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  • 1. Anderssen, C.
    et al.
    Lindgren, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Carvalho, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Malmborg, V.
    Ahlberg, E.
    García-López, N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Eriksson, A.
    Kristensen, T.B.
    Svenningsson, B.
    Boman, C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Pagels, J.
    SOA Formation and Particle Characteristics in the Emissions from Biomass Cook Stoves Used in the Developing Countries2017In: SOA Formation and Particle Characteristics in the Emissions from Biomass Cook Stoves Used in the Developing Countries, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Carter, Ellison
    et al.
    Lam, Nicholas
    Chafe, Zoe
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Shan, Ming
    Ackerly, John
    Lancey, Forrest
    Household energy transitions to address air pollution exposure, health, and climate burdens associated with solid fuel burning2018In: Household energy transitions to address air pollution exposure, health, and climate burdens associated with solid fuel burning, Philadelphia, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential space heating and cooking are critical household energy service needs worldwide. Household transitions to clean-burning fuels at population scales are needed that do not contribute to poor indoor and outdoor air quality and the potential associated exposure, health, and climate burdens. We propose to discuss and debate research, implementation needs, and advances related to use of solid fuel for meeting residential energy needs with an express focus on residential heating demand, which has been less studied than residential cooking.We aim to identify knowledge gaps in the field of household energy systems in resource-constrained communities, set research priorities to address these gaps, and highlight opportunities for interdisciplinary and transnational learning and collaboration. 

  • 3.
    Carvalho, Ricardo
    et al.
    Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark; Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Portugal.
    Vicente, Estela
    Tarelho, Luís
    Jensen, Ole Michael
    Wood stove combustion air retrofits: a low cost way to increase energy savings in dwellings2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 164, p. 140-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, wood-fired stoves remain as major renewable household heating and emission sources. This study focused on improving the performance of a wood stove (natural draft) traditionally used in Portugal by the adoption of alternative combustion air retrofits. Additionally, the performance of a new pellet stove (forced-air) was determined to investigate the highest achievable goal for solid-fuel stoves. In the wood stove, an outer chimney component was installed around the existing chimney to allow the vertical admission of outdoor air that was preheated before entering the combustion chamber. This measure increased the thermal efficiency of the wood stove from 62% to up to 79%. Another component was used to administrate secondary air to the wood stove reducing the carbon monoxide emissions by 39% to 2808 mg Nm−3. The two retrofits enhanced a more stable heat release from the wood stove, which reached a thermal efficiency 11% lower than that achieved by the pellet stove. This research suggests that retrofitting stoves with chimney components that allow the admission of combustion air can substantially increase energy savings in dwellings. Further efforts should focus on improving the interplay between the outdoor air and secondary air admission to achieve higher emission reductions at low-cost.

  • 4. Eggermont, Hilde
    et al.
    Balian, Estelle
    Azevedo, Jose Manuel N.
    Beumer, Victor
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Claudet, Joachim
    Fady, Bruno
    Grube, Martin
    Keune, Hans
    Lamarque, Penelope
    Reuter, Katrin
    Smith, Matt
    van Ham, Chantal
    Weisser, Wolfgang W.
    Le Roux, Xavier
    Nature-based Solutions: New Influence for Environmental Management and Research in Europe2015In: GAIA, ISSN 0940-5550, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 243-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greening roofs or walls to cool down city areas during summer, to capture storm water, to abate pollution, and to increase human well-being while enhancing biodiversity: nature-based solutions (NBS) refer to the sustainable management and use of nature for tackling societal challenges. Building on and complementing traditional biodiversity conservation and management strategies, NBS integrate science, policy, and practice and create biodiversity benefits in terms of diverse, well-managed ecosystems.

  • 5. Garcia-Gasulla, Dario
    et al.
    Poch, Mane
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Cortes, Ulises
    Turon, Claudia
    A logic-based environmental decision support system for the management of horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 47, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Horizontal Subsurface Constructed Wetlands (HSCWs) for treating wastewaters in small communities has increased in the last years due to HSCW's ecological singularities. Unfortunately, the same singularities that differentiate HSCWs complicate any attempt to develop models and produce generic decision-support systems for them. Classical mathematical and statistical approaches used in other Wastewater Treatment Plants do not properly fit the particularities of HSCW and provide little insight in the domain of HSCW. We introduce a novel approach based on logic-based declarative specifications, i.e. non-monotonic causal logic, to capture explicit and implicit knowledge about HSCWs. By expressing all the relevant aspects of a HSCW in a declarative way, we produce a logic-based model which captures features that other approaches fail to formalize. At the end, we produce a complete decision-support system based on that model and test it against a set of realistic scenarios validated by experts. We discuss in which aspects this approach performs better than the most commonly proposed solutions in the bibliography and why it does so. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Andersson, Elias
    Why Organization May Be the Primary Limitation to Implementing Sustainability at the Local Level: Examples from Swedish Case Studies2017In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the effort to address environmental issues at the local level has focused on defining principles and aims rather than addressing the operational difficulties of implementation. Drawing upon insights from sustainability scholarship, this study reviews two cases: the development of a Swedish standard for implementing sustainable development at municipality, county council, and regional levels, and attempts by a small rural municipality to establish a process towards implementing the Aalborg Commitments. The research illustrates the specific organizational and managerial complexity of these case study experiences. It concludes that an organizational focus on integration and mainstreaming deserves particular attention to achieve broader sustainability, or related environmental or adaptation goals. The results, in particular, highlight the role that integrated management systems can play for sustainability work at the local level.

  • 7.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Brännvall, Evelina
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wollters, Martin
    Skoglund, Nils
    Energy Engineering, Department of Engineering Sciences & Mathematics, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Čirba, Stasys
    Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Česlovas
    Phosphorus and cadmium availability in soil fertilized with biosolids and ashes2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 151, p. 124-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recycling of hygienized municipal sewage sludge (biosolids) to soil as the source of phosphorus (P) is generally encouraged. The use of biosolids, however, has some concerns, such as the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, and the possible presence of pathogens, hormones and antibiotics. Organic substances are destroyed during combustion whereas trace elements could partly be separated from P in different ash fractions. Biomass combustion waste (ash) can instead be considered as an alternative P source. This study evaluates and compares the impact of biosolids and their combustion residues (ashes), when used as fertilizers, on P and Cd solubility in soil, plant growth and plant uptake of these elements. Biosolids were also amended with K and Ca to improve the composition and properties of P in ashes, and incinerated at either 800 °C or 950 °C. Combustion of biosolids improved the Cd/P ratio in ashes by 2–5 times, compared with the initial biosolids. The low Cd content in ashes (4–9 mg Cd (kg P)−1) makes this material a particularly attractive alternative to mineral fertilizers. Significantly higher pore water P (as well as total N) was measured in soils containing biosolids, but plants produced a higher biomass in soil fertilized with ashes. The K and Ca amendments prior to biosolids combustion generally decreased the total Cd in ash, but had little effect on P and Cd uptake and biomass growth. Similarly, the combustion temperature had negligible effect on these factors as well.

  • 8.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Firm performance and the role of environmental management2017In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 203, p. 330-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the interactions between three dimensions of firm performance productivity, energy efficiency, and environmental performance and especially sheds light on the role of environmental management. In this context, environmental management is investments to reduce environmental impact, which may also affect firm competitiveness, in terms of change in productivity, and spur more (or less) efficient use of energy. We apply data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique to calculate the Malmquist firm performance indexes, and a panel vector auto-regression (VAR) methodology is utilized to investigate the dynamic and causal relationship between the three dimensions of firm performance and environmental investment. Main results show that energy efficiency and environmental performance are integrated, and energy efficiency and productivity positively reinforce each other, signifying the cost saving property of more efficient use of energy. Hence, increasing energy efficiency, as advocated in many of today's energy policies, could capture multiple benefits. The results also show that improved environmental performance and environmental investments constrain next period productivity, a result that would be in contrast with the Porter hypothesis and strategic corporate social responsibility; both concepts conveying the notion that pro-environmental management can boost productivity and competitiveness.

  • 9. Matsakas, Leonidas
    et al.
    Gao, Qiuju
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals2017In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 26, article id 4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount of wastes has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a nonsustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns, which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of wastes reaching the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote the recycling of municipal solid waste and the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed using either biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion) or thermochemical processes (e.g., pyrolysis). Research efforts during the last years have been fruitful, and many publications demonstrated the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of the waste policy that was implemented in the EU during the last years. 

  • 10. Muelbert, Jose H.
    et al.
    Nidzieko, Nicholas J.
    Acosta, Alicia T. R.
    Beaulieu, Stace E.
    Bernardino, Angelo F.
    Boikova, Elmira
    Bornman, Thomas G.
    Cataletto, Bruno
    Deneudt, Klaas
    Eliason, Erika
    Kraberg, Alexandra
    Nakaoka, Masahiro
    Pugnetti, Alessandra
    Ragueneau, Olivier
    Scharfe, Mirco
    Soltwedel, Thomas
    Sosik, Heidi M.
    Stanisci, Angela
    Stefanova, Kremena
    Stephan, Pierre
    Stier, Adrian
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Zingone, Adriana
    Corrigendum: ILTER – The International Long-Term Ecological Research Network as a Platform for Global Coastal and Ocean Observation2020In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 819Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Muelbert, Jose H.
    et al.
    Nidzieko, Nicholas J.
    Acosta, Alicia T. R.
    Beaulieu, Stace E.
    Bernardino, Angelo F.
    Boikova, Elmira
    Bornman, Thomas G.
    Cataletto, Bruno
    Deneudt, Klaas
    Eliason, Erika
    Kraberg, Alexandra
    Nakaoka, Masahiro
    Pugnetti, Alessandra
    Ragueneau, Olivier
    Scharfe, Mirco
    Soltwedel, Thomas
    Sosik, Heidi M.
    Stanisci, Angela
    Stefanova, Kremena
    Stephan, Pierre
    Stier, Adrian
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Zingone, Adriana
    ILTER: The International Long-Term Ecological Research Network as a Platform for Global Coastal and Ocean Observation2019In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 527Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the threats to global biodiversity and ecosystem services posed by human impacts on coastal and marine environments requires the establishment and maintenance of ecological observatories that integrate the biological, physical, geological, and biogeochemical aspects of ecosystems. This is crucial to provide scientists and stakeholders with the support and knowledge necessary to quantify environmental change and its impact on the sustainable use of the seas and coasts. In this paper, we explore the potential for the coastal and marine components of the International Long-Term Ecological Research Network (ILTER) to fill this need for integrated global observation, and highlight how ecological observations are necessary to address the challenges posed by climate change and evolving human needs and stressors within the coastal zone. The ILTER is a global network encompassing 44 countries and 700 research sites in a variety of ecosystems across the planet, more than 100 of which are located in coastal and marine environments (ILTER-CMS). While most of the ILTER-CMS were established after the year 2000, in some cases they date back to the early 1900s. At ILTER sites, a broad variety of abiotic and biotic variables are measured, which may feed into other global initiatives. The ILTER community has produced tools to harmonize and compare measurements and methods, allowing for data integration workflows and analyses between and within individual ILTER sites. After a brief historical overview of ILTER, with emphasis on the marine component, we analyze the potential contribution of the ILTER-CMS to global coastal and ocean observation, adopting the "Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threats (SWOT)" approach. We also identify ways in which the in situ parameters collected at ILTER sites currently fit within the Essential Ocean Variables framework (as proposed by the Framework for Ocean Observation recommendations) and provide insights on the use of new technology in long-term studies. Final recommendations point at the need to further develop observational activities at LTER sites and improve coordination among them and with external related initiatives in order to maximize their exploitation and address present and future challenges in ocean observations.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Aradottir, Asa L.
    Hagen, Dagmar
    Halldorsson, Guomundur
    Hoegh, Kenneth
    Mitchell, Ruth J.
    Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten
    Svavarsdottir, Kristin
    Tolvanen, Anne
    Wilson, Scott D.
    Evaluating the process of ecological restoration2016In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We developed a conceptual framework for evaluating the process of ecological restoration and applied it to 10 examples of restoration projects in the northern hemisphere. We identified three major phases, planning, implementation, and monitoring, in the restoration process. We found that evaluation occurred both within and between the three phases, that it included both formal and informal components, and that it often had an impact on the performance of the projects. Most evaluations were short-term and only some parts of them were properly documented. Poor or short-term evaluation of the restoration process creates a risk that inefficient methods will continue to be used, which reduces the efficiency and effectiveness of restoration. To improve the restoration process and to transfer the knowledge to future projects, we argue for more formal, sustained evaluation procedures, involving all relevant stakeholders, and increased and improved documentation and dissemination of the results.

  • 13.
    Peter, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    The future of night trains.: JIYUKŪKAN2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 14. Yamauchi, Atsushi
    et al.
    Takahashi, Daisuke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Otsu, Japan.
    Environmental variation does not always promote plasticity: evolutionarily realized reaction norm for costly plasticity2014In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 631-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: How does environmental variability influence evolutionarily realized phenotypic plasticity? Mathematical method: Optimization in a spatially fluctuating environment. Key assumptions: Either the maintenance cost of plasticity results from the amount of phenotypic response, or it results from the slope of the reaction norm. And there are two alternative types of state-specific benefit functions: either the benefit is maximal at an intermediate phenotype, or it is a monotonically increasing function of phenotype. Conclusion: Organisms may not respond to rare environmental states. In this case, environmental variability suppresses two indices of phenotypic plasticity, i. e. the range of plasticity and the maximum slope of the reaction norm.

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