to be integrated by smoothening power output, time shifting generated energy to follow demand and increase hosting capacities through peak shaving. Power quality related issues due to intermittency can be mitigated by controlling the storage’s charging patterns to respond to grid variables. For optimal utilization and maximum storage value, several applications should be within the operational repertoire of the storage unit. Other applications including arbitrage, grid investment deferral and load following are discussed.

    Several battery technologies which have been developed and tested for such applications including lead acid, sodium sulfate and lithium-ion are presented. The most promising battery energy storage technology is lithium-ion with exceptional storage characteristics and most importantly a favorable near term price development.

    Two case studies on two of Umeå Energy’s low voltage networks simulating high penetrations of solar generation have been carried out to demonstrate mitigation of overvoltage and peak shaving with battery energy storage systems. The simulations show that energy storage systems can successfully be used to aid the integration of renewables in the electricity grid. Present capital costs are still too high for energy storage to be feasible but falling pricing and a developing market is foreseen to lower the hurdles. 

    The main obstacle for energy storage at grid scale besides high capital costs are, in principle, non-existing legal frameworks regulating the ownership of energy storage systems and system technology standardization. Further discussions on the matter in combination with testing and pilot projects are needed to gain national and international experience with battery energy storage for the successful high share integration of renewables.

  • 30.
    Helms, Karey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    The Family Circuit: A New Narrative of American Domesticity2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the world endures and approaches a string of energy crises, both financially and environmentally, this project aims to critique and challenge society's relationship with energy by provoking individuals to examine their current habits of energy consumption, consider the future implications of these actions, and question their willingness to make sacrifices for a cleaner environment. This is accomplished through the development of a fictional society in the near future in which individuals are required to produce all the electrical energy that they need or desire to consume. Within the daily narrative of a fictional family of five, the details and events of their everyday lives have been extrapolated to create a liminal world where mundane, yet peculiar diegetic prototypes create tense situations, uncomfortable behaviors, and unforeseen consequences. Plot devices manifested include distributed government information in the form of an energy harvesting catalog, product infomercial, energy bill, and a home monitoring brochure. The narrative emphasis and human driven context aspires to foster a new lens of speculation, imagination, and discovery regarding the production and consumption of energy.

    What if you were required to produce all the energy you desire to consume?

  • 31.
    Holmkvist, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Byte av värmesystem Strömvägen 6: Undersökning av alternativa lösningar2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet undersöker olika alternativ för uppvärmning av Strömvägen 6 i Lövånger. Fastigheten har 10 lägenheter ägs av Skebo, ett fastighetsbolag i Skellefteå kommun som önskar att hitta alternativ till den gamla oljepannan i huset.För att ta fram lämpliga alternativ så har fastighetens energibehov, effektbehov och tappvarmvatten beräknats. Efter en första överblick av olika uppvärmningsmetoder så valdes ett par ut för att undersökas närmare. Fjärrvärme som uppvärmning för fastigheten är inte aktuellt då det inte finns någon kulvert inom lämpligt avstånd. Bland biobränslena valdes pellets som ett alternativ att kika närmare på, då pelletsen är lätthanterlig och kräver mindre arbetsinsats än exempelvis vedeldning. Bergvärme och jordvärme är två andra alternativ som undersökts då de inte kräver särskilt mycket underhåll.Värmesystemens funktion har undersökts tillsammans med en LCC analys för att jämföra dem ekonomiskt över 20 år. Arbetet har även undersökt de olika uppvärmningsformernas miljöpåverkan, där man kan se att alla tre alternativen är bättre val än den nuvarande oljepannan samt att pellets har lägst förbrukning av resurser. Då investeringskostnad inte påverkar slutkostnaden i lika stor utsträckning som bränslepriset verkar en bergvärmepump vara det mest intressanta alternativet, så länge man får lov från kommunen. Som fastighetsföretag är det nog en fördel med en lättskött anläggning, och det kan vara mer lämpligt än jordvärme då man inte behöver gräva upp hela gården.

  • 32.
    Jakobsson, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Projektering av radiatorsystem och fjärrvärme sekundärsystem: Projektering av radiatorsystem och fjärrvärme sekundärsystem för bostadsrättsföreningen Stålet, Luleå.2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bostadsområdet Stålet i Luleå ägs av en bostadsrättsförening som omfattar 30 stycken lägenhetshus. Riksbyggen är fastighetsförvaltare för denna förening och sköter bl.a. den tekniska förvaltningen. Riksbyggen har fått i uppgift att se över föreningens radiator- och fjärrvärme sekundärsystem för att i förlängningen eventuellt byta ut dessa system pga. eftersatt underhåll och med osäker drift som resultat. Detta projekt behandlar dessa system där en kartläggning av de befintliga systemen har genomförts och ett underlag för ett nytt system har utarbetats.

    En värmeeffektbehovsberäkning har utförts där hänsyn har tagits till tranmission, ventilation och oavsiktlig ventilation. En utförlig kartläggning och beräkning av transmission genom klimatskalet har genomförts, så även beräkning av förluster genom ventilation och oavsiktlig ventilation.

    Värmeförlusten genom respektive konstruktion i huset finns presenterad likaså ett värmeeffektbehov. Det befintliga radiator- och fjärrvärme sekundärsystemet har studerats och dokumenterats och ett nytt system har utarbetats där förslag på rördragning och dimensioner, placering och data för radiatorer, ventiler och rör framgår. Även totalt tryckfall har beräknats för vidare bestämning av pumpstorlek och typ.

    Detta underlag kan kompletteras med en ekonomiberäkning vilket tillsammans kan ligga till grund för ett beslut om ett nytt system ska påbörja att projekteras eller ej och i vilken omfattning. 

  • 33.
    Janols, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Hushålls- och företagskunders potential till laststyrning i Umeå Energis elnät: En förstudie till projektet Elnätstariffer.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The electric power grid is facing immense changes, the production of intermittent electricity is increasing at the same time as a big part of todays base load (mostly nuclear power) as well as the power reserve is in the process of being phased out. Due to these changes it is deemed that a larger amount of demand response will be needed in the near future. In order to accomplish this some sort of stimulus is required. Due to this accompanied by new indications from the regulatory authority Energimarknadsinspektionen Umeå Energi Elnät (UEEN) have started a process where they wish to investigate the consequences of abandoning their current pricing method in favor of a peak demand charge tariff. This new pricing method will increase the costumers ability to affect their electricity bill in addition to providing a higher degree of stimulus for demand response. This report is a part of that investigation and aims to quantify the costumers potential as well as the expected willingness for demand response och load shifting in adherence to the potential change in pricing methods. Accordingly. the question formulation for this thesis is as follows:

    1. What is the potential for load shifting, and a decreased power demand, due to a behavoiral change by the means of online measuring for households and business costumers in their testgroups respectively?
    2. What is the potential for load shifting, and a decreased power demand, by the means of enabling technology such as batteries, load limiting equipment, storage water heater etc.?
    3. How large is the economic stimulus for the costumers of UEEN to achieve load shifting by changing their behaviour or invest in enabling technology?

    A selection of costumers in four different neighbourhoods (a total of 793 costumers) were chosen, and measured data regaring their peak power demand and their monthly electricity consumption were used in the calculations of this thesis. Based on this data and a literature study conclusions regaring the costumers demand response and load shifting potential were drawn.  Out if the 793 costumers included in this study the absolute majority (771 costumers) currently have a fuse corresponding to 16-25 A which is why only the results for these costumers is presented below.

    According to a theoretical assessment almost all of the costumers included in this study have a possibility to shift a fairly big part of their load. However, according to the literature study, it is reasonable to expect a load shift corresponding to 2-5 % of the costumers peak demand due to behavioural changes as a consequense of online measuring accompanied by a peak demand charge tariff. This would coincide with a load shift of 0,1-0,45 kW per household during the winter season, which, for the majority of costumers, can be translated into an annual saving of 0-200 SEK/household. 

    With regards to the expected load shift by the means of enabling technology batteries is not considered to, due to its unprofibility, be a solution that constumers can be expected to invest in in the nearby future. The potential load shift as a result of regulating electricity based heating systems however, is considered to be significantly larger and is deemed to amount to 2-5 kW depending on the heating system and its as well as the builidings built-in heat storage capacity. Based on this, some assumptions regarding the constumers heating systems and their current power demand the potential costumer savings is evaluated to 300-750 SEK per year.

  • 34.
    Klinkert, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Uncertainty Analysis of Long Term Correction Methods for Annual Average Winds2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For the construction of a wind farm, one needs to assess the wind resources of the considered site location. Using reference time series from numerical weather prediction models, global assimilation databases or observations close to the area considered, the on-site measured wind speeds and wind directions are corrected in order to represent the actual long-term wind conditions. This long-term correction (LTC) is in the typical case performed by making use of the linear regression within the Measure-Correlate-Predict (MCP) method. This method and two other methods, Sector-Bin (SB) and Synthetic Time Series (ST), respectively, are used for the determination of the uncertainties that are associated with LTC.The test area that has been chosen in this work, is located in the region of the North Sea, using 22 quality controlled meteorological (met) station observations from offshore or nearby shore locations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The time series that has been used cover the eight year period from 2002 to 2009 and the year with the largest variability in the wind speeds, 2007, is used as the short-term measurement period. The long-term reference datasets that have been used are the Weather Research and Forecast model, based on both ECMWF Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction Final Analysis (NCEP/FNL), respectively and additional reference datasets of Modern Era Re-Analysis (MERRA) and QuikSCAT satellite observations. The long-term period for all of the reference datasets despite QuikSCAT, correspond to the one of stations observations. The QuikSCAT period of observations used cover the period from November 1st, 1999 until October 31st, 2009.The analysis is divided into three parts. Initially, the uncertainty connected to the corresponding reference dataset, when used in LTC method, is investigated. Thereafter the uncertainty due to the concurrent length of the on-site measurements and reference dataset is analyzed. Finally, the uncertainty is approached using a re-sampling method of the Non-Parametric Bootstrap. The uncertainty of the LTC method SB, for a fixed concurrent length of the datasets is assessed by this methodology, in an effort to create a generic model for the estimation of uncertainty in the predicted values for SB.The results show that LTC with WRF model datasets based on NCEP/FNL and ERA-Interim, respectively, is slightly different, but does not deviate considerably in comparison when comparing with met station observations. The results also suggest the use of MERRA reference dataset in connection with long-term correction methods. However, the datasets of QuikSCAT does not provide much information regarding the overall quality of long-term correction, and a different approach than using station coordinates for the withdrawal of QuikSCAT time series is preferred. Additionally, the LTC model of Sector-Bin is found to be robust against variation in the correlation coefficient between the concurrent datasets. For the uncertainty dependence of concurrent time, the results show that an on-site measurement period of one consistent year or more, gives the lowest uncertainties compared to measurements of shorter time. An additional observation is that the standard deviation of long-term corrected means decreases with concurrent time. Despite the efforts of using the re-sampling method of Non-Parametric Bootstrap the estimation of the uncertainties is not fully determined. However, it does give promising results that are suggested for investigation in further work.

  • 35.
    Larsson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Energy recovery of metallic aluminium in MSWI bottom ash: Different approaches to hydrogen production from MSWI bottom ash: A case study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the wastes in Sweden end up in incinerator plants. These trashes are full of metals, especially aluminium, which will not oxidize, they can’t always be recycled and they will instead oxidize in water and leak hydrogen gas to its surrounding. Estimations calculate it could be an average potential of around 40-50 kWh/ton of burnt trash. Ignoring the imported trash, the national recovery potential of Sweden’s 4,3 million tonnes of trash would then be equal to 170-220 GWh/year due to non-recyclable metals, which are currently going to temporary landfills. The requirements to harness this potential are technically simple, and can be achieved by a quick separation of the recyclables and the non-recyclables. This report will review the factors which increase the rate of reaction and study different ways of extracting the energy, by electrolysis, thermal treatment and mechanical mixing. This was done by taking small samples from the MSWI, owned by Umeå Energi AB, and putting them in small containers. While using the different methods, electrolysis, thermal treatment and mechanichal mixing, the amount of developed H2 gas over time was measured. The result shows that the best methods are mechanical mixing together with thermal treatment, where mechanical mixing seems to give the biggest effect of them two. The electrolysis did not work as intended, where there could be issues with the conductivity of the ash-mixture.

  • 36.
    Lestander, Torbjörn A.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Rudolfsson, Magnus
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    NIR provides excellent predictions of properties of biocoal from torrefaction and pyrolysis of biomass2014In: Green Chemistry, ISSN 1463-9262, E-ISSN 1463-9270, Vol. 16, no 12, p. 4906-4913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When biomass is exposed to high temperatures in torrefaction, pyrolysis or gasification treatments, the enrichment of carbon in the remaining 'green coal' is correlated with the temperature. Various other properties, currently measured using wet chemical methods, which affect the materials' quality as a fuel, also change. The presented study investigated the possibility of using NIR spectrometry to estimate diverse variables of biomass originating from two sources (above-ground parts of reed canary grass and Norway spruce wood) carbonised at temperatures ranging from 240 to 850 C-circle. The results show that the spectra can provide excellent predictions of its energy, carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon contents. Hence NIR spectrometry combined with multivariate calibration modeling has potential utility as a standardized method for rapidly characterising thermo-treated biomass, thus reducing requirements for more costly, laborious wet chemical analyses and consumables.

  • 37. Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Gustafsson, M.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Olofsson, T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Dalarna Univ, Sch Technol & Business Studies, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden.
    Trygg, L.
    Comparing different building energy efficiency refurbishment packages performed within different district heating systems2017In: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON APPLIED ENERGY (ICAE2016) / [ed] Yan, J Sun, F Chou, SK Desideri, U Li, H Campana, P Xiong, R, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 105, p. 1719-1724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the differences in primary energy (PE) use of a multi-family building refurbished with different refurbishment packages situated in different district heating systems (DHS). Four models of typical DHS are defined to represent the Swedish DH sector. The refurbishment packages are chosen to represent typical, yet innovative ways to improve the energy efficiency of a representative multi-family building in Sweden. The study was made from a broad system perspective, including valuation of changes in electricity use on the margin. The results show a significant difference in PE savings for the different refurbishment packages, depending on both the package itself as well as the type of DHS. Also, the package giving the lowest specific energy use per m(2) was not the one which saved the most PE.

  • 38. Lidberg, T.
    et al.
    Olofsson, T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. School of Technology and Business Studies, Dalarna University, 791 88, Falun, Sweden.
    Trygg, L.
    System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 106, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration. This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases. The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used. When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures. 

  • 39. Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). CERE, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Umeå University and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Zhang, Shanshan
    Industrial energy demand and energy efficiency - Evidence from Sweden2016In: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, E-ISSN 1873-0221, Vol. 43, p. 130-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates firm level energy demand and energy efficiency for 14 sectors in Swedish manufacturing using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). We derive sector level energy demand frontiers that account for firm specific heterogeneity. Results show that there is potential to improve energy efficiency for fuel and electricity use in all sectors; energy intensity is not an appropriate proxy for energy efficiency; the EU ETS had a modest or no effect on Swedish firms' efficient use of energy during the first trading phase and the beginning of the second, indicating that the carbon permit price was too low to generate the necessary incentives for energy efficiency investments.

  • 40.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Dodoo, Ambrose
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK, Växjö.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    System analysis of and stakeholders’ perceptions on end-use energy efficiency measures for existing Swedish multi-family buildings2012In: Conference on Building Energy and Environment, COBEE 12, International Conference on Building Energy and Environment. Boulder, Colorado, USA, August 1-4., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there is opportunity to implement energy efficiency measures in about one million existing apartments that are likely to be refurbished within the next 20 years. System analyses of installation of energy efficient windows, and increased insulation in attic and in exterior walls for an existing multi-story building showed that the primary energy savings for the measures depend on the energy supply system. Energy efficiency potential was higher with installation of efficient windows than improved attic insulation. Responses of 673 chairpersons of co-operative hosing associations to a mail-in survey in 2010 also showed that greater proportion of respondents perceived that energy efficient windows had advantages over insulation improvements. However, majority had no intention to implement such measures during next 10 years and economic factors guide their decisions. Lack of expertise to assess the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the most cited hindrances to energy efficiency investments.

  • 41.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Potential target group for the introduction of full service energy efficient renovation in Swedish single-family houses2010In: SB10:  Sustainable  Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42. Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Nair, Gireesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Swedish homeowners’ perceptions of innovative heating systems: results of three surveys2009In: ECEEE Summer study, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Energy advice service as a policy instrument to promote energy efficiency in residential sector: perception of end-users and service providers2011In: SB11, World Sustainable Building Conference, Helsinki, Finland. October 18-21, 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden ; Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Energy advice service as perceived by Swedish homeowners2011In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden municipality energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. The success of energy advice service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context, we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in the summer of 2008. We found that majority of owners of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had contacted an energy adviser. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy advice service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  • 45.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Perceptional and soicio-economic factors in adoption of low energy houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of low energy houses reduces greenhouse emission from residential sector. However, adoption of such houses depends on the perception of the potential buyers. In this paper we have analyzed Swedish homeowners’ perception of low energy houses. Data was collected in 2008 from a mail-in questionnaire survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses. Results showed that about 39% of respondents, especially young, educated or whose household income was high, would consider buying a low energy house. Majority of the respondents agreed that a low energy house in comparison to a conventional house has lower operating energy cost, but higher investment cost. Majority thought that low energy houses do not have lower resale value, lower aesthetic appearance, or greater operational difficulty.

  • 46.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Policy instruments to promote energy efficiency in the building sector: Indian and Swedish experiences2008In: 14th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency measures in buildings are widely regarded as cost effective options to mitigate climate change. However, policy instruments are needed to improve the diffusion of such measures. The policy mix may be country-specific. Here, we compare and contrast the various policy instruments designed to enhance energy efficiency in the building sector in India and Sweden. The objective is to explore if the experiences of Sweden that have promoted energy efficiency in buildings for decades could be useful for India, where energy demand is forecasted to strongly increase. India and Sweden are very different, for example, in terms of development, size, priorities, population, and climatic conditions. In Sweden, policy initiatives to reduce energy use in buildings date back to the 1970s and the government is committed to significantly reduce energy use in buildings. In India, the interest in energy efficiency improvements in buildings is a recent phenomenon. The country introduced an energy conservation building code in 2007. This analysis shows that policy instruments are more prevalent in Sweden than in India where regulatory instruments are particularly lacking. Hence, Swedish buildings are more energy efficient than those in India. The Swedish experience could be useful for devising programs and implementing policy instruments to improve energy efficiency of Indian buildings.

  • 47.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden and Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Swedish energy advisers' perceptions regarding and suggestions for fulfilling homeowner expectations2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 7, Special Issue, p. 4264-4273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipality energy advice services were re-introduced in Sweden in 1998 as a way of advising end-users, mainly owners of detached houses, on energy issues. In this paper, we investigate Swedish energy advisers' perceptions of homeowners' awareness of the energy advice service and their perceived ability to fulfil homeowners' expectations. Our study is based on a mail-in questionnaire survey conducted in 2009 and distributed to municipality energy advisers in all municipalities in Sweden. About 66% of the energy advisers responded. The results show that 43% of the energy advisers thought that fewer than 50% of the homeowners were aware of the service and that mass media advertisements and presentations at different organisations could improve homeowner awareness. Energy adviser attitudes, job satisfaction, and the perception that the advisers possessed up-to-date and good knowledge and sufficient financial resources to execute their duties had a significant influence on their perceived ability to fulfil homeowner expectations. Increased training in technical aspects of energy measures and increased financial support were the two measures most widely suggested as a means to improve energy advisers' performance.

  • 48.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    The role of energy advisers on adoption of energy measures in detached houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT,  11-12 March, in connection with the ‘Energitinget 2009’, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Melin, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Konserveringsmetoder mot korrosion på vattensidan av hetvatten pannor: Preservation methods against corrosion at the waterside of hot water boilers2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar en utredning av konserveringsmetoder för vattensidan under stilleståndsperioder av ett värmeverk bestående av fem hetvattenpannor med ett gemensamt ångnät. Syftet var att utvärdera olika metoder för att motverka korrosion då pannorna inte är i drift. Konserveringsmetoderna som utreddes och jämfördes internt var konservering med en kvävgaskudde, ångkudde, torrläggning och en kemisk lösning. Att utreda metoderna innebar att uppskatta dess kostnad ekonomiskt genom att beräkna en årskostnad. För att besvara hur effektivt deras skydd mot korrosion är användes litteraturens referenser och teoretiska samband för att uppskatta syrehalten i matarvattnet. För att kunna göra en realistisk jämförelse mellan metoderna har den avgivna effekten för värmeverkets pannor under driftåret 2016 använts som en grund för beräkningarna. Årskostnaderna från konserveringsmetoderna är från 2016 års driftdata av värmeverket. En kvävgaskudde med en renhet av 99,999 % kan resultera i en syrehalt av 9,6 ppb för matarvattnet och har en total årskostnad av 77 300 SEK. En ångkudde har potentialen att bevara vattnet i princip syrefritt och har en total årskostnad av 809 000 SEK med en extern elpanna för ångproduktion. Att torrlägga pannorna är bara möjligt under vissa perioder av året dock skulle en total årskostnad av eldriften för att hålla pannorna torra motsvara en kostnad av 17 500 SEK. Metoden med en kemisk lösning hade en totalårskostnad av 1 640 000 SEK. Baserat på tillgänglig information och utförda antaganden är slutsatsen att värmeverket ifråga rekommenderas att upphöra med en kemisk konserveringsmetod och övergå till en kvävgaskudde som konserveringsmetod mot korrosion då pannorna inte är i drift.

  • 50.
    Mähler, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Förstudie för en vindkraftpark på Malmölandet i Norrköping: En undersökning av förutsättningarna för en vindkraftpark på ett sen tidigare planerat område2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a feasibility study that examines various aspects of building a wind farm on Malmön in Norrköping. The feasibility study deals with interests of conflict, park design, electrical connections, production calculation, financial calculations and operating- and timetable.

    The report is divided into two distinct parts. First a theoretical part, which deals with conflicting interests, park design and electrical connections. Second a part with simulations dealing with production calculations, and financial calculations.

    Opposing interests are mapped so that problem areas can be found, and help put focus on the right places at a future environmental impact assessment (EIA). There are a number of areas where planners have to assess on an EIA, this thesis point on the most important areas. There are a few areas of national interest and the Natura 2000 protection. Part of the area of the planned park is also within Norrköping Airport area of influence and an assessment must be made by the civil aviation authority (CAA) to determine if a wind farm on the location would affect the air traffic and if so, what part of the location would be affected. Furthermore, there is the area of a flight route for birds as well as an area that is a common livelihood for birds. These should be examined to see if wind power in the area can become a problem for these birds.

    A production calculation has been implemented in the program WindPRO. This feasibility study has dealt with three different park designs with the wind turbine, Vestas V-126 3.3MW, which is the largest low wind turbine we found. Based on wind data, data for wind turbines, distance between turbines and other data we can do a calculation of how much energy the wind farm produces annually. Calculations were also made In WindPRO regarding sound levels and shadow creation. This is so that the wind farm will be designed so target values for noise and shadows are met. All park designs in this project has been designed so that the sound and shadow benchmarks for buildings nearby are met.

    Based on production estimates, an economic calculation been carried out. The different park designs have between 7 and 11 wind turbines with an annual energy production of between 58 and 91 GWh per year. The wind turbines have been estimated to cost approximately 25 Mkr each, plus about 10 % of turbine cost for foundations, roads, power lines and other similar expenses. One calculation was made for the case the electric connection could be done directly to some of the industries in the location, for this simulation the cost over the wind mill was about 15 %. Under all these conditions, the project should be financially sustainable, with a payback period of about 6-11 years and a return of investment of 1-7 %.

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