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  • 1. Agca, R.
    et al.
    Heslinga, S. C.
    Rollefstad, S.
    Heslinga, M.
    McInnes, B.
    Peters, M. J. L.
    Kvien, T. K.
    Dougados, M.
    Radner, H.
    Atzeni, F.
    Primdahl, J.
    Södergren, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Wållberg Jonsson, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    van Rompay, J.
    Zabalan, C.
    Pedersen, T. R.
    Jacobsson, L.
    de Vlam, K.
    Gonzalez-Gay, M. A.
    Semb, A. G.
    Kitas, G. D.
    Smulders, Y. M.
    Szekanecz, Z.
    Sattar, N.
    Symmons, D. P. M.
    Nurmohamed, M. T.
    EULAR recommendations for cardiovascular disease risk management in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory joint disorders: 2015/2016 update2017In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 76, no 1, p. 17-28Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other inflammatory joint disorders (IJD) have increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared with the general population. In 2009, the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) taskforce recommended screening, identification of CVD risk factors and CVD risk management largely based on expert opinion. In view of substantial new evidence, an update was conducted with the aim of producing CVD risk management recommendations for patients with IJD that now incorporates an increasing evidence base. A multidisciplinary steering committee (representing 13 European countries) comprised 26 members including patient representatives, rheumatologists, cardiologists, internists, epidemiologists, a health professional and fellows. Systematic literature searches were performed and evidence was categorised according to standard guidelines. The evidence was discussed and summarised by the experts in the course of a consensus finding and voting process. Three overarching principles were defined. First, there is a higher risk for CVD in patients with RA, and this may also apply to ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis. Second, the rheumatologist is responsible for CVD risk management in patients with IJD. Third, the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids should be in accordance with treatment-specific recommendations from EULAR and Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society. Ten recommendations were defined, of which one is new and six were changed compared with the 2009 recommendations. Each designated an appropriate evidence support level. The present update extends on the evidence that CVD risk in the whole spectrum of IJD is increased. This underscores the need for CVD risk management in these patients. These recommendations are defined to provide assistance in CVD risk management in IJD, based on expert opinion and scientific evidence.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    The meanings given to gender in studies on multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a literature review2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, no 23, p. 2255-2270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess and describe the meanings given to "gender" in scientific publications that evaluate multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Method: A systematic literature search for papers evaluating multimodal rehabilitation was conducted. The PubMed and EBSCO databases were searched from 1995 to 2015. Two or three researchers independently read each paper, performed a quality assessment and coded meanings of gender using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Twenty-seven papers were included in the review. Gender was used very differently in the MMR studies investigated but primarily it referred to factual differences between men and women. Only one paper provided a definition of the concept of gender and how it had been used in that study. In the content analysis, the meaning of gender formed three categories: "Gender as a factual difference", "The man is the ideal" and "Gender as a result of social role expectations".

    Conclusions: The meaning of the concept of gender in multimodal rehabilitation is undefined and needs to be developed further. The way the concept is used should be defined in the design and evaluation of multimodal rehabilitation in future studies.

    Implications for rehabilitation

    Healthcare professionals should reflect on gender relations in encounters with patients, selection of patients into rehabilitation programs and design of programs. In rehabilitation for chronic pain the patients' social circumstances and cultural context should be given the same consideration as biological sex and pain symptoms.

  • 3. Ahlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Jideus, Lena
    Albage, Anders
    Kallner, Goran
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Boano, Gabriella
    Hermansson, Ulf
    Kimblad, Per-Ola
    Schersten, Henrik
    Sjogren, Johan
    Stahle, Elisabeth
    Aberg, Bengt
    Berglin, Eva
    A Swedish consensus on the surgical treatment of concomitant atrial fibrillation2012In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 212-218Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia among patients scheduled for open heart surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to international guidelines, symptomatic and selected asymptomatic patients should be offered concomitant surgical AF ablation in conjunction with valvular or coronary surgery. The gold standard in AF surgery is the Cox Maze III ("cut-and-sew") procedure, with surgical incisions in both atria according to a specified pattern, in order to prevent AF reentry circuits from developing. Over 90% of patients treated with the Cox Maze III procedure are free of AF after 1 year. Recent developments in ablation technology have introduced several energy sources capable of creating nonconducting atrial wall lesions. In addition, simplified lesion patterns have been suggested, but results with these techniques have been unsatisfactory. There is a clear need for standardization in AF surgery. The Swedish Arrhythmia Surgery Group, represented by surgeons from all Swedish units for cardiothoracic surgery, has therefore reached a consensus on surgical treatment of concomitant AF. This consensus emphasizes adherence to the lesion pattern in the Cox Maze III procedure and the use of biatrial lesions in nonparoxysmal AF.

  • 4.
    Alpstål, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    A mobile app for prevention and treatment of stress urinary incontinence in males pre- or post-radical prostatectomy.2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 5.
    Alvehus, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Obesity-associated inflammation in adipose tissue2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Excess body fat, particularly in the visceral depot, is linked to increased mortality and morbidity, including the development of diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue may be a key mediator of obesity-associated diseases. Importantly, specific pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to influence adipose tissue function and could therefore be a link to metabolic disorders. Circulating cytokine levels may also be increased in obesity and metabolic diseases. However, although fat distribution and inflammation are clearly linked to metabolic disorders, inflammatory gene expression in the different abdominal adipose depots has not been investigated in detail. The menopausal transition is followed by a centralization of body fat and increased adiposity. Notably, inflammatory changes in fat during the menopausal transition have not been characterized. Finally, there is a lack of studies investigating the long-term effects of weight loss on low-grade inflammation. The aim of this thesis was to characterize differences between fat depots and investigate putative changes in low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue and circulation following menopause or weight loss.

    Materials & Methods: The expression of inflammation-related genes was investigated in abdominal adipose tissue depots obtained from women with varying adiposity, before and after menopause or weight loss induced by surgery or dietary intervention. Circulating cytokine levels were analyzed using immunoassays.

    Results: Visceral fat displayed a distinct and adverse inflammatory profile compared with subcutaneous adipose tissues, and the higher gene expression in visceral fat was associated with adiposity. Postmenopausal women exhibited a higher expression of pro-inflammatory genes than premenopausal women that associated with central fat accumulation. There was also a menopause-related increase in circulating cytokine levels in postmenopausal women. After surgery-induced weight loss, there was a dramatic reduction in inflammatory gene expression followed by increased insulin sensitivity. We observed no alterations in circulating cytokine levels. Long-term dietary intervention, associated with weight loss, had favorable effects on inflammation in both adipose tissue and serum.

    Conclusion: Fat accumulation is linked to low-grade inflammation in abdominal adipose tissue. The unique inflammatory pattern of visceral fat suggests a distinct role in adipose tissue inflammation that is aggravated with increasing adiposity. In postmenopausal women, the adverse adipose inflammatory profile was associated with central fat accumulation, while higher circulating cytokine levels correlated with menopausal state/age. Our data from severely obese women undergoing surgery-induced weight loss clearly supports a link between adipose inflammation and insulin resistance. The long-term beneficial effects of weight loss were also demonstrated by the improved inflammatory profile after dietary intervention. In summary, excess body fat is clearly linked to adipose tissue inflammation. Long-term weight loss is accompanied by improved metabolic profile and reduced low-grade inflammation in fat.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wikberg, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lithner, Folke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Renal symtomatology in patients with acute intermitent porphyria2000In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 248, p. 319-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Can renal insufficiency in subjects with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) be due solely to AIP?

    Design: A population-based study.

    Subjects: Subjects with AIP ≥ 18 years of age (n = 386) in the four most northerly counties of Sweden.

    Interventions: Screening with creatinine clearance at 24 h. Patients below the lower reference level underwent a repeat clearance test and, if still low, also chromEDTA clearance.

    Results: 286 (74%) subjects performed the creatinine clearance test and in 57 clearance was low; the second clearance proved normal in 23 who were then excluded. Eighteen subjects with other possible medical reasons for renal insufficiency, ethical reasons or refusing further examinations were also excluded. The 16 remaining subjects with no explanation for their renal insufficiency other than AIP were then studied in detail. All 14 women, mean age 52 years, and two uraemic men, 58 and 67 years, had manifest AIP. Twelve patients had hypertension (HT) and four were normotensive in spite of renal insufficiency. Histological findings of renal biopsies revealed diffuse glomerulosclerotic and interstitial changes with additional ischaemic lesions.

    Conclusion: Protracted vasospasm in attacks of AIP may be a cause of renal lesions. This is discussed.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Genusgörande och läkarblivande: attityder, föreställningar och förväntningar bland läkarstudenter i Sverige2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The inclusion of a gender perspective in medicine has shown that gender is an essential factor in health and disease, in medical encounters and also in medical students’ educational environment. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes, preconceptions and norms regarding gender within medical education and processes of gender bias. First, we explored medical students gendered beliefs about patients. Second, we examined the medical students ideas about their future careers. Third, we compared awareness on gender issues among medical students in Sweden and the Netherlands.

    Method and material

    The analyses were based on data from two different sources: one experimental study based on authentic patient narratives about being diagnosed with cancer and one extensive questionaire exploring different aspects of gender issues in medical education. Both studies had a design which enabled both qualitative and quantitative research and mixed methods was used.

    Study I (Paper I and II): Eighty-one anonymous letters from patients were read by 130 students of medicine and psychology. For each letter the students were asked to state the patient’s sex and explain their choice. In paper I the students’ success rates were analysed statistically and the explanations to four letters were used to illustrate the students’ reasoning. Paper II examined the 87 medical students’ explanations closer to examine gender beliefs about patients.

    Study II (Paper III and IV): The questionaire started with an open question where medical students were asked to describe their ideal future, it also included a validated scale designed to estimate gender awareness. Paper III examined 507 swedish medical students descriptions about their ideal future and compared answers from male and female students in the beginning and at the end of medical school. Paper IV compared gender awareness among 1096 Swedish and Dutch medical students in first term.

    Findings with reflections

    Paper I showed that the patient’s sex was correctly identified in 62% of the cases. There were no difference between the results of male and female students. However, large differences between letters were observed, i.e. there were some letters were almost all students correctly identified the patient´s sex, others were almost all students were incorrect and most letters were found somewhere in the middle. Another significant finding was that the same expressions were interpreted differently depending on which initial guess the medical student had made regarding the sex of the patient.

    Paper II identified 21 categories of justifications within the students’ explanations, twelve of which were significantly associated with an assumption of either a male or female patient. Only three categories led to more correct identifications of the patients’ sex and two were more often associated with incorrect assignments. The results illustrate how beliefs about gender difference, even though they might be recognizable on a group level, are not applicable on individuals. Furthermore, the results show that medical students enter the education with beliefs about male and female patients, which could have consequenses and cause bias in their future work as doctors.

    Paper III found that almost all students, both male and female, were work-oriented. However, the female students even more so than their male counterparts. This result is particularly interesting in regards to the debate about the “feminization of medicine” in which the increasing number of female students has been adressed as a problem. When reflecting on their own lifes and their future its obvious that medical students nowadays, male and female, expect more to life than work, especially those who are on the doorstep to their professional life.

    Paper IV found that the national and cultural setting was the most crucial impact factor in relation to the medical students preconceptions and awareness about gender. The Swedish students expressed less stereotypic thinking about patients and doctors, while the Dutch students were more sensitive to gender difference. In both countries, the students’ sex mattered for gender stereotyping, with male students agreeing more to stereotypes.

    Conclusions

    A gender perspective is important in medical education. Our studies show that such initiatives needs to take cultural aspects, gender attitudes and students’ gender into account. Moreover, reflections on assumptions about men and women, patients as well as doctors, need to be included in medical curricula and the impact of implicit gender beliefs needs to be included in discussions on gender bias in health care. Also, the next generation of doctors want more to life than work. Future Swedish doctors, both female and male, intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure. This attitudinal change towards their future work as doctors will provide the health care system with a challenge to establish more adaptive and flexible work conditions.

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Brandstetter-Hiltunen, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Knutsson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Is it possible to identify patient´s sex when reading blinded illness narratives? An experimental study about gender bias2008In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 7, no 21, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many diseases men and women, for no apparent medical reason, are not offered the same investigations and treatment in health care. This may be due to staff's stereotypical preconceptions about men and women, i.e., gender bias. In the clinical situation it is difficult to know whether gender differences in management reflect physicians' gender bias or male and female patients' different needs or different ways of expressing their needs. To shed some light on these possibilities this study investigated to what extent it was possible to identify patients' sex when reading their blinded illness narratives, i.e., do male and female patients express themselves differently enough to be recognised as men and women without being categorised on beforehand?

    Methods: Eighty-one authentic letters about being diseased by cancer were blinded regarding sex and read by 130 students of medicine and psychology. For each letter the participants were asked to give the author's sex and to explain their choice. The success rates were analysed statistically. To illuminate the participants' reasoning the explanations of four letters were analysed qualitatively.

    Results: The patient's sex was correctly identified in 62% of the cases, with significantly higher rates in male narratives. There were no differences between male and female participants. In the qualitative analysis the choice of a male writer was explained by: a short letter; formal language; a focus on facts and a lack of emotions. In contrast the reasons for the choice of a woman were: a long letter; vivid language; mention of emotions and interpersonal relationships. Furthermore, the same expressions were interpreted differently depending on whether the participant believed the writer to be male or female.

    Conclusion: It was possible to detect gender differences in the blinded illness narratives. The students' explanations for their choice of sex agreed with common gender stereotypes implying that such stereotypes correspond, at least on a group level, to differences in male and female patients' illness descriptions. However, it was also obvious that preconceptions about gender obstructed and biased the interpretations, a finding with implications for the understanding of gender bias in clinical practice.

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Salander, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Using patients' narratives to reveal gender stereotypes among medical students2013In: Academic Medicine, ISSN 1040-2446, E-ISSN 1938-808X, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 1015-1021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Gender bias exists in patient treatment, and, like most people, health care providers harbor gender stereotypes. In this study, the authors examined the gender stereotypes that medical students hold about patients. Method: In 2005, in Umeå, Sweden, the authors collected 81 narratives written by patients who had undergone cancer treatment; all information that might reveal the patients’ gender was removed from the texts. Eighty-seven medical students read 40 or 41 narratives each, guessed the patient’s gender, and explained their guess. The authors analyzed the students’ explanations qualitatively and quantitatively to reveal the students’ gender stereotypes and to determine whether those stereotypes had any predictive value for correctly guessing a patient’s gender. Results: The students’ explanations contained 21 categories of justifications, 12 of which were significantly associated with the students guessing one gender or the other. Only three categories successfully predicted a correct identification of gender; two categories were more often associated with incorrect guesses. Conclusions: Medical students enter their training program with culturally shared stereotypes about male and female patients that could cause bias during their future careers as physicians. To prevent this, medical curricula must address gender stereotypes and their possible consequences. The impact of implicit stereotypes must be included in discussions about gender bias in health care.

  • 10. Andersson, Liselott
    et al.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sundström Poromaa, Inger
    Increased free androgen index is associated with hypertension in premenopausal women2011In: Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 2160-8792, E-ISSN 2160-8806, Vol. 1, p. 228-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Increased testosterone and decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are associated with a number of adverse cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women. The aim of this popula-tion-based study of women aged 25 to 50 was to as-sess the relationship between free androgen index (FAI) and cardiovascular risk factors in premeno-pausal women.

    Methods: A population-based survey of 396 premenopausal women with no hormonal trea- tment was undertaken as part of the Northern Swe-den MONICA study. The study involved question-naires, anthropometry and assays of testosterone and SHBG.

    Results: Increased FAI was associated with a number of cardiovascular risk factors in premeno-pausal women but this relationship was strongly af-fected by body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, FAI was significantly associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

    Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism is associated with increased blood pressure and these findings empha-size the need to assess cardiovascular risk factors in women with hyperandrogenism of all ages.

  • 11. Andrae, Bengt
    et al.
    Andersson, Therese M-L
    Lambert, Paul C
    Kemetli, Levent
    Silfverdal, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Strander, Björn
    Ryd, Walter
    Dillner, Joakim
    Törnberg, Sven
    Sparén, Pär
    Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study2012In: The BMJ, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 344, p. e900-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death.

    Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden.

    Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age, histopathological type, and FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage.

    Results In the screening ages, the cure proportion for women with screen detected invasive cancer was 92% (95% confidence interval 75% to 98%) and for symptomatic women was 66% (62% to 70%), a statistically significant difference in cure of 26% (16% to 36%). Among symptomatic women, the cure proportion was significantly higher for those who had been screened according to recommendations (interval cancers) than among those overdue for screening: difference in cure 14% (95% confidence interval 6% to 23%). Cure proportions were similar for all histopathological types except small cell carcinomas and were closely related to FIGO stage. A significantly higher cure proportion for screen detected cancers remained after adjustment for stage at diagnosis (difference 15%, 7% to 22%).

    Conclusions Screening is associated with improved cure of cervical cancer. Confounding cannot be ruled out, but the effect was not attributable to lead time bias and was larger than what is reflected by down-staging. Evaluations of screening programmes should consider the assessment of cure proportions.

  • 12.
    Andrén, Fabian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections –when are antibiotics necessary? Experiences from an observational, prospective pilot study at a primaryhealth care centre in Sundsvall.2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13. Aronsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Persson, Josefine
    Blomstrand, Christian
    Wester, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Levin, Lars-Ake
    Cost-effectiveness of endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke2016In: Neurology, ISSN 0028-3878, E-ISSN 1526-632X, Vol. 86, no 11, p. 1053-1059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding endovascular thrombectomy to standard care in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Methods:The cost-effectiveness analysis of endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke was based on a decision-analytic Markov model. Primary outcomes from ESCAPE, Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA), Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Revascularization With Solitaire Device Versus Best Medical Therapy in Anterior Circulation Stroke Within 8 Hours (REVASCAT), and Solitaire with the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke (SWIFT PRIME) along with data from published studies and registries were used in this analysis. We used a health care payer perspective and a lifelong time horizon to estimate costs and effects.Results:The model showed that adding thrombectomy with stent retrievers to guideline-based care (including IV thrombolysis) resulted in a gain of 0.40 life-years and 0.99 quality-adjusted life-years along with a cost savings of approximately $221 per patient. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were not sensitive to changes in uncertain parameters or assumptions.Conclusions:Adding endovascular treatment to standard care resulted in substantial clinical benefits at low costs. The results were consistent throughout irrespective of whether data from ESCAPE, EXTEND-IA, MR CLEAN, REVASCAT, or SWIFT PRIME were used in this model.

  • 14.
    Askeljung, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Patients and co-followers’ attitudes towards the concept Virtual Health Room2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Asklund, Ina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nyström, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sjöström, M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Umefjord, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Treatment of stress urinary incontinence via a smartphone application: a randomised controlled trial2015In: Neurourology and Urodynamics, ISSN 0733-2467, E-ISSN 1520-6777, Vol. 34, no Supplement 3 Meeting Abstract 16, p. S40-S42Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Asklund, Ina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Pregnant and postnatal women’s usage of an app with a pelvic floor muscle training program for the prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Pregnancy and childbirth are risk factors for developing urinary incontinence (UI). The prevalence of UI has been reported at 58% in late pregnancy and at around 30% in the three months after childbirth. Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) during pregnancy can prevent the onset of UI. We developed the mobile app Tät with a PFMT program for women with stress urinary incontinence. We evaluated its efficacy in a randomized controlled trial and found that the app group experienced fewer incontinence symptoms, fewer leakages, and better quality of life compared to the control group. The app is now freely available, and the aim of this study was to investigate the use of the app by pregnant and postnatal women.

    Methods: We included pregnant and postnatal (childbirth in the last three months) women who had downloaded the app between January 16 and November 15 2018 and answered the inclusion questionnaire within the app. Questions included age, gender, country, place of residence, education, reason for download, pregnancy, childbirth in the last three months, and incontinence symptoms according to the ICIQ-UI SF. After three months a follow-up questionnaire appeared in the app. All answers were sent anonymously to our research database.

    Results: 10 456 women were included (4 607 pregnant, 5 849 postnatal). The mean age was 31 years and 95% lived in Sweden. 47% of the pregnant women and 55% of the postnatal women reported having UI. The mean ICIQ-UI SF score of those with UI was 6.7 (SD 3.4). 1 805 women answered the follow-up and almost three quarters had used the app and performed PFMT at least weekly. Of those with incontinence, the majority experienced improvement with mean ICIQ-UI SF scores improving significantly at follow-up, except in the subgroup “pregnant both at inclusion and follow-up”.

    Conclusion: The Tät app is widely used by pregnant and postnatal women in Sweden for prevention and treatment of UI. Postnatal women with incontinence experienced the largest improvements and reductions in ICIQ-UI SF score. With this study design we cannot say if this effect relates to the use of the app or is the natural improvement of UI over time.

  • 17.
    Assarsson, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Högberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Center for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Johansson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gender inequality and adolescent suicide ideation across Africa, Asia, the South Pacific and Latin America: a cross-sectional study based on the Global School Health Survey (GSHS)2019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, article id 1663619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicide ideation is a health issue affecting adolescents worldwide. There are significant variations in suicide ideation between countries and genders, which have not been fully explained. Research is especially lacking in countries outside Europe and North America. Gender equality has been shown to matter in other aspects of adolescent mental health, such as life satisfaction, but has not been researched in relation to suicide ideation at national level.

    Objective: To investigate how national gender inequality is related to self-reported suicide ideation among adolescents, and whether this association differs between boys and girls.

    Methods: This is a cross-national, cross-sectional study using individual survey data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, a survey in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the South Pacific, developed and supported by among others the WHO and the CDC; connecting this to national data: the gender inequality index from the UNDP; controlling for GDP per capita and secondary school enrolment. The data was analysed using a multilevel logistic regression method and included 149,306 students from 37 countries.

    Results: Higher national gender inequality, as measured by the gender inequality index, was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of suicide ideation in both girls and boys (odds ratio: 1.38 p-value: 0.015), but for girls and both sexes this was only after adjusting for selection bias due to secondary school enrolment (as well as GDP/capita). Interaction models showed that this association was stronger in boys than in girls.

    Conclusions: National gender inequality seems to be associated with higher levels of suicide ideation among adolescents in mainly low- and middle-income countries, especially among boys.

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  • 18.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Nordström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine.
    Does exercise prevent major non-communicable diseases and premature mortality?: A critical review based on results from randomized controlled trials2021In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 290, no 6, p. 1112-1129Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observational studies show that physical activity is strongly associated with a reduced risk of premature mortality and major non-communicable diseases. We reviewed to which extent these associations have been confirmed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the outcomes of mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and fracture. The results show that exercise does not reduce all-cause mortality and incident CVD in older adults or in people with chronic conditions, based on RCTs comprising ∼50,000 participants. The results also indicate a lack of effect on cardiovascular mortality in people with chronic conditions, based on RCTs comprising ∼11,000 participants. Furthermore, there is inconsistent evidence regarding the effect of exercise on fractures in older adults, based on RCTs comprising ∼40,000 participants. Finally, based on RCTs comprising ∼17,000 participants, exercise reduces T2D incidence in people with prediabetes when combined with dietary modification, although evidence for the individual effect of exercise is lacking. Identified shortcomings of the current evidence include risks of publication bias, lack of high-quality studies in certain high-risk populations, and inconstant evidence with respect to some outcomes. Thus, additional large trials would be of value, especially with fracture as the primary outcome. In conclusion, according to current RCT evidence, exercise can prevent T2D assuming it is combined with dietary intervention. However, the current evidence shows that exercise does not prevent premature mortality or CVD, with inconsistent evidence for fractures.

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  • 19.
    Benckert, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lilja, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Improved metabolic health among the obesein six population surveys 1986 to 2009: the Northern Sweden MONICA study2015In: BMC Obesity, ISSN 2052-9538, Vol. 2, no 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The incidence of CVD is decreasing in spite of increasing BMI in the population. We examined trends in metabolic health among overweight and obese individuals and the influence of lifestyle and socioeconomic status. Six cross sectional population surveys in the Northern Sweden MONICA Study between 1986 and 2009. 8 874 subjects 25 to 64 years participated (74% participation rate). Metabolic health was defined as a total cholesterol level below 5.0 mmol/l, blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg and not having diabetes. In 2009 the age span 25 to 74 years was studied.

    Results

    The prevalence of metabolic health among obese subjects increased by 7.9 % per year (95% confidence interval 5.4; 10.5), reaching 21.0% in 2009. The corresponding figures for overweight subjects were 5.9% per year (4.6; 7.3), reaching 18% in 2009, whereas for the normal-weight subjects, the increase was 6.2% per year (5.3; 7.2), reaching 39% in 2009. The prevalence of metabolic health among subjects with abdominal obesity increased by 5.8% (4.6; 7.0) per year, reaching 17.3% in 2009. Among those with no abdominal obesity the increase was 6.2% (5.2; 7.1), reaching 38% in 2009 (p = <0.001 for all groups). Only among non-obese men and obese women did the increase continue between 2004 and 2009. In the other groups a slight decline or levelling off was noted.

    In 2009 women had a 27% higher prevalence of metabolic health than men. The prevalence of metabolic health among the obese was 19.8% which declined to 15.8% if subjects treated for hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were classified as not healthy. Overweight and obese subjects were less often metabolically healthy (odds ratio 0.54 and 0.59 respectively) compared with normal-weight subjects, independent of sex and age as were subjects with abdominal obesity (odds ratio 0.52). Adjustments for smoking, physical activity and education level did not influence any estimates.

    Conclusions

    This report shows a large increase in prevalence of metabolic health from 1986 to 2009 for all anthropometric categories. Metabolic health remains considerably less prevalent among overweight and obese subjects than among those with normal weight.

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  • 20.
    Bengtsson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lindvall, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Fhärm, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Increased knowledge makes a difference!–general practitioners’ experiences of pictorial information about subclinical atherosclerosis for primary prevention: an interview study from the VIPVIZA trial2021In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore how pictorial information on subclinical atherosclerosis affects GPs’ perception of patient cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, their communication with patients, and GPs’ attitude to the treatment of CVD risk factors.

    Design, setting and subjects: Fifteen individual interviews were conducted between March 2014 and December 2016, with GPs who had received pictorial information regarding their patients’ subclinical atherosclerosis. The pictorial information was also received by the patients together with written information regarding atherosclerosis and CVD risk prior to the appointment with their GP. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Three categories were identified in the analysis. Increased knowledge makes a difference: When patients had more in-depth knowledge regarding atherosclerosis, the consultation became more patient-centered and moved towards shared decision making. This is real, not just a number: GPs described their risk assessment and the patient’s risk perception as more accurate with pictorial information about subclinical atherosclerosis. How to deal with the result–A passive to active approach: Some GPs acted promptly on the pictorial information while others took no action.

    Conclusion and implications: Pictorial information regarding patients’ subclinical atherosclerosis affected GPs’ assessment of CVD risk. The communication shifted towards shared decision-making although the GPs’ attitude to the result and treatment of CVD risk factors varied. Informing patients about examination results, both in writing and pictures, prior to a consultation can facilitate shared decision making and enhance preventive measures.

    Trial registration: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01849575.

    KEY POINTS: Providing pictorial information about carotid ultrasound results and information regarding atherosclerosis to GPs and patients affects primary prevention:

    • Informing patients about examination results prior to a consultation can be useful in clinical practice to enhance preventive measures
    • GPs experienced that increased patient knowledge resulted in a more patient-centered consultation and improved shared decision-making
    • GPs described their risk assessment and patients’ risk perception as more accurate with pictorial information about subclinical atherosclerosis.
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  • 21.
    Bergdahl, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine.
    Hyperparatyreoidism vid njursjukdom1973Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
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  • 22. Berghammer, Malin C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Eva
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Moons, Philip
    Dellborg, Mikael
    Comparison of participants and non-participants in patient-reported outcome surveys: the case of Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease - International Study2017In: Cardiology in the Young, ISSN 1047-9511, E-ISSN 1467-1107, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 427-434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The last decade has seen a vast increase in the use of patient-reported outcomes. As patientreported outcomes are used in order to capture patients' perspectives of their health and illness, it is a prerequisite for accurate patient-reported outcome evaluations to use representative samples. In order to evaluate representativeness, the present study focussed on the comparison between participants and non-participants in the Swedish branch of the international study APPROACH-IS (Assessment of Patterns of Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adults with Congenital Heart disease - International Study), regarding demographic, clinical, and health status characteristics. Methods: Eligible patients for APPROACH-IS were identified and selected from SWEDCON, the Swedish registry for congenital heart disease (CHD). Overall, 912 eligible patients were identified, of whom 471 participated, 398 did not participate, and 43 were either unreachable or declined to participate in APPROACH-IS. The participants and nonparticipants were compared in terms of statistical significance and effect sizes. Results: Significant differences were observed between participants and non-participants for sex, age, primary diagnosis, number of cardiac operations, and fatigue; however, the effect sizes were in general small, except for the difference in primary diagnosis. No differences between the two groups were found in number of catheterisations, implanted device, the distribution of NYHA functional class, or health status and symptoms. Conclusions: This study shows that participants and non-participants are relatively comparable groups, which confirms the representativeness of the participants. The Swedish data from APPROACH-IS can therefore be reliably generalised to the population of adults with CHD in Sweden.

  • 23.
    Bergthorsdottir, Ragnhildur
    et al.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Esposito, Daniela
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Daniel S.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism (CVRM), BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ragnarsson, Oskar
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Center for Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bensing, Sophie
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Endocrinology, Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sollentuna, Sweden.
    Nåtman, Jonatan
    Centre of Registers Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johannsson, Gudmundur
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Fredrik
    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Increased risk of hospitalization, intensive care and death due to covid-19 in patients with adrenal insufficiency: a Swedish nationwide study2024In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 295, no 3, p. 322-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) have excess morbidity and mortality related to infectious disorders. Whether patients with AI have increased morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 is unknown.

    Methods: In this linked Swedish national register-based cohort study, patients with primary and secondary AI diagnosis were identified and followed from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2021. They were compared with a control cohort from the general population matched 10:1 for age and sex. The following COVID-19 outcomes were studied: incidence of COVID-19 infection, rates of hospitalization, intensive care admission and death. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) adjusted for socioeconomic factors and comorbidities were estimated using Cox regression analysis.

    Results: We identified 5430 patients with AI and 54,300 matched controls: There were 47.6% women, mean age was 57.1 (standard deviation 18.1) years, and the frequency of COVID-19 infection was similar, but the frequency of hospitalization (2.1% vs. 0.8%), intensive care (0.3% vs. 0.1%) and death (0.8% vs. 0.2%) for COVID-19 was higher in AI patients than matched controls. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors and comorbidities, the HR (95% CI) was increased for hospitalization (1.96, 1.59–2.43), intensive care admission (2.76, 1.49–5.09) and death (2.29, 1.60–3.28).

    Conclusion: Patients with AI have a similar incidence of COVID-19 infection to a matched control population, but a more than twofold increased risk of developing a severe infection or a fatal outcome. They should therefore be prioritized for vaccination, antiviral therapy and other appropriate treatment to mitigate hospitalization and death.

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  • 24. Berk, John L
    et al.
    Suhr, Ole B
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sekijima, Yoshiki
    Yamashita, Taro
    Heneghan, Michael
    Zeldenrust, Steven R
    Ando, Yukio
    Ikeda, Shu-ichi
    Gorevic, Peter
    Merlini, Giampaolo
    Kelly, Jeffrey W
    Skinner, Martha
    Bisbee, Alice B
    Dyck, Peter J
    Obici, Laura
    The diflunisal trial: study accrual and drug tolerance2012In: Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders, ISSN 1350-6129, E-ISSN 1744-2818, Vol. 19, no S1, p. 37-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a protein folding disorder that induces neuropathy and cardiomyopathy, leading to death within 7-15 years after onset of clinical disease. In vitro, small ligands binding the thyroid hormone docking site stabilize tetrameric transthyretin, inhibiting amyloid fibril formation. We undertook a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine whether diflunisal, a well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alters neurologic disease progression in FAP. We enrolled 130 subjects with wide age and FAP mutation representation. To date, few recognized complications of NSAIDs have occurred in the study cohort. Data collection will be completed by November 2012.

  • 25. Björk, Anna-Bell
    et al.
    Sjöström, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Umefjord, Goran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Women's Experiences of Internet-Based or Postal Treatment for Stress Urinary Incontinence2014In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 484-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress urinary incontinence is common and sometimes embarrassing. New, simple, and easily accessible treatments are needed. We telephone interviewed 21 women who participated in a randomized controlled study comparing two treatment programs based on instructions for pelvic floor muscle training. One program was Internet-based and included email support by a urotherapist; the other was sent by post. There was no face-to-face contact in either program. Our main aim was to explore the women's experiences of the Internet-based treatment. Grounded theory analysis revealed three categories: hidden but present, at a distance but close, and by myself but not alone. These were incorporated in a core category: acknowledged but not exposed. The leakage was often a well-hidden secret, but the study treatments lowered the barrier for seeking care. In the Internet group, a supportive patient-provider relationship developed despite the lack of face-to-face contact. Internet-based treatment programs can increase access to care and empower women.

  • 26.
    Björklund, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    A Full Night’s Sleep, A Privilege For the (W)healthy? - The impact of social deprivation on the prevalence of nocturia in community dwelling older adults of Scotland2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Björsell, Tove
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Department of Infectious Diseases, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research and Education, Region Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Sundh, Josefin
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Lange, Anna
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Forsell, Mattias N. E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Tevell, Staffan
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karlstad Hospital, Karlstad, Sweden; Centre for Clinical Research and Education, Region Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Edin, Alicia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Normark, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Cajander, Sara
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Risk factors for impaired respiratory function post COVID-19: a prospective cohort study of nonhospitalized and hospitalized patients2023In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 293, no 5, p. 600-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Severe COVID-19 increases the risk for long-term respiratory impairment, but data after mild COVID-19 are scarce. Our aims were to determine risk factors for reduced respiratory function 3–6 months after COVID-19 infection and to investigate if reduced respiratory function would relate to impairment of exercise performance and breathlessness. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 were enrolled at the University Hospitals of Umeå and Örebro, and Karlstad Central Hospital, Sweden. Disease severity was defined as mild (nonhospitalized), moderate (hospitalized with or without oxygen treatment), and severe (intensive care). Spirometry, including diffusion capacity (DLCO), was performed 3–6 months after hospital discharge or study enrollment (for nonhospitalized patients). Breathlessness (defined as ≥1 according to the modified Medical Research Council scale) and functional exercise capacity (1-min sit-to-stand test; 1-MSTST) were assessed. Results: Between April 2020 and May 2021, 337 patients were enrolled in the study. Forced vital capacity and DLCO were significantly lower in patients with severe COVID-19. Among hospitalized patients, 20% had reduced DLCO, versus 4% in nonhospitalized. Breathlessness was found in 40.6% of the participants and was associated with impaired DLCO. A pathological desaturation or heart rate response was observed in 17% of participants during the 1-MSTST. However, this response was not associated with reduced DLCO. Conclusion: Reduced DLCO was the major respiratory impairment 3–6 months following COVID-19, with hospitalization as the most important risk factor. The lack of association between impaired DLCO and pathological physiological responses to exertion suggests that these physiological responses are not primarily related to decreased lung function.

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  • 28.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Update in environmental and occupational medicine 20112012In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 185, no 11, p. 1166-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Departments of Internal Medicine and Geriatric medicine, Skellefteå Hospital, Skellefteå.
    On the clinical use of digitalis: with reference to its prescription, maintenance therapy, intoxication and the patient's knowledge1983Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalis in one of the most frequently prescribed drugs, especially to elderly people. The prescription of cardiac glucosides (1978) was studied by using statistics from Apoteksbolaget (the National Corpora­tion of Swedish Pharmacies). There was a threefold difference in the sales of cardiac glucosides per 1000 inhabitants in the different primary care areas. Digoxin was prescribed to 90-98 per cent of the patients, with considerable variations in the dosages. Many other factors besides the cardio-vascular morbidity were likely to cause these differences.

    Maintenance digitalis therapy has lately been questioned. In a retro­spective study, digitalis was discontinued in 141 geriatric patients without contraindications to digitalis withdrawal. Digoxin treatment seemed to be unnecessary in 108 patients (81 per cent), followed up two months after digoxin withdrawal. A long-term study (mean: 20,5 months) was carried out in these 108 patients. Digitalis therapy was reinstituted in 30 of 99 patients, equally distributed on the basis of clear, possible or uncertain indications. Significantly more patients (p< 0,001) with atrial fibrillation compared with sinus rhythm were restarted. A prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo- controlled study in 39 out of 66 geriatric patients confirmed the results of the retrospective study. During a two-month period 32 of 37 patients (86 per cent) managed without digitalis. Eighteen out of 66 patients (27 per cent) presented contraindications to digoxin with­drawal. Those who needed digitalis were restarted mainly during the first nonth (mean: 18 days) following digoxin withdrawal.

    Digitalis intoxication has been studied earlier, mainly in hospitalized patients. A clinical examination and ECG of a random sample of out­patients treated with digoxin shewed that about 5 per cent were certainly intoxicated and about 2 per cent suspected of being intoxi­cated.

    Elderly patients are said to be more sensitive to digitalis. Eleven per cent of 66 geriatric patients were found, without doubt, to be digitalis intoxicated. The mean serum digoxin concentration was significantly higher in eight toxic patients compared with non-toxic patients, but 75 per cent of the toxic patients had serum digoxin con­centrations within or below therapeutic range. Five of these intoxi­cated patients did not need maintenance digitalis therapy.

    A questionnaire of 361 patients in Skellefteå and Uppsala revealed that about 45 per cent had taken digitalis for more than five years. Approximately 85 per cent took one tablet daily and stated compliance. About one fifth did not know why they were taking digoxin and about half of the patients were uncertain if they were improved, by digitalis therapy. Although digitalis intoxication is such an important clinical problem, some 55 per cent did not know about digitalis's side-effects and some 50 per cent stated that no or insufficient information had been given. Only 15 per cent were satisfied with the information they had received. A significant negative correlation between digoxin dosages and the age of the patients was found.

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  • 30.
    Boman, Kurt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Brenander, Andre
    Gustavsson, Mats
    Furberg, Curt D
    A pilot test of a new tool for remote blood pressure monitoring2014In: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, ISSN 1357-633X, E-ISSN 1758-1109, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 239-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conducted a pilot trial of a remote blood pressure (BP) monitoring system, in which subjects measured their own BP at a primary healthcare centre. The data were wirelessly transmitted to the general practitioner. A total of 132 subjects with a new or prior diagnosis of hypertension were enrolled. Their mean age was 61 years and 77 were men (58%). They were followed for an average of 487 days (range 19-1110). The median number of BP measurements made was 6 per patient (range 2-49). The mean blood pressure decreased from 137/85 to 132/78 mmHg (P < 0.001) and the percentage of subjects with adequately controlled BP (defined as < 140/90 mmHg) increased from 47 to 66% (P < 0.01). Randomised trials are now required to confirm these findings.

  • 31.
    Bower, Hannah
    et al.
    Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frisell, Thomas
    Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Di Giuseppe, Daniela
    Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delcoigne, Benedicte
    Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alenius, Gerd-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Baecklund, Eva
    Unit of Rheumatology, Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chatzidionysiou, Katerina
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feltelius, Nils
    Swedish Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsblad-Delia, Helena
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linkopings Universitet, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Klareskog, Lars
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Rheumatology Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Ulf
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Turesson, Carl
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden.
    Sjowall, Christopher
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Askling, Johan
    Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with inflammatory joint diseases in Sweden: From infection severity to impact on care provision2021In: RMD Open, E-ISSN 2056-5933, Vol. 7, no 3, article id e001987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To compare risks for COVID-19-related outcomes in inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) and across disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) during the first two waves of the pandemic and to assess effects of the pandemic on rheumatology care provision.

    Methods: Through nationwide multiregister linkages and cohort study design, we defined IJD and DMARD use annually in 2015-2020. We assessed absolute and relative risks of hospitalisation or death listing COVID-19. We also assessed the incidence of IJD and among individuals with IJD, rheumatologist visits, DMARD use and incidence of selected comorbidities.

    Results: Based on 115 317 patients with IJD in 2020, crude risks of hospitalisation and death listing COVID-19 (0.94% and 0.33% across both waves, respectively) were similar during both waves (adjusted HR versus the general population 1.33, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.43, for hospitalisation listing COVID-19; 1.23, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.40 for death listing COVID-19). Overall, biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs)/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (tsDMARDs) did not increase risks of COVID-19 related hospitalisation (with the exception of a potential signal for JAK inhibitors) or death. During the pandemic, decreases were observed for IJD incidence (-7%), visits to rheumatology units (-16%), DMARD dispensations (+6.5% for bDMARD/tsDMARDs and-8.5% for conventional synthetic DMARDs compared with previous years) and for new comorbid conditions, but several of these changes were part of underlying secular trends.

    Conclusions: Patients with IJD are at increased risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes, which may partially be explained by medical conditions other than IJD per se. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has exerted measurable effects on aspects of rheumatology care provision demonstrated, the future impact of which will need to be assessed.

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  • 32.
    Bower, Hannah
    et al.
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frisell, Thomas
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Di Giuseppe, Daniela
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Delcoigne, Bénédicte
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alenius, Gerd-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Baecklund, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Chatzidionysiou, Katerina
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feltelius, Nils
    Swedish Medical Products Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Forsblad-D'elia, Helena
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kastbom, Alf
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Klareskog, Lars
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Elisabet
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lindström, Ulf
    Department of Rheumatology and Inflammation Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Turesson, Carl
    Rheumatology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Askling, Johan
    Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory joint diseases and in the general population: a nationwide Swedish cohort study2021In: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 80, no 8, p. 1086-1093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To estimate absolute and relative risks for all-cause mortality and for severe COVID-19 in inflammatory joint diseases (IJDs) and with antirheumatic therapies.

    Methods: Through Swedish nationwide multiregister linkages, we selected all adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, n=53 455 in March 2020), other IJDs (here: spondyloarthropathies, psoriatic arthritis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis, n=57 112), their antirheumatic drug use, and individually matched population referents. We compared annual all-cause mortality March-September 2015 through 2020 within and across cohorts, and assessed absolute and relative risks for hospitalisation, admission to intensive care and death due to COVID-19 March-September 2020, using Cox regression.

    Results: During March-September 2020, the absolute all-cause mortality in RA and in other IJDs was higher than 2015-2019, but relative risks versus the general population (around 2 and 1.5) remained similar during 2020 compared with 2015-2019. Among patients with IJD, the risks of hospitalisation (0.5% vs 0.3% in their population referents), admission to intensive care (0.04% vs 0.03%) and death (0.10% vs 0.07%) due to COVID-19 were low. Antirheumatic drugs were not associated with increased risk of serious COVID-19 outcomes, although for certain drugs, precision was limited.

    Conclusions: Risks of severe COVID-19-related outcomes were increased among patients with IJDs, but risk increases were also seen for non-COVID-19 morbidity. Overall absolute and excess risks are low and the level of risk increases are largely proportionate to those in the general population, and explained by comorbidities. With possible exceptions, antirheumatic drugs do not have a major impact on these risks.

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  • 33.
    Bozaghian, Sadaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professional Development.
    McGrath, Aleksandra M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professional Development.
    Karlsson, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professional Development.
    Evidensbaserad konsultation som får plats i fickan2020In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 117, article id FXP7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Brorstad, Alette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Oscarsson, Kristina Bergstedt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Early diagnosis of hantavirus infection by family doctors can reduce inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 179-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Raised awareness in general practice regarding emerging infections and better diagnostic tools are desirable. This study of a Hantavirus outbreak shows that general practitioners are frontline doctors during outbreaks and through early and correct diagnosis they can reduce antibiotic treatment and hospitalization.

  • 35.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Questionable Conclusions Regarding Blood Pressure End Points Reply2018In: JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN 2168-6106, E-ISSN 2168-6114, Vol. 178, no 4, p. 575-576Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Brunström, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dahlström, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Lindholm, Lars H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carlberg, Bo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Association of Physician Education and Feedback on Hypertension Management With Patient Blood Pressure and Hypertension Control2020In: JAMA Network Open, E-ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 3, no 1, article id e1918625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: Elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) is the most important risk factor for premature death worldwide. However, hypertension detection and control rates continue to be suboptimal.

    Objective: To assess the association of education and feedback to primary care physicians with population-level SBP and hypertension control rates.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This pooled series of 108 population-based cohort studies involving 283 079 patients used data from primary care centers in 2 counties (Västerbotten and Södermanland) in Sweden from 2001 to 2009. Participants were individuals aged 18 years or older who had their blood pressure (BP) measured and recorded in either county during the intervention period. All analyses were performed in February 2019.

    Exposures: An intervention comprising education and feedback for primary care physicians in Västerbotten County (intervention group) compared with usual care in Södermanland County (control group).

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Difference in mean SBP levels between counties and likelihood of hypertension control in the intervention county compared with the control county during 24 months of follow-up.

    Results: A total of 136 541 unique individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 64.6 [16.1] years; 57.0% female; mean inclusion BP, 142/82 mm Hg) in the intervention county were compared with 146 538 individuals (mean [SD] age at inclusion, 65.7 [15.9] years; 58.3% female; mean inclusion BP, 144/80 mm Hg) in the control county. Mean SBP difference between counties during follow-up, adjusted for inclusion BP and other covariates, was 1.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 1.0-1.1 mm Hg). Hypertension control improved by 8.4 percentage points, and control was achieved in 37.8% of participants in the intervention county compared with 29.4% in the control county (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.29-1.31). Differences between counties increased during the intervention period and were more pronounced in participants with higher SBP at inclusion. Results were consistent across all subgroups.

    Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that SBP levels and hypertension control rates in a county population may be improved by educational approaches directed at physicians and other health care workers. Similar strategies may be adopted to reinforce the implementation of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension management.

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  • 37.
    Burstedt, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Jonsson, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Köhn, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Burstedt, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Kivitalo, Markus
    Golovleva, Irina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Genotype-phenotype correlations in Bothnia dystrophy caused by RLBP1 gene sequence variations2013In: Acta Ophthalmologica, ISSN 1755-375X, E-ISSN 1755-3768, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 437-444Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate phenotypes caused by different RLBP1 mutations in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa of Bothnia type. Methods: Compound heterozygotes for mutations in the RLBP1 gene [c.677T>A]+[c.700C>T] (p.M226K+p.R234W), n=10, aged 7-84years, and homozygotes c.677T>A (p.M226K), n=2, aged 63 and 73years, were studied using visual acuity (VA), low-contrast VA, visual fields (VFs) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Retrospective VA and VFs, standardized dark adaptation and full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were analysed and prolonged dark adaptometry and ERG (at 24hr) were performed. Results: Progressive decline of VA and VF areas was age-dependent. Retinal degenerative maculopathy, peripheral degenerative changes and retinitis punctata albescens (RPA) were present. Early retinal thinning in the central foveal, foveal (O 1mm), and inner ring (O 3mm) in the macular region, with homogenous, high-reflectance RPA changes, was visualized in and adjacent to the retinal pigment epithelium/choriocapillaris using OCT. Reduced dark adaptation and affected ERGs were present in all ages. Prolonged dark adaptation and ERG (at 24hr), an increase in final threshold, and ERG rod and mixed rod/cone responses were found. Conclusions: The two RLBP1 genotypes presented a phenotypical and electrophysiological expression of progressive retinal disease similar to that previously described in homozygotes for the c.700C>T (p.R234W) RLBP1 mutation. The uniform phenotypical expression of RLBP1 mutations is relevant information for the disease and of importance in planning future treatment strategies.

  • 38.
    Burtin, Chris
    et al.
    Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, REVAL-Rehabilitation Research Center, BIOMED Biomedical Research Institute Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    The rationale for pulmonary rehabilitation2021In: ERS Monograph, ISSN 2312-508X, E-ISSN 2312-5098, Vol. 2021, no 93, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decreased exercise capacity, skeletal muscle dysfunction and a physically inactive lifestyle are associated with symptoms of fatigue and dyspnoea in patients with chronic lung disease. Many of these extrapulmonary features have been identified as treatable traits for PR, a comprehensive individualised nonpharmacological intervention that includes exercise training, education and behaviour change. PR improves exercise capacity, symptoms and QoL to a clinically relevant extent. In patients with COPD, it also appears to be a cost-effective intervention and is suggested to improve mortality. PR can be delivered in various settings, such as hospital based, community based, home based and telerehabilitation. The choice of setting needs to be made in light of the complexity of the patient. Unfortunately, referral to PR is very low worldwide, making the enhancement of access to PR the number one challenge for the near future in the field of PR.

  • 39. Byles, Julie E
    et al.
    Dolja-Gore, Xenia
    Loxton, Deborah J
    Parkinson, Lynne
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer A
    Research Centre for Gender, Health & Ageing, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Level 2 David Maddison Building, Callaghan NSW 2308, Australia.
    Women's uptake of Medicare Benefits Schedule mental health items for general practitioners, psychologists and other allied mental health professionals.2011In: The Medical journal of Australia, ISSN 1326-5377, Vol. 194, no 4, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify women's uptake of Medicare Benefits Schedule mental health items, compare characteristics of women by mental health service use, and investigate the impact on Medicare costs.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of linked survey data and Medicare records (November 2006 - December 2007) of 14 911 consenting participants of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) across three birth cohorts (1921-1926 ["older cohort"], 1946-1951 ["mid-age cohort"], and 1973-1978 ["younger cohort"]).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Uptake of mental health items; 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) Mental Health Index scores from ALSWH surveys; and patient (out-of-pocket) and benefit (government) costs from Medicare data.

    RESULTS: A large proportion of women who reported mental health problems made no mental health claims (on the most recent survey, 88%, 90% and 99% of the younger, mid-age and older cohorts, respectively). Socioeconomically disadvantaged women were less likely to use the services. SF-36 Mental Health Index scores among women in the younger and mid-age cohorts were lowest for women who had accessed mental health items or self-reported a recent mental health condition. Mental health items are associated with higher costs to women and government.

    CONCLUSION: Although there has been rapid uptake of mental health items, uptake by women with mental health needs is low and there is potential socioeconomic inequity.

  • 40.
    Carlberg, Bo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Samuelsson, Ola
    Lindholm, Lars H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Finns möjligen hela bilden om atenolol hos Kent Forsén?2005In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, no 3, p. 151-152Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    School of Business and Law, University of Australia, Cairns..
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hultin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hedman, Mante
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Berggren, Peter
    Centre of Rural Medicine, Västerbotten County Counsil, Storuman, Sweden.
    Umeå University's proposed "Rural Stream": An effective alternative to the longitudinal integrated clerkship model for small rural communities?2020In: Education for Health, ISSN 1357-6283, E-ISSN 1469-5804, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 3-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Umeå University Faculty of Medicine (UUFM), Sweden, has a regionalized medical program in which students spend the final 2½ years of their undergraduate degree in district hospitals. In late 2018, UUFM started a "rural stream" pilot exposing students to smaller rural locations.

    Methods: The objectives are to deliver the benefits for medical education and rural workforce development that have been observed in longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) while maintaining consistency between learning experiences in the main campus, regional campuses, and rural locations. This article compares the UUFM rural stream with those typical of the LICs described in the medical education literature. Comparisons are made in terms of the four key criteria for LIC success, and additional characteristics including peer and interprofessional learning, "'continuity," and curriculum development.

    Results: The rural stream has elements of length, immersion, position in the degree program, and community engagement that are both similar to, and different from, LICs. Key challenges are to ensure that participating students create close relationships with host medical facilities and communities. The rural stream also has some potential advantages, particularly in relation to team learning.

    Discussion: Alternatives to the LIC rural stream model as typically described in the literature may be required to allow for immersive medical education to occur in smaller rural communities and to be suitable for medical schools with more traditional approaches to education.

  • 42.
    Chorell, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Norrlands University Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mellberg, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Plasma metabolomic response to postmenopausal weight loss induced by different diets2016In: Metabolomics, ISSN 1573-3882, E-ISSN 1573-3890, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Menopause is associated with increased abdominal fat and increased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Objectives The present study evaluated the plasma metabolic response in relation to insulin sensitivity after weight loss via diet intervention. Methods This work includes two studies; i) Ten women on a 5 weeks Paleolithic-type diet (PD, 30 energy percent (E%) protein, 40 E% fat, 30 E% carbohydrates), ii) 55 women on 6 months of either PD or Nordic Nutrition Recommendations diet (NNR, 15 E% protein, 30 E% fat, and 55 E% carbohydrates). Plasma metabolic profiles were acquired at baseline and post diet using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry and investigated in relation to insulin sensitivity using multivariate bioinformatics. Results Both the PD and NNR diet resulted in significant weight loss, reduced waist circumference, improved serum lipid profiles, and improved insulin sensitivity. We detected a baseline metabolic profile that correlated significantly with insulin sensitivity, and of which components increased significantly in the PD group compared to NNR. Specifically, a significant increase in myo-inositol (MI), a second messenger of insulin action, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid (beta-HB)increased while dihomogamma-linoleic acid (DGLA) decreased in PD compared to NNR, which correlated with improved insulin sensitivity. We also detected a significant decrease in tyrosine and tryptophan, potential markers of insulin resistance when elevated in the circulation, with the PD but not the NNR. Conclusions Using metabolomics, we detected changes in the plasma metabolite profiles associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women by different diets. The metabolic profiles following 6 months of PD were linked to beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity compared to NNR.

  • 43.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    What's behind sexual risk taking?: exploring the experiences of chlamydia-positive, HIV-positive, and HIV-tested young women and men in Sweden2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to explore the experiences of sexual risk taking among Chlamydia Trachomatis positive (CT+), HIV positive (HIV+), and HIV tested young women and men. The specific aims were to explore, from a gender perspective, the course of events, the norms, considerations and emotions involved in sexual risk taking in CT+, explore the perception of sexual risk taking in HIV+ youth, and their understanding of why they caught HIV and look at how the Law of Communicable Diseases Act impacts their sexuality. Moreover, to investigate why young adults test for HIV, how they construct the HIV risk, and what implications testing has for them.

    42 informants between 17-24 years of age were recruited from a youth clinic in Umeå and from three infection clinics for HIV patients in Sweden.

    In depth interviews and focus group interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed according to a Grounded Theory approach.

    The finding revealed that behind sexual risk taking, there was a drive to go steady, where lust and trust guided if sex would take place. In one-night stands women were expected to be less forward compared with men. We found an uneven responsibility concerning condom use where men expected women to be "condom promoters". By catching CT, women experienced guilt, while men felt content through knowing "the source of contamination".

    Among the HIV+ youth, socio-cultural factors such as; lack of adult supervision, naivité, love, alcohol, drugs, the macho ideal and cultures of silence blinded the informants to the risks and made them vulnerable. By grouping narratives according to degree of consensus in sexual encounters, this demonstrated that sexual risks happened in a context of gendered power relations where the informants had varied agency. The Law of Communicable Diseases Act implied both support and burden for these HIV+ youth. A lot of responsibility was put on them and to be able to handle the infromation duty they tried to switch off lust, switch off the disease, or balance lust and obedience.

    Among the HIV tested youth, HIV was seen a distant threat. Many had event-driven reasons for testing for HIV; multiple partners being one. Risk zones, like bars were perceived to be a milieu that often was expected to include one-night stands. Responsibility for testing was a gendered issue; "natural" for women, while men rather escaped from responsibility and had a testing resistance. Receiving a "green card" confirmed healthiness and provided relief, and made the informants felt "clean". They could restart with new ambitious, including reconsidering risk.

    The findings can be used in public health and in health care sectors that work with young people. We present suggestions on how to decrease the spread of STIs:

    To implement how men could play an equal part in sexual and reproductive health.

    Promote general CT screening for men.

    Liberal HIV testing among both young women and men.

    Promote safer sex behaviour from the uninfected youth, especially focusing on men??.

    Consider the role of gender and social background in the context of risky behaviours.

    Give lots of positive rewards concerning HIV disclosure to diminish the risk for HIV transmission.

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  • 44.
    Christianson, Monica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Berglin, Björn
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    "It should be an ordinary thing": a qualitative study about young people´s experiences of taking the HIV-test and getting the test result2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 678-683Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  Increased HIV-testing has public health benefits, but for youth there is a multitude of barriers against the test. The aim of this study is to explore how young women and men in Sweden experience HIV-testing within primary healthcare.

    Method:  Six focus-group interviews were tape recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed according to qualitative content analysis.

    Results:  Three themes emerged, describing how the informants were met before, during and after testing; ‘Obstacles accessing the clinic’– describes their perceptions on how to overcome different barriers and enter into primary health care. ‘Quick and easy testing’– describes perceptions of the testing procedure and ‘Conflicting and unclear information about test results’– describes inconsistencies concerning communication of the test result and a concern about ‘what would happen’ in the event of an HIV-positive finding. Most of these youth preferred the HIV-test ‘quick and easy’ and preferred a telephone referral of the test result. A minority of them worried about HIV, and they thought that the staff seemed to be unprepared for an HIV-positive test result.

    Conclusion:  According to these youth, a quick and easy testing procedure together with a short pretest discussion may be sufficient and may also help normalising the testing practice. In a Swedish context, it may be common to see heterosexual youth as a risk-free population, and this perception may act as a barrier for HIV-testing and increase missed opportunities for early diagnose of HIV within primary care.

  • 45. Cohen, Cheryl
    et al.
    Moyes, Jocelyn
    Tempia, Stefano
    Groom, Michelle
    Walaza, Sibongile
    Pretorius, Marthi
    Dawood, Halima
    Chhagan, Meera
    Haffejee, Summaya
    Variava, Ebrahim
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Tshangela, Akhona
    von Gottberg, Anne
    Wolter, Nicole
    Cohen, Adam L.
    Kgokong, Babatyi
    Venter, Marietjie
    Madhi, Shabir A.
    Severe Influenza-associated Respiratory Infection in High HIV Prevalence Setting, South Africa, 2009-20112013In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1766-1774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on influenza epidemiology in HIV-infected persons are limited, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV infection is widespread. We tested respiratory and blood samples from patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections hospitalized in South Africa during 2009-2011 for viral and pneumococcal infections. Influenza was identified in 9% (1,056/11,925) of patients enrolled; among influenza case-patients, 358 (44%) of the 819 who were tested were infected with HIV. Influenza-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection incidence was 4-8 times greater for HIV-infected (186-228/100,000) than for HIV-uninfected persons (26-54/100,000). Furthermore, multivariable analysis showed HIV-infected patients were more likely to have pneumococcal co-infection; to be infected with influenza type B compared with type A; to be hospitalized for 2-7 days or >7 days; and to die from their illness. These findings indicate that HIV-infected persons are at greater risk for severe illnesses related to influenza and thus should be prioritized for influenza vaccination.

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    Severe Influenza-associated Respiratory Infection in High HIV Prevalence Setting, South Africa, 2009–2011
  • 46.
    Danielsson, Ulla E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Träffad av blixten eller långsam kvävning: genuskodade uttryck för depression2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, no 23, p. 1537-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Danielsson, Ulla EB
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Träffad av blixten eller långsam kvävning: genuskodade uttryck för depression i en primärvårdskontext2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a common mental health problem in primary health care. One third of the Swedish population is expected to experience depression at some point in their lives. The understanding of depression has expanded, both from a lay and primary health care perspective. The number of persons considering themselves as depressed, receiving the diagnosis, and getting treatment for it has increased steadily over the last decades.

    Unchanged, however, is that depression is diagnosed twice as often in women as in men, while twice as many men as women commit suicide. These gender differences appear in adolescence. In earlier research biomedical, psychological, and social-cultural explanations of gender differences have been discussed. Patient’s own perspectives have more seldom stood in focus, and men’s narratives in particular are still scarce. In this thesis, gender, i.e. how to be a woman or a man, is considered as a construct, formed and negotiated in social interaction.

    The aim of the study is to explore the gendered face of depression from a patient perspective: How is depression expressed and explained by patients in primary health care, by women and men, adults and adolescents? How are depressed women and men portrayed in the media? How do patient and media accounts of depression compare with the perspective offered in medical research articles?

    Method and material The analyses are based on data from three different sources: patient narratives, newspaper portrayals and scientific medical articles.

    – 37 in-depth interviews were undertaken with primary health care patients diagnosed with depression. Informants were chosen to include both men and women, grown-ups (Studies I + II) and young adults (Study V) of varying occupational and social class backgrounds. Data were analyzed according to grounded theory.

    – 26 articles portraying lay informants with depression (Study III) were drawn from three major Swedish daily newspapers by a search of database Mediearkivet 2002. The articles were analyzed by qualitative content analysis.

    –82 scientific articles concerning depression in relation to gender were identified in a PubMed search 2002. The understanding of depression in these articles was explored and compared with findings in the grown-up patient narratives and in the media portrayals by means of discourse analysis (Study IV).

    Findings Study I captured women’s and men’s formulations of their experiences of depression. To be marked with demands constituted a central experience for both women and men, but the outward manifestations differed in relation to gender as well as to class. Home and work had different priority. Men talked more about physical distress (often chest pain) than about emotions. Women readily verbalized emotional distress – shame and guilt – while physical symptoms were vague and secondary (often about the stomach). Men dealt with insecurity by aggrandizing their previous competence, women by self-effacement.

    Study II disclosed gendered trajectories into depression. Four symbolic illness narratives were identified: struck by lightning, nagging darkness, blackout and slowly suffocating. Most of the men considered their bodies suddenly “struck” by external circumstances beyond their control. The stories of women in the study were more diverse, reflecting all four illness narratives. However, the women had a tendency to blame their own personality and to describe depression as insidious and originating from the inside. The women expressed feelings of guilt and shame but also conveyed a personal responsibility and concern with relationships.

    Study III identified four themes in media portrayals of depression: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control and explaining the illness. The mediated image of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women’s stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression.

    Study IV revealed gaps in how depression in relation to gender is understood by the patients, the media, and the medical research establishment. There were differences in recognition, in understanding of the reasons, and in contextualization of depression. Although women and men described different symptoms and reasons for falling ill, in scientific articles these gendered differences were conceptualized mainly in terms of hormones and other biological markers.

    Study V elucidated the impact of gender on adolescent depression. The young women and men were all striving to be normal, influenced by demanding media images, confronted by identity trouble, and overwhelmed by feelings. They had dreams of an ordinary family and described normative expectations. Getting a safety net of friends and other adults was a way out. Both the young women and men were eager to communicate their distress when given the opportunity. This seemed especially important to some of the young men, who in talking about their emotional problems transgressed gender norms.

    Conclusions Patient perspectives enrich the understanding of gendered expressions of depression by making visible transgressions of and breaks with stereotype gender norms. Gender awareness is an important key in clinical consultation. To recognize gendered narratives of illness might have a salutary potential, making depression more visible among men, and relieving self-blame among women. By re-evaluating restrictive gender patterns, the clinician might encourage development of healthier practices of how to be a man or a woman, a development especially important for adolescents.

    An integrated model for understanding biological, gender and cultural aspects of depression has yet to be developed. As general practitioners we have a unique possibility to see and to study the whole individual in her social and cultural context.

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  • 48.
    Danielsson, Ulla EB
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Samuelsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    "My greatest dream is to be normal": the impact of gender on depression narratives of young Swedish women and men2011In: Qualitative Health Research, ISSN 1049-7323, E-ISSN 1552-7557, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 612-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is common among young people. Gender differences in diagnosing depression appear during adolescence. The study aim was to explore the impact of gender on depression in young Swedish men and women. Grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 23 young people aged 17 to 25 years who had been diagnosed with depression. Their narratives were marked by a striving to be normal and disclosed strong gender stereotypes, constructed in interaction with parents, friends, and the media. Gender norms were upheld by feelings of shame, and restricted the acting space of our informants. However, we also found transgressions of these gender norms. Primary health care workers could encourage young men to open up emotionally and communicate their personal distress, and young women to be daring and assertive of their own strengths, so that both genders might gain access to the positive coping strategies practiced respectively by each.

  • 49. Dawed, A. Y.
    et al.
    Franks, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Skane Univ Hosp, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit,Diabet Ctr, Malmö, Sweden; Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Walker, M.
    Mari, A.
    Pearson, E. R.
    Determinants of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response in prediabetes and diabetes: an IMI-DIRECT study2016In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 33, no Special Issue, Meeting Abstract: A15, p. 10-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    de Barès, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Artificiell intelligens och smartphone-baserad diagnostik av otitis media – en diagnostisk träffsäkerhetsstudie.2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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