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  • 1.
    Cheng, Xiaogang
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Nanjing Univ Posts & Telecommun, Coll Telecommun & Informat Engn, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China; Royal Inst Technol, Sch Comp Sci & Commun, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, Bin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, Guoqing
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Li, Haibo
    A variational approach to atmospheric visibility estimation in the weather of fog and haze2018In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 39, p. 215-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time atmospheric visibility estimation in foggy and hazy weather plays a crucial role in ensuring traffic safety. Overcoming the inherent drawbacks with traditional optical estimation methods, like limited sampling volume and high cost, vision-based approaches have received much more attention in recent research on atmospheric visibility estimation. Based on the classical Koschmieder's formula, atmospheric visibility estimation is carried out by extracting an inherent extinction coefficient. In this paper we present a variational framework to handle the nature of time-varying extinction coefficient and develop a novel algorithm of extracting the extinction coefficient through a piecewise functional fitting of observed luminance curves. The developed algorithm is validated and evaluated with a big database of road traffic video from Tongqi expressway (in China). The test results are very encouraging and show that the proposed algorithm could achieve an estimation error rate of 10%. More significantly, it is the first time that the effectiveness of Koschmieder's formula in atmospheric visibility estimation was validated with a big dataset, which contains more than two million luminance curves extracted from real-world traffic video surveillance data.

  • 2. Chilkoor, Govinda
    et al.
    Upadhyayula, Venkata Krishna Kumar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Gadhamshetty, Venkataramana
    Koratkar, Nikhil
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sustainability of renewable fuel infrastructure: a screening LCA case study of anticorrosive graphene oxide epoxy liners in steel tanks for the storage of biodiesel and its blends2017In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 141-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiesel is a widely used fuel that meets the renewable fuel standards developed under Energy Policy Act of 2005. However, biodiesel is known to pose a series of abiotic and biotic corrosion risks to storage tanks. A typical practice (incumbent system) used to protect the tanks from the risks include: (i) coat the interior surface of the tank with solvent free epoxy (SFE) liner, and (ii) add a biocide in the tank. We present a screening-level, life cycle assessment study to evaluate and compare the environmental performance of graphene-oxide (GO)-epoxy (GOE) liner with the incumbent system. TRACI is used as an impact assessment tool to model midpoint environmental impacts for the ten categories: global warming potential (GWP, kg CO2 eq.); acidification potential (AP, kg SO2 eq.); potential human health damage impacts due to carcinogens (HH-CP, CTUh) and non-carcinogens (HH-NCP, CTUh); potential respiratory effects (REP, kg PM2.5 eq); eutrophication potential (EP, kg N eq); ozone depletion potential (ODP kg CFC-11 eq); ecotoxicity potential (ETXP, CTUe); smog formation potential (SFP kg O3 eq); and fossil fuel depletion potential (FFDP MJ surplus). The equivalent functional unit of the LCA study is designed to protect the 30 m2 of the interior surface (unalloyed steel sheet) of a 10,000 liters biodiesel tank against abiotic and biotic corrosion during its service life of 20 years. Overall, this LCA study highlights an improved environmental performance for the GOE liner compared to the incumbent system; GOE-liner system showed: 91% lower ODP impacts; 59% smaller for REP; 62% smaller for AP; 67-69% smaller for GWP and HH-CP; 72-76% smaller for EP, SFP, and FFDP; and 81-83% smaller for ETXP and HH-NCP categories. The scenario analysis study reveals that these potential impacts change by less than 15% when the GOE liners are functionalized with silanized-GO nanosheets or GO-reinforced, polyvinyl carbazole to improve the antimicrobial properties. The results from uncertainty analysis indicate that the impacts for the incumbent system are more sensitive to changes in key modeling parameters compared to that for GOE liner system.

  • 3.
    Falk, Joel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Particle and feeding characteristics of biomass powders2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Milling of biomass is a necessary key step in suspension gasification or powder combustion. Milled biomass powders are often cohesive, have low bulk density and poor flowability leading to costly problems in fuel handling. Two different milling methods with four different biomass powders have been performed to correlate between particle and feeding properties. Charcoal, Torrefied Norway spruce, Norway spruce and reed canary grass where milled (knife mill or hammer mill) with a screen size of 1 mm. The resulting powders where analyzed using both mechanical sieving and optical sieveless particle size analysis. After bulk and tapped density tests, the powders were fed through a twin screw feeder onto an analytic scale that logged the weight data on a pc. Two tests were made, one with constant screw speed and the other using a built-in function called loss in weight feeding. The hammer mill produced more homogenous powders with more fines than the knife mill. They also had lower bulk and tapped density. The feeding tests were inconclusive as two materials where easier fed when hammer milled and two when knife milled. Hammer milled materials had better initial feeding stability. Another interesting observation was that two of the materials showed good agreement with a feeding rate that could be predicted if assuming tapped density while the other two behaved more similar to what would be the case for bulk density. 

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementering av energieffektiviseringsåtgärder i befintlig bebyggelse: Report prepared for the Swedish Energy Agency2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential to improve energy efficiency in existing Swedish residential buildings. However, the successful implementation of efficiency measures depends on economical and technical factors, as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. A better understanding of their attitudes and perceptions may influence the design of suitable policy measures that increase the adoption of energy efficiency measures. In this context, we conducted mail-in surveys completed by owners of detached houses, chairmen of co-operative housing associations (bostadsrättsförening) and municipality energy advisers in Sweden. We also interviewed window sellers/installers in Jämtland.

    Results show that it was important for the majority of homeowners to reduce their household energy use, with most undertaking no-cost measures (e.g., switching off lights). However, 70–90% of the responding homeowners had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. The main reason for non-adoption was that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition and thermal performance of their existing building envelope components. Homeowners who thought their energy cost was high were more likely to adopt an investment measure compared to those who thought their energy cost was low. Investment costs and annual energy cost savings were the most important factors in adoption of energy efficient building envelope measures. Therefore, economic incentives may induce homeowners to adopt energy efficiency investment measures. However, a large percentage (64%) of homeowners was unaware of the existence of government support for reducing household energy use. Information campaigns announcing the availability of economic incentives and the cost advantages of energy efficiency measures may be helpful in the adoption decision.

    Homeowners‘ considered interpersonal sources, builders, installers and energy advisers as important sources of information for their adoption of energy efficiency measures. Though a large percentage of respondents considered energy advisers as an important source of information, only 14% of homeowners had contacted an energy adviser in the past. Our findings suggest that the energy advice service is important for homeowners, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners‘ awareness of and satisfaction with such services. The majority of municipal energy advisers were of the opinion that more training in technical aspects of energy issues and increased financial support could improve their performance.

    Installers and material suppliers are important actors in homeowners‘ adoption of energy efficiency measures. For example, approximately 53% of responding homeowners to a survey in Jämtland/Västernorrland stated that the window seller/installer from whom they had bought windows had recommended a particular type of window, and 97% had installed the windows that were recommended. The window sellers/installers in Jämtland prefer a window that is ―reasonably‖ energy efficient. They believe that windows with a U-value of 1.2 W/m2K are good and there is no reason to further improve the energy efficiency. The majority did not recommend windows with U-value <1.2 W/m2K. They were concerned about the condensation issues and high prices of such windows. This may influence the diffusion of very energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses.

    About 80-95% of chairmen in co-operative housing associations who responded to our survey had no intention of adopting building envelope measures over the next 10 years. They were satisfied with the existing building envelope components, which may be one of the reasons for this lack of intention. As in the case of owners of detached houses, economic factors, like annual energy cost savings and investment costs, guide the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures in co-operative housing associations. However, about 66% of the responding chairmen did not consider financial constraint as a barrier to implementing investment intensive energy efficiency measures. For 54% of the respondents limited in-house competency to evaluate the benefits of energy efficiency measures was the main barrier.

    The majority of owners of detached houses (80%) and chairmen of co-operative housing associations (70%) perceived that economic policy instruments, such as investment subsidies and tax deductions, would encourage them to implement energy efficiency measures. Other policy instruments, especially information instruments, were perceived as less effective. Among various information policies, increasing the frequency of meter reading received the highest approval with 38% of homeowners, whereas approximately 41% of housing association chairmen thought that individual metering of heating and hot water use could be effective. Approximately 30% of homeowners and housing association chairmen thought that energy declaration was effective.

  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Implementing energy efficiency measures in existing Swedish building stock2008In: World Sustainable Energy Days, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large potential for improving energy efficiency in the existing Swedish building stock. However, how successful the implementation of the efficiency measures will be, depends on economical and technical factors as well as on the attitudes and perceptions of the relevant actors. In this paper we use Rogers’ diffusion of innovation theory to analyze various factors affecting implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish detached houses and apartment buildings. Results of recent Swedish household surveys concerning adoption of heating systems showed that majority of the respondents were satisfied with their heating systems and did not intend to install a new one. Economic aspects and functional reliability were important factors in the choice of heating systems, while installers/vendors were the most important sources of information on heating system. We discuss upcoming empirical studies on implementation of other energy efficiency measures, e.g. energy efficient windows and additional insulation, including that of heating systems, in detached houses and apartment buildings.

  • 6.
    Hägg, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Noreland, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    1D-model of the interaction between a stack of wood and an imposed electromagnetic wave2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed and investigated a 1D-model for the interaction between a stack of wood and an impinging electromagnetic field. Maxwell's equations are used to model the electromagnetic interaction and each layer in a stack of boards has been modeled as a homogenous lossy dielectric slab. The main reason for developing this model has been to investigate the possibility of measuring the moisture content of wood inside a drying kiln using electromagnetic waves. Our investigations show that it is in principle possible to measure the moisture content, since the electromagnetic field is sensitive to changes in the moisture content of the wood. We also show that it might be possible to measure the average moisture content, without detailed knowledge of the distribution of moisture content between different boards.

  • 7.
    Josefsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Schaanning, Morten
    NIVA, Norway.
    Samuelsson, Göran
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Gunnarsson, Jonas S
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Olofsson, Ida
    Systemekologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Eek, Espen
    NGI, Norway.
    Wiberg, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Capping efficiency of various carbonaceous and mineral materials for in situ remediation of marine sediments contaminated with PCDD/Fs, OCS and HCBManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of various thin-layer capping materials in reducing the sediment-to-water flux and benthic organism bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and octachlorostyrene (OCS) was investigated in a boxcosm experiment. The influence of cap layer thickness (0.5-5 cm) and different cap materials were tested using a three-factor experimental design. The capping materials consisted of a passive carrier (coarse or fine limestone material, or a marine clay sediment), and an active material (activated carbon (AC) or kraft lignin) to sequester the contaminants and decrease their bioavailability. Macrofauna was added to the boxes to get a semi-natural bioturbation. The sediment-to-water flux was measured using passive (SPMD) samplers, and the bioaccumulation by the surface-dwelling gastropod Hinia reticulata and the deep-burrowing polychaetes Nereis spp. was determined. Results showed substantial decreases in both flux and bioaccumulation as a result of thin-layer capping. The thickness of the capping layer and the choice of active material were important factors, while the use of different types of passive materials was not statistically significant for any of the observed endpoints. Flux and bioaccumulation decreased with increased cap thickness, and could be further decreased with addition of active material. Activated carbon was more efficient than lignin, and a ~90% reduction of the flux and bioaccumulation, compared to uncapped control sediment, could be achieved with 3 cm caps with 3.3% AC (g C/g ww clay). The reduction was generally larger in the surface-dwelling H. reticulata than in Nereis spp., and the magnitude of the reduction was frequently similar between Nereis spp. and sediment-to-water fluxes. The latter was interpreted to indicate a link between Nereis spp. bioirrigation and sediment-to-water fluxes. Furthermore, the reduction in sediment-to-water flux was dependent on the hydrophobicity of the congeners, with less hydrophobic congeners achieving a larger reduction than more hydrophobic congeners.      

  • 8.
    Kozyatnyk, Ivan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lövgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Peter, Haglund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    On the leaching of mercury by brackish seawater from permeable barriers materials and soil2015In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1200-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soils at former pulp, paper and chemical plants in the subarctic (boreal) zone, including Canada, Scandinavia, Russia, and parts of the USA, are often contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals, of which mercury is one. The soil- and ground-water at these sites is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), particularly fulvic substances. Permeable barriers are sometimes used to limit the migration of pollutants with groundwater and protect nearby aquatic environments. These are installed downstream of the source, generally close to the receiving water body. In cases when such barriers have been installed close to the sea, concerns have been raised that the seawater may back-flush the barrier and release mercury, often a key contaminant, in the form of stable chloride complexes.

    Intrusion of seawater into coastal groundwater reservoirs has previously been shown to result in dissolution of mercury from soil. Less is known about the ability of brackish water, present in estuaries or brackish seas, to mobilize mercury from soil or from barrier materials. We therefore investigated the effect of artificial brackish seawater (6.3‰ salinity) on the sorption and desorption of mercury from different barrier materials (activated carbon, fly ash, lignite, torrified material, peat, and iron powder).

    The mercury was found to be associated with the high molecular weight fraction of groundwater DOM and it was concluded that the mercury was removed (sorbed) as relatively strong DOM-complexes. Chloride ions did not seem to form aqueous complexes with mercury to any great extent and artificial brackish seawater did not desorb mercury from the contaminated soil or from the studied barrier materials.

  • 9.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Potential target group for the introduction of full service energy efficient renovation in Swedish single-family houses2010In: SB10:  Sustainable  Community, Espoo, Finland, September 22-24, 2010., 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Perceptional and soicio-economic factors in adoption of low energy houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT, March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusion of low energy houses reduces greenhouse emission from residential sector. However, adoption of such houses depends on the perception of the potential buyers. In this paper we have analyzed Swedish homeowners’ perception of low energy houses. Data was collected in 2008 from a mail-in questionnaire survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses. Results showed that about 39% of respondents, especially young, educated or whose household income was high, would consider buying a low energy house. Majority of the respondents agreed that a low energy house in comparison to a conventional house has lower operating energy cost, but higher investment cost. Majority thought that low energy houses do not have lower resale value, lower aesthetic appearance, or greater operational difficulty.

  • 11.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Policy instruments to promote energy efficiency in the building sector: Indian and Swedish experiences2008In: 14th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency measures in buildings are widely regarded as cost effective options to mitigate climate change. However, policy instruments are needed to improve the diffusion of such measures. The policy mix may be country-specific. Here, we compare and contrast the various policy instruments designed to enhance energy efficiency in the building sector in India and Sweden. The objective is to explore if the experiences of Sweden that have promoted energy efficiency in buildings for decades could be useful for India, where energy demand is forecasted to strongly increase. India and Sweden are very different, for example, in terms of development, size, priorities, population, and climatic conditions. In Sweden, policy initiatives to reduce energy use in buildings date back to the 1970s and the government is committed to significantly reduce energy use in buildings. In India, the interest in energy efficiency improvements in buildings is a recent phenomenon. The country introduced an energy conservation building code in 2007. This analysis shows that policy instruments are more prevalent in Sweden than in India where regulatory instruments are particularly lacking. Hence, Swedish buildings are more energy efficient than those in India. The Swedish experience could be useful for devising programs and implementing policy instruments to improve energy efficiency of Indian buildings.

  • 12.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Nair, Gireesh
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    The role of energy advisers on adoption of energy measures in detached houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT,  11-12 March, in connection with the ‘Energitinget 2009’, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling.
    Barriers to implement energy efficiency investment measures in Swedish co-operative apartment buildings2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Programme of activities: Will it break the ice for residential sector CDM projects?2008In: 14th Annual international sustainable development research conference, New Delhi, India, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Hemström, Kerstin
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Role of sellers/installers in the diffusion of energy efficient windows in Swedish detached houses2010In: SB10: Sustainable Community, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Östersund.
    Adoption of energy efficiency measures in Swedish detatched houses2009In: International Scientific Conference on Energy systems with IT,  March 11-12, in connection with 'Energitiget 2009', Stockholm, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on Swedish homeowners’ need for and perceptions about adopting building envelop energy efficiency measures such as improved windows and attic and wall insulation. The results of a questionnaire surveying 3000 randomly selected homeowners during the summer of 2008 revealed that about 70-90% of the respondents had no intention of implementing such a measure over the next 10 years. The main reasons for non-adoption were that homeowners were satisfied with the physical condition, thermal performance, and aesthetics of their existing installations. A greater proportion of respondents perceived that improving attic insulation has more advantages than other measures, but windows were more likely to be installed than attic insulation was to be improved. Respondents gave high priority to economic factors in deciding on an energy efficiency measure, while environmental aspects were given lower priority. Hence, economic incentives could be useful in promoting the adoption of building envelope energy efficiency measures. Interpersonal sources, construction companies/installers, and energy advisers were important sources of information for homeowners as they planned to install energy efficiency measures.

  • 17.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Influence of external actors in Swedish homeowners’ adoption of energy efficient windows2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress, 2011, Linköping, Sweden, May 8-11, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Mahapatra, Krushna
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för teknik och hållbar utveckling, Östersund.
    Policy instruments to promote building energy efficiency from an end-user point of view2011In: ECEEE Summer study, Belambra Presqu'île de Giens, France, 6–11 June, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Yamauchi, Atsushi
    et al.
    Takahashi, Daisuke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Center for Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Otsu, Japan.
    Environmental variation does not always promote plasticity: evolutionarily realized reaction norm for costly plasticity2014In: Evolutionary Ecology Research, ISSN 1522-0613, E-ISSN 1937-3791, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 631-647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: How does environmental variability influence evolutionarily realized phenotypic plasticity? Mathematical method: Optimization in a spatially fluctuating environment. Key assumptions: Either the maintenance cost of plasticity results from the amount of phenotypic response, or it results from the slope of the reaction norm. And there are two alternative types of state-specific benefit functions: either the benefit is maximal at an intermediate phenotype, or it is a monotonically increasing function of phenotype. Conclusion: Organisms may not respond to rare environmental states. In this case, environmental variability suppresses two indices of phenotypic plasticity, i. e. the range of plasticity and the maximum slope of the reaction norm.

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