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  • 1. Abbas, S
    et al.
    Linseisen, J
    Rohrmann, S
    Beulens, JWJ
    Buijsse, B
    Amiano, P
    Ardanaz, E
    Balkau, B
    Boeing, H
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Fagherazzi, G
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Gavrila, D
    Grioni, S
    Kaaks, R
    Key, TJ
    Khaw, KT
    Kuehn, T
    Mattiello, A
    Molina-Montes, E
    Nilsson, PM
    Overvad, K
    Quiros, JR
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Sacerdote, C
    Saieva, C
    Slimani, N
    Sluijs, I
    Spijkerman, AMW
    Tjonneland, A
    Tumino, R
    van der A, DL
    Zamora-Ros, R
    Sharp, SJ
    Langenberg, C
    Forouhi, NG
    Riboli, E
    Wareham, NJ
    Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: the EPIC-InterAct study2014Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 196-202Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N = 15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N = 2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (P-trend = 0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 mg/day dietary vitamin D.

    CONCLUSIONS: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lillemor
    et al.
    Institutionen för kostvetenskap, Uppsala universitet.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Ekblad, Jenny
    FoU Malmö stad, Malmö.
    Nutrition under livscykeln2013Ingår i: Näringslära för högskolan: från grundläggande till avancerad nutrition / [ed] Abrahamsson Lillemor, Andersson Agneta, Nilsson Gerd, Stockholm: Liber, 2013, 6, s. 379-403Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3. Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Sur, Patrick
    Estep, Kara
    Lee, Alex
    Marczak, Laurie
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Vos, Theo
    Abate, Kalkidan H.
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Ahmed, Muktar B.
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Amegah, Adeladza K.
    Amini, Erfan
    Amrock, Stephen M.
    Anjana, Ranjit M.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Banerjee, Amitava
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Baye, Estifanos
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Beyene, Addisu S.
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Biryukov, Stan
    Bjertness, Espen
    Boneya, Dube J.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Cecilio, Pedro
    Cercy, Kelly
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Damtew, Solomon A.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Duncan, Bruce B.
    Eshrati, Babak
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Furst, Thomas
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye T.
    Gold, Audra
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Goto, Atsushi
    Habtewold, Tesfa D.
    Hadush, Kokeb T.
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Hay, Simon I.
    Horino, Masako
    Islami, Farhad
    Kamal, Ritul
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan N.
    Khader, Yousef S.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Yun J.
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Ku, Tiffany
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Liu, Patrick
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah C.
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Mengistu, Desalegn T.
    Mensah, George A.
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Mezgebe, Haftay B.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Noubiap, Jean J.
    Obermeyer, Carla M.
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Patton, George C.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rai, Rajesh K.
    Ranabhat, Chhabi L.
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Safiri, Saeid
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    Schmidt, Maria I.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shamsizadeh, Moretza
    Sheikhbahaei, Sara
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shiue, Ivy
    Roba, Hirbo S.
    Silva, Diego A. S.
    Silverberg, Jonathan I.
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Stranges, Saverio
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tadese, Fentaw
    Tedla, Bemnet A.
    Tegegne, Balewgizie S.
    Terkawi, Abdullah S.
    Thakur, J. S.
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Vasankari, Tommi
    Vlassov, Vasiliy V.
    Vollset, Stein E.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wesana, Joshua
    Westerman, Ronny
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yonga, Gerald
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zenebe, Zerihun M.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years2017Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 377, nr 1, s. 13-27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain. METHODS We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015. RESULTS In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. 

  • 4. Agborsangaya, Calypse
    et al.
    Toriola, Adetunji T
    Grankvist, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Surcel, Heljia-Marja
    Holl, Katsiaryna
    Parkkila, Seppo
    Tuohimaa, Pentti
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Lehtinen, Matti
    The effects of storage time and sampling season on the stability of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and androstenedione2010Ingår i: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 51-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the stability of serum samples stored in large biobanks is pivotal for reliable assessment of hormone-dependent disease risks. We studied the effects of sample storage time and season of serum sampling on the stability of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) and androstenedione in a stratified random sample of 402 women, using paired sera from the Finnish Maternity Cohort. Serum samples selected were donated between 6 and 24 yr ago. The storage time did not affect serum 25-OHD and androstenedione levels. However, there was a significant mean difference in the 25-OHD levels of sera withdrawn during winter (first sample) vs. during summer (second sample; -18.4 nmol/l, P ≤ 0.001). Also at the individual level, there were significant differences in average 25-OHD levels between individuals with the paired sera taken at winter–winter compared with other alternatives (summer–winter, winter–summer, and summer–summer). The androstenedione levels showed no such differences. Long-term storage does not affect serum 25-OHD and androstenedione levels, but sampling season is an important determinant of 25-OHD levels. Stored serum samples can be used to study disease associations with both hormones. However, sampling season needs to be taken into account for 25-OHD by considering matching and stratification and, if possible, serial sampling.

  • 5. Aglago, Elom K.
    et al.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Murphy, Neil
    Casagrande, Corinne
    Nicolas, Genevieve
    Pischon, Tobias
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Severi, Gianluca
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Fournier, Agnès
    Katzke, Verena
    Kühn, Tilman
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Lasheras, Cristina
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sánchez, Maria-Jose
    Amiano, Pilar
    Huerta, José Maria
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    Martimianaki, Georgia
    Palli, Domenico
    Pala, Valeria
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    May, Anne
    Derksen, Jeroen W. G.
    Hellstrand, Sophie
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Skeie, Guri
    Brustad, Magritt
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Ward, Heather
    Riboli, Elio
    Norat, Teresa
    Chajes, Veronique
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Consumption of Fish and Long-chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large European Cohort2019Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, ISSN 1542-3565, E-ISSN 1542-7714Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs.

    RESULTS: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; Ptrend = .005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; Ptrend = .009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; Ptrend = .016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; Ptrend = .010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; Ptrend < .001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (Pheterogeneity = .026).

    CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA. Levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma were not associated with CRC risk, but there may be differences in risk at different regions of the colon.

  • 6. Agogo, George O.
    et al.
    van der Voet, Hilko
    van 't Veer, Pieter
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Muller, David C.
    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio
    Bamia, Christina
    Braaten, Tonje
    Knuppel, Sven
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    van Eeuwijk, Fred A.
    Boshuizen, Hendriek C.
    A method for sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of measurement error in multiple exposure variables using external validation data2016Ingår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 16, artikel-id 139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. Methods: We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association), due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data. The method combines prior information on the validity of the self-report instrument with the observed data to adjust for the bias in the association. We compared the proposed method with the method that ignores the confounder effect, and with the method that ignores measurement errors completely. We assessed the sensitivity of the estimates to various magnitudes of measurement error, error correlations and uncertainty in the literature-reported validation data. We applied the methods to fruits and vegetables (FV) intakes, cigarette smoking (confounder) and all-cause mortality data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Using the proposed method resulted in about four times increase in the strength of association between FV intake and mortality. For weakly correlated errors, measurement error in the confounder minimally affected the hazard ratio estimate for FV intake. The effect was more pronounced for strong error correlations. Conclusions: The proposed method permits sensitivity analysis on measurement error structures and accounts for uncertainties in the reported validity coefficients. The method is useful in assessing the direction and quantifying the magnitude of bias in the association due to measurement errors in the confounders.

  • 7. Agudo, Antonio
    et al.
    Cayssials, Valerie
    Bonet, Catalina
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Affret, Aurélie
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Katzke, Verena
    Schübel, Ruth
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Karakatsani, Anna
    La Vecchia, Carlo
    Palli, Domenico
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Nøst, Theresa H.
    Lasheras, Cristina
    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel
    Amiano, Pilar
    Chirlaque, María-Dolores
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Dias, Joana A.
    Nilsson, Lena M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Myte, Robin
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Perez-Cornago, Aurora
    Gunter, Marc
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Cross, Amanda J.
    Tsilidis, Kostas
    Riboli, Elio
    Jakszyn, Paula
    Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of gastric cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study2018Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 107, nr 4, s. 607-616Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the 2 major types of gastric cancer. Several foods, nutrients, and nonnutrient food components seem to be involved in the regulation of chronic inflammation. We assessed the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and the risk of gastric carcinoma, overall and for the 2 major subsites: cardia cancers and noncardia cancers. A total of 476,160 subjects (30% men, 70% women) from the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study were followed for 14 y, during which 913 incident cases of gastric carcinoma were identified, including 236 located in the cardia, 341 in the distal part of the stomach (noncardia), and 336 with overlapping or unknown tumor site. The dietary inflammatory potential was assessed by means of an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD), calculated with the use of 28 dietary components and their corresponding inflammatory scores. The association between the ISD and gastric cancer risk was estimated by HRs and 95% CIs calculated by multivariate Cox regression models adjusted for confounders. The inflammatory potential of the diet was associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The HR (95% CI) for each increase in 1 SD of the ISD were 1.25 (1.12, 1.39) for all gastric cancers, 1.30 (1.06, 1.59) for cardia cancers, and 1.07 (0.89, 1.28) for noncardia cancers. The corresponding values for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles of the ISD were 1.66 (1.26, 2.20), 1.94 (1.14, 3.30), and 1.07 (0.70, 1.70), respectively. Our results suggest that low-grade chronic inflammation induced by the diet may be associated with gastric cancer risk. This pattern seems to be more consistent for gastric carcinomas located in the cardia than for those located in the distal stomach. This study is listed on the ISRCTN registry as ISRCTN12136108.

  • 8.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 84-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 9. Ahmad, S
    et al.
    Poveda, A
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Barroso, I
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Established BMI-associated genetic variants and their prospective associations with BMI and other cardiometabolic traits: the GLACIER Study2016Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 40, nr 9, s. 1346-1352Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent cross-sectional genome-wide scans have reported associations of 97 independent loci with body mass index (BMI). In 3541 middle-aged adult participants from the GLACIER Study, we tested whether these loci are associated with 10-year changes in BMI and other cardiometabolic traits (fasting and 2-h glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures).

    METHODS: A BMI-specific genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated effect alleles at each locus. Trait-specific cardiometabolic GRSs comprised only the loci that show nominal association (P⩽0.10) with the respective trait in the original cross-sectional study. In longitudinal genetic association analyses, the second visit trait measure (assessed ~10 years after baseline) was used as the dependent variable and the models were adjusted for the baseline measure of the outcome trait, age, age(2), fasting time (for glucose and lipid traits), sex, follow-up time and population substructure.

    RESULTS: The BMI-specific GRS was associated with increased BMI at follow-up (β=0.014 kg m(-2) per allele per 10-year follow-up, s.e.=0.006, P=0.019) as were three loci (PARK2 rs13191362, P=0.005; C6orf106 rs205262, P=0.043; and C9orf93 rs4740619, P=0.01). Although not withstanding Bonferroni correction, a handful of single-nucleotide polymorphisms was nominally associated with changes in blood pressure, glucose and lipid levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, established BMI-associated loci convey modest but statistically significant time-dependent associations with long-term changes in BMI, suggesting a role for effect modification by factors that change with time in this population.

  • 10. Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    et al.
    Bamia, Christina
    Drogan, Dagmar
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Jenab, Mazda
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Pischon, Tobias
    Tsilidis, Kostas
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Bouton-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Dossus, Laure
    Racine, Antoine
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kuehn, Tilman
    Tsironis, Christos
    Papatesta, Eleni-Maria
    Saitakis, George
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Grioni, Sara
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Lukic, Marko
    Braaten, Tonje
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Sanchez, Mara-Jose
    Chilarque, Maria-Dolores
    Ardanas, Eva
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Wallström, Peter
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Bradbury, Kathryn E.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Duarte-Salles, Talita
    Assi, Nada
    Murphy, Neil
    Gunter, Marc J.
    Riboli, Elio
    Boeing, Heiner
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    The association of coffee intake with liver cancer risk is mediated by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury: data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition2015Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 102, nr 6, s. 1498-1508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Higher coffee intake has been purportedly related to a lower risk of liver cancer. However, it remains unclear whether this association may be accounted for by specific biological mechanisms. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the potential mediating roles of inflammatory, metabolic, liver injury, and iron metabolism biomarkers on the association between coffee intake and the primary form of liver cancer-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Design: We conducted a prospective nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition among 125 incident HCC cases matched to 250 controls using an incidence-density sampling procedure. The association of coffee intake with HCC risk was evaluated by using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression that accounted for smoking, alcohol consumption, hepatitis infection, and other established liver cancer risk factors. The mediating effects of 21 biomarkers were evaluated on the basis of percentage changes and associated 95% CIs in the estimated regression coefficients of models with and without adjustment for biomarkers individually and in combination. Results: The multivariable-adjusted RR of having >= 4 cups (600mL) coffee/d compared with <2 cups (300 mL)/d was 0.25 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P-trend = 0.006). A statistically significant attenuation of the association between coffee intake and HCC risk and thereby suspected mediation was confirmed for the inflammatory biomarker IL-6 and for the biomarkers of hepatocellular injury glutamate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and total bilirubin, which-in combination-attenuated the regression coefficients by 72% (95% CI: 7%, 239%). Of the investigated biomarkers, IL-6, AST, and GGT produced the highest change in the regression coefficients: 40%, 56%, and 60%, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake with HCC risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury.

  • 11. Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    et al.
    Drogan, Dagmar
    Boeing, Heiner
    Jenab, Mazda
    Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, H
    Jansen, Eugene
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Riboli, Elio
    Gunter, Marc J
    Romaguera, Dora
    Westhpal, Sabine
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Vidalis, Pavlos
    Panico, Salvatore
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Sánchez-Cruz, José-Juan
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Díaz, María José Tormo
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Ramon Quiros, J
    Peeters, Petra H
    May, Anne M
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Palmqvist, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Crowe, Francesca L
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nickolas
    Pischon, Tobias
    Adiposity, mediating biomarkers and risk of colon cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study2014Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 134, nr 3, s. 612-621Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adiposity is a risk factor for colon cancer, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the extent to which 11 biomarkers with inflammatory and metabolic actions mediate the association of adiposity measures, waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), with colon cancer in men and women. We analyzed data from a prospective nested case-control study among 662 incident colon cancer cases matched within risk sets to 662 controls. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. The percent effect change and corresponding CIs were estimated after adjusting for biomarkers shown to be associated with colon cancer risk. After multivariable adjustment, WC was associated with colon cancer risk in men (top vs. bottom tertile RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.06-2.65; ptrend  = 0.02) and in women (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.09-2.56; ptrend  = 0.03). BMI was associated with risk only in men. The association of WC with colon cancer was accounted mostly for by three biomarkers, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, non-high-molecular-weight adiponectin and soluble leptin receptor, which in combination explained 46% (95% CI 37-57%) of the association in men and 50% (95% CI 40-65%) of the association in women. Similar results were observed for the associations with BMI in men. These data suggest that alterations in levels of these metabolic biomarkers may represent a primary mechanism of action in the relation of adiposity with colon cancer. Further studies are warranted to determine whether altering their concentrations may reduce colon cancer risk.

  • 12. Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Alvarez-Leon, Eva E
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Serra-Majem, Lluís
    Magnuson, Anders
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital.
    Associations between lactase persistence and the metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study in the Canary Islands2010Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 49, nr 3, s. 141-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) LCT -13910 C>T, associated with genetically determined phenotypes of lactase persistence (LP) or non-persistence (LNP), was studied in relation to the metabolic syndrome (MS).

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim was to determine if milk intake and MS are associated. We applied Mendelian randomization (MR). The SNP, LCT -13910 C>T, with the genotypes LP (TT/CT) and LNP (CC), was taken as a proxy for milk consumption.

    METHODS: A representative sample of adults belonging to the Canary Islands Nutrition Survey (ENCA) in Spain aged 18-75 years (n = 551) was genotyped for the LCT -13910 C>T polymorphism. We used the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria to define MS.

    RESULTS: 60% of the population was LP and 40% LNP. One hundred seven LP subjects (35.0%) and 53 LNP subjects (25.6%) showed MS (chi (2) = 5.04, p = 0.025). LP subjects showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for MS than LNP subjects computed for the whole population: both the crude OR (1.56; 95% CI 1.06-2.31) and adjusted OR for sex, age, daily energy intake, physical activity and educational level (1.57; 95% CI 1.02-2.43). Adjusted OR for women with LP was 1.93; 95% CI 1.06-3.52.

    CONCLUSIONS: The T allele of the SNP might constitute a nutrigenetic factor increasing the susceptibility of LP subjects, especially women, to develop MS in the Canary Islands.

  • 13. Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Patterson, Emma
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Department of Clinical Chemistry, Örebro University Hospital.
    Engfeldt, Peter
    Sjöström, Michael
    Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents2010Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 54, nr 5141Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass.

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass.

    DESIGN: Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined.

    RESULTS: LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (p<0.001). Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents). Six subjects were reported by parents to be 'lactose intolerant', none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents).

    CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  • 14. Almon, Ricardo
    et al.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi. Department of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital and Department of Biomedicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University.
    Lactase non-persistence as a determinant of milk avoidance and calcium intake in children and adolescents2013Ingår i: Journal of nutritional science, ISSN 2048-6790, Vol. 2, nr e26, s. 1-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines if lactase non-persistent (LNP) children and adolescents differ from those who are lactase persistent (LP) as regards milk avoidance and Ca intake. We also studied potential differences in anthropometric features related to obesity, and examined if milk avoidance is associated with lactasepersistence status. Additionally, we aimed to determine if heterozygous subjects showed an intermediary phenotype as regards Ca intake. Furthermore, we tested if LP and LNP influence vitamin D intake. The European Youth Heart Study is an ongoing international, multi-centre cohort study primarily designed to address CVD risk factors. Children (n 298, mean age 9·6 years) and adolescents (n 386, mean age 15·6 years) belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Mendelian randomisation was used. Milk avoidance was significantly more common in LNP adolescents (OR 3·2; 95% CI 1·5, 7·3). LP subjects had higher milk consumption (P < 0·001). Accordingly, energy consumption derived from milk and Ca intake was lower in LNP (P < 0·05 and P < 0·001, respectively). Heterozygous subjects did not show an intermediary phenotype concerning milk consumption. LP or LNP status did not affect vitamin D intake or anthropometric variables. LNP in children and adolescents is associated with reduced intake of milk and some milk-product-related nutritional components, in particular Ca. This reduced intake did not affect the studied anthropometric variables, indicators of body fat or estimated vitamin D intake. However, independently of genotype, age and sex, daily vitamin D intake was below the recommended intakes. Milk avoidance among adolescents but not children was associated with LNP.

  • 15. Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.
    et al.
    Ängquist, Lars
    Stocks, Tanja
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Urologi och andrologi. Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases, Genetic Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Jakobsen, Marianne U.
    Overvad, Kim
    Halkjær, Jytte
    Saris, Wim H. M.
    Astrup, Arne
    Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Body characteristics, dietary protein and body weight regulation. Reconciling conflicting results from intervention and observational studies?2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 7, s. e101134-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives: Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods: Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results: Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion: This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results.

  • 16. Arouca, Aline B.
    et al.
    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M.
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Marcos, Ascensión
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Molnár, Dénes
    Manios, Yannis
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Sjöström, Michael
    Sáinz, Ángel Gutiérrez
    Ferrari, Marika
    Huybrechts, Inge
    González-Gross, Marcela
    Forsner, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Michels, Nathalie
    Diet as a moderator in the association of sedentary behaviors with inflammatory biomarkers among adolescents in the HELENA study2019Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 58, nr 5, s. 2051-2065Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To assess if a healthy diet might attenuate the positive sedentary-inflammation relation, whereas an unhealthy diet may increase the effect of sedentary behaviors on inflammatory biomarkers.

    METHODS: In 618 adolescents (13-17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, a set of inflammation markers, and food intake assessed by a self-administered computerized 24 h dietary recall for 2 days. A 9-point Mediterranean diet score and an antioxidant-rich diet z-score were used as dietary indices and tested as moderators. A set of low-grade inflammatory characteristics was used as outcome: several cytokines in an inflammatory ratio (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, TGFβ-1), C-reactive protein, three cell-adhesion molecules (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin), three cardiovascular risk markers (GGT, ALT, homocysteine) and three immune cell types (white blood cells, lymphocytes, CD3). Sedentary behaviors were self-reported and analyzed as total screen time. Multiple linear regression analyses tested moderation by diet in the sedentary behaviors-inflammation association adjusted for age, sex, country, adiposity (sum of six skinfolds), parental education, and socio-economic status.

    RESULTS: Both diet scores, Mediterranean and antioxidant-rich diet, were significant protective moderators in the effect of sedentary behaviors on alanine-transaminase enzyme (P = 0.014; P = 0.027), and on the pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio (P = 0.001; P = 0.004), but not on other inflammatory parameters.

    CONCLUSION: A higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet or an antioxidant-rich diet may attenuate the onset of oxidative stress signs associated by sedentary behaviors, whereas a poor diet seems to increase inflammation.

  • 17. Arslanoglu, Sertac
    et al.
    Corpeleijn, Willemijn
    Moro, Guido
    Braegger, Christian
    Campoy, Cristina
    Colomb, Virginie
    Decsi, Tamas
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Fewtrell, Mary
    Hojsak, Iva
    Mihatsch, Walter
    Molgaard, Christian
    Shamir, Raanan
    Turck, Dominique
    van Goudoever, Johannes
    Donor Human Milk for Preterm Infants: Current Evidence and Research Directions2013Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 57, nr 4, s. 535-542Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own mother's milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM.

  • 18. Arsov, S.
    et al.
    Trajceska, L.
    van Oeveren, W.
    Smit, A. J.
    Dzekova, P.
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Sikole, A.
    Rakhorst, G.
    Graaff, R.
    The influence of body mass index on the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in hemodialysis patients2015Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 309-313Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The level of skin autofluorescence (AF) at a given moment is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skin AF is a measure of the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of nutrition on the 1-year increase of skin AF (Delta AF) in HD patients.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 156 HD patients were enrolled in this study. Skin AF, body mass index (BMI), superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1, von Willebrand factor and heart-type fatty acid-binding protein were measured four times at intervals of approximately half a year. Data from the monthly routine blood analysis were also used. Daily calorie, protein and AGE intakes were assessed from food recordings over a period of 1 week.

    RESULTS: A J-shaped relation was found between baseline BMI and Delta AF (P = 0.01). The lowest point of the J-shaped curve is found for BMI = 24.3 kg/m(2). In the univariate analysis of the contributors to the 1-year Delta AF, we found that beside BMI = 24.3 kg/m(2), AGE and calorie intakes, as well as myeloperoxidase and HD vintage, had a P < 0.10. The sole independent predictor of the 1-year Delta AF was BMI = 24.3 kg/m(2) (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: It appears that calorie, protein and AGE intakes hardly influence the 1-year Delta AF in HD patients. BMI of HD patients of around 24 kg/m(2) resulted in a lower 1-year Delta AF.

  • 19. Asli, Lene A.
    et al.
    Braaten, Tonje
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Renstrom, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Eiliv
    Skeie, Guri
    Potato consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer in the HELGA cohort2018Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 119, nr 12, s. 1408-1415Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Potatoes have been a staple food in many countries throughout the years. Potatoes have a high glycaemic index (GI) score, and high GI has been associated with several chronic diseases and cancers. Still, the research on potatoes and health is scarce and contradictive, and we identified no prospective studies that had investigated the association between potatoes as a single food and the risk of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between potato consumption and pancreatic cancer among 114 240 men and women in the prospective HELGA cohort, using Cox proportional hazard models. Information on diet (validated FFQ's), lifestyle and health was collected by means of a questionnaire, and 221 pancreatic cancer cases were identified through cancer registries. The mean follow-up time was 11.4 (95 % CI 0.3, 169) years. High consumption of potatoes showed a non-significantly higher risk of pancreatic cancer in the adjusted model (hazard ratio (HR) 1.44; 95 % CI 0.93, 2.22, P-for trend 0.030) when comparing the highest v. the lowest quartile of potato consumption. In the sex-specific analyses, significant associations were found for females (HR 2.00; 95 % CI 1.07, 3.72, P-for trend 0.020), but not for males (HR 1.01; 95 % CI 0.56, 1.84, P-for trend 0.34). In addition, we explored the associations by spline regression, and the absence of dose-response effects was confirmed. In this study, high potato consumption was not consistently associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer. Further studies with larger populations are needed to explore the possible sex difference.

  • 20. Assi, Nada
    et al.
    Moskal, Aurelie
    Slimani, Nadia
    Viallon, Vivian
    Chajes, Veronique
    Freisling, Heinz
    Monni, Stefano
    Knueppel, Sven
    Foerster, Jana
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Lujan-Barroso, Leila
    Amiano, Pilar
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Molina-Montes, Esther
    Salmeron, Diego
    Ramon Quiros, Jose
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Dossus, Laure
    Fournier, Agnes
    Baglietto, Laura
    Fortner, Renee Turzanski
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Bamia, Christina
    Orfanos, Philippos
    De Magistris, Maria Santucci
    Masala, Giovanna
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Tumino, Rosario
    de Mesquita, H. Bas Bueno
    Bakker, Marije F.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Skeie, Guri
    Braaten, Tonje
    Winkvist, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Key, Tim
    Travis, Ruth
    Schmidt, Julie A.
    Merritt, Melissa A.
    Riboli, Elio
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Ferrari, Pietro
    A treelet transform analysis to relate nutrient patterns to the risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)2016Ingår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 242-254Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Pattern analysis has emerged as a tool to depict the role of multiple nutrients/foods in relation to health outcomes. The present study aimed at extracting nutrient patterns with respect to breast cancer (BC) aetiology. Design Nutrient patterns were derived with treelet transform (TT) and related to BC risk. TT was applied to twenty-three log-transformed nutrient densities from dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals computed using Cox proportional hazards models quantified the association between quintiles of nutrient pattern scores and risk of overall BC, and by hormonal receptor and menopausal status. Principal component analysis was applied for comparison. Setting The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Subjects Women (n 334 850) from the EPIC study. Results The first TT component (TC1) highlighted a pattern rich in nutrients found in animal foods loading on cholesterol, protein, retinol, vitamins B-12 and D, while the second TT component (TC2) reflected a diet rich in -carotene, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins C and B-6, fibre, Fe, Ca, K, Mg, P and folate. While TC1 was not associated with BC risk, TC2 was inversely associated with BC risk overall (HRQ5 v. Q1=089, 95 % CI 083, 095, P-trend<001) and showed a significantly lower risk in oestrogen receptor-positive (HRQ5 v. Q1=089, 95 % CI 081, 098, P-trend=002) and progesterone receptor-positive tumours (HRQ5 v. Q1=087, 95 % CI 077, 098, P-trend<001). Conclusions TT produces readily interpretable sparse components explaining similar amounts of variation as principal component analysis. Our results suggest that participants with a nutrient pattern high in micronutrients found in vegetables, fruits and cereals had a lower risk of BC.

  • 21. Azadbakht, Leila
    et al.
    Kimiagar, Masoud
    Mehrabi, Yadollah
    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad
    Padyab, Mojgan
    School of Public Health, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran.
    Hu, Frank B
    Willett, Walter C
    Soy inclusion in the diet improves features of the metabolicsyndrome: a randomized crossover study in postmenopausal women2007Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 85, nr 3, s. 735-741Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little evidence exists regarding the effects of soyconsumption on the metabolic syndrome in humans.Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of soy consumptionon components of the metabolic syndrome, plasma lipids, lipoproteins,insulin resistance, and glycemic control in postmenopausalwomen with the metabolic syndrome.Design: This randomized crossover clinical trial was undertaken in42 postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome. Participantswere randomly assigned to consume a control diet (DietaryApproaches to Stop Hypertension, DASH), a soy-protein diet, or asoy-nut diet, each for 8 wk. Red meat in the DASH period wasreplaced by soy-protein in the soy-protein period and by soy-nut inthe soy-nut period.Results: The soy-nut regimen decreased the homeostasis model ofassessment-insulin resistance score significantly compared with thesoy-protein (difference in percentage change:7.40.8; P0.01)or control (12.9 0.9; P 0.01) diets. Consumption of soy-nutalso reduced fasting plasma glucose more significantly than did thesoy-protein (5.30.5%; P0.01) or control (5.10.6%; P0.01) diet. The soy-nut regimen decreased LDL cholesterol morethan did the soy-protein period (5.0 0.6%; P 0.01) and thecontrol (9.5 0.6%; P 0.01) diet. Soy-nut consumptionsignificantly reduced serum C-peptide concentrations comparedwith control diet (8.0 2.1; P 0.01), but consumption ofsoy-protein did not.Conclusion: Short-term soy-nut consumption improved glycemiccontrol and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women with the metabolicsyndrome.

  • 22. Bakker, Marije F.
    et al.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Klaasen, Veronique M.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.
    Ros, Martine M.
    Travier, Noemie
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Brennan, Paul
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Perquier, Florence
    Cadeau, Claire
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kühn, Tilman
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Vineis, Paolo
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Masala, Giovanna
    Tumino, Rosario
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Lund, Eiliv
    Ramon Quirós, J.
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Navarro, Carmen
    Amiano, Pilar
    Sánchez, María-José
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Johansson, Matthias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Travis, Ruth C.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Riboli, Elio
    van Gils, Carla H.
    Plasma carotenoids, vitamin C, tocopherols, and retinol and the risk of breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort2016Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 103, nr 2, s. 454-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Carotenoids and vitamin C are thought to be associated with reduced cancer risk because of their antioxidative capacity.

    Objective: This study evaluated the associations of plasma carotenoid, retinol, tocopherol, and vitamin C concentrations and risk of breast cancer.

    Design: In a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1502 female incident breast cancer cases were included, with an oversampling of premenopausal (n = 582) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) cases (n = 462). Controls (n = 1502) were individually matched to cases by using incidence density sampling. Prediagnostic samples were analyzed for alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, retinol, alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and 454 vitamin C. Breast cancer risk was computed according to hormone receptor status and age at diagnosis (proxy for menopausal status) by using conditional logistic regression and was further stratified by smoking status, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI). All statistical tests were 2-sided.

    Results: In quintile 5 compared with quintile 1, alpha-carotene (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98) and beta-carotene (OR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.65) were inversely associated with risk of ER- breast tumors. The other analytes were not statistically associated with ER- breast cancer. For estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumors, no statistically significant associations were found. The test for heterogeneity between ER- and ER+ tumors was statistically significant only for beta-carotene (P-heterogeneity = 0.03). A higher risk of breast cancer was found for retinol in relation to ER-/progesterone receptor-negative tumors (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20, 4.67; P-heterogeneity with ER+/progesterone receptor positive = 0.06). We observed no statistically significant interaction between smoking, alcohol, or BMI and all investigated plasma analytes (based on tertile distribution).

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that higher concentrations of plasma beta-carotene and alpha-carotene are associated with lower breast cancer risk of ER tumors.

  • 23. Barman, Malin
    et al.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Torinsson Naluai, Åsa
    Sandin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Wold, Agnes E
    Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort)2015Ingår i: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 7, nr 12, s. 10100-10115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster) had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561) were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development.

  • 24. Batura, Neha
    et al.
    Hill, Zelee
    Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan
    Lingam, Raghu
    Colbourn, Timothy
    Kim, Sungwook
    Sikander, Siham
    Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Institute for Global Health, University College London.
    Rahman, Atif
    Kirkwood, Betty
    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene
    Highlighting the evidence gap: how cost-effective are interventions to improve early childhood nutrition and development?2015Ingår i: Health Policy and Planning, ISSN 0268-1080, E-ISSN 1460-2237, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 813-821Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing evidence of the effectiveness of early childhood interventions to improve the growth and development of children. Although, historically, nutrition and stimulation interventions may have been delivered separately, they are increasingly being tested as a package of early childhood interventions that synergistically improve outcomes over the life course. However, implementation at scale is seldom possible without first considering the relative cost and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. An evidence gap in this area may deter large-scale implementation, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. We conduct a literature review to establish what is known about the cost-effectiveness of early childhood nutrition and development interventions. A set of predefined search terms and exclusion criteria standardized the search across five databases. The search identified 15 relevant articles. Of these, nine were from studies set in high-income countries and six in low- and middle-income countries. The articles either calculated the cost-effectiveness of nutrition-specific interventions (n = 8) aimed at improving child growth, or parenting interventions (stimulation) to improve early childhood development (n = 7). No articles estimated the cost-effectiveness of combined interventions. Comparing results within nutrition or stimulation interventions, or between nutrition and stimulation interventions was largely prevented by the variety of outcome measures used in these analyses. This article highlights the need for further evidence relevant to low- and middle-income countries. To facilitate comparison of cost-effectiveness between studies, and between contexts where appropriate, a move towards a common outcome measure such as the cost per disability-adjusted life years averted is advocated. Finally, given the increasing number of combined nutrition and stimulation interventions being tested, there is a significant need for evidence of cost-effectiveness for combined programmes. This too would be facilitated by the use of a common outcome measure able to pool the impact of both nutrition and stimulation activities.

  • 25. Bendinelli, B.
    et al.
    Palli, D.
    Masala, G.
    Sharp, S. J.
    Schulze, M. B.
    Guevara, M.
    van der A, D. L.
    Sera, F.
    Amiano, P.
    Balkau, B.
    Barricarte, A.
    Boeing, H.
    Crowe, F. L.
    Dahm, C. C.
    Dalmeijer, G.
    de Lauzon-Guillain, B.
    Egeberg, R.
    Fagherazzi, G.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Department of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Krogh, V.
    Huerta, J. M.
    Jakszyn, P.
    Khaw, K. T.
    Li, K.
    Mattiello, A.
    Nilsson, P. M.
    Overvad, K.
    Ricceri, F.
    Rodríguez-Suárez, L.
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Sánchez, M. J.
    Slimani, N.
    Sluijs, I.
    Spijkerman, A. M. W.
    Teucher, B.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Tumino, R.
    van den Berg, S. W.
    Forouhi, N. G.
    Langenberg, C.
    Feskens, E. J. M.
    Riboli, E.
    Wareham, N. J.
    Association between dietary meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes: the EPIC-InterAct study2013Ingår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 47-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/hypothesis: A diet rich in meat has been reported to contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the association between meat consumption and incident type 2 diabetes in the EPIC-InterAct study, a large prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

    Methods: During 11.7 years of follow-up, 12,403 incident cases of type 2 diabetes were identified among 340,234 adults from eight European countries. A centre-stratified random subsample of 16,835 individuals was selected in order to perform a case-cohort design. Prentice-weighted Cox regression analyses were used to estimate HR and 95% CI for incident diabetes according to meat consumption.

    Results: Overall, multivariate analyses showed significant positive associations with incident type 2 diabetes for increasing consumption of total meat (50 g increments: HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.05, 1.12), red meat (HR 1.08; 95% CI 1.03, 1.13) and processed meat (HR 1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.19), and a borderline positive association with meat iron intake. Effect modifications by sex and class of BMI were observed. In men, the results of the overall analyses were confirmed. In women, the association with total and red meat persisted, although attenuated, while an association with poultry consumption also emerged (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07, 1.34). These associations were not evident among obese participants.

    Conclusions/interpretation: This prospective study confirms a positive association between high consumption of total and red meat and incident type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of European adults.

  • 26. Benetou, Vassiliki
    et al.
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Feskanich, Diane
    Michaëlsson, Karl
    Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Farmakologi.
    Eriksson, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Grodstein, Francine
    Wolk, Alicja
    Bellavia, Andrea
    Ahmed, Luai A
    Boffeta, Paolo
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Hip Fracture Incidence in Older Men and Women: The CHANCES Project2016Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 31, nr 9, s. 1743-1752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of fruit and vegetable intake in relation to fracture prevention during adulthood and beyond is not adequately understood. We investigated the potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and hip fracture incidence in a large sample of elderly from Europe and United States. A total of 142,018 individuals (among which 116,509 women), aged ≥60 years old, from five cohorts, were followed-up prospectively for 1,911,482 person-years accumulating 5,552 hip fractures. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by validated, cohort-specific, food-frequency questionnaires. Ηip fractures were ascertained through national patient registers or telephone interviews/questionnaires. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) derived by Cox proportional-hazards regression were estimated for each cohort and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Intake of ≤ 1 servings/day of fruit and vegetables combined was associated with 39% higher hip fracture risk [pooled adjusted HR:1.39, 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs): 1.20, 1.58] in comparison to moderate intake (>3 and ≤5 servings/day) (pfor heterogeneity  = 0.505), whereas higher intakes (>5 servings/day) were not associated with lower risk in comparison to the same reference. Associations were more evident among women. We concluded that a daily intake of one or less servings of fruits and vegetables was associated with increased hip fracture risk in relation to moderate daily intakes. Older adults with such low fruit and vegetable consumption may benefit from raising their intakes to moderate amounts in order to reduce their hip fracture risk. 

  • 27. Berendsen, Agnes A M
    et al.
    Kang, Jae H
    van de Rest, Ondine
    Jankovic, Nicole
    Kampman, Ellen
    Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C
    Franco, Oscar H
    Ikram, M Arfan
    Pikhart, Hynek
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Brenner, Hermann
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Rafnsson, Snorri Bjorn
    Gustafson, Deborah
    Kyrozis, Andreas
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Feskens, Edith J M
    Grodstein, Francine
    de Groot, Lisette C P G M
    Association of Adherence to a Healthy Diet with Cognitive Decline in European and American Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Consortium2017Ingår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 43, nr 3-4, s. 215-227Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To examine the association between a healthy diet, assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and cognitive decline in older adults. METHODS: Data from 21,837 participants aged ≥55 years from 3 cohorts (Survey in Europe on Nutrition and the Elderly, a Concerted Action [SENECA], Rotterdam Study [RS], Nurses' Health Study [NHS]) were analyzed. HDI scores were based on intakes of saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, mono- and disaccharides, protein, cholesterol, fruits and vegetables, and fiber. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status in NHS and Mini-Mental State Examination in RS and SENECA were used to assess cognitive function from multiple repeated measures. Using multivariable-adjusted, mixed linear regression, mean differences in annual rates of cognitive decline by HDI quintiles were estimated. RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted differences in rates in the highest versus the lowest HDI quintile were 0.01 (95% CI -0.01, 0.02) in NHS, 0.00 (95% CI -0.02, 0.01) in RS, and 0.00 (95% CI -0.05, 0.05) in SENECA with a pooled estimate of 0.00 (95% CI -0.01, 0.01), I2 = 0%. CONCLUSIONS: A higher HDI score was not related to reduced rates of cognitive decline in European and American older adults.

  • 28.
    Berggren, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Talvia, S.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Rönnlund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    The lived experiences of school lunch: an empathy-based study with children in Sweden2019Ingår i: Children's Geographies, ISSN 1473-3285, E-ISSN 1473-3277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    School lunch is in general regulated through policies and agendas constituted by the perspectives of adults. In this article, we focus on children’s lived experiences of school lunch with a special emphasis on emotions and how they relate to social and physical dimensions. This study draws on empathy-based stories written by 10–11 year olds (n = 171) from schools in Sweden. We identified three themes: Interaction and exposure, Routines and restrictions and Food and eating. The children’s lived experiences of school lunch and the emotions attached to them are closely associated and intertwined with the socio-spatial dimension of school lunch. A pleasant meal experience seems to require harmonization between the physical and social space whilst negative experiences contain tensions between them, something that actors working with school lunch and school lunch environments should take in consideration when resourcing, planning and scheduling school lunch, and also when designing new school restaurants.

  • 29.
    Berggren, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Talvia, Sanna
    Child and Youth Research institute, Turku, Finland,.
    Fossgard, Eldbjørg
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergren, Norway,.
    Björk Arnfjörð, Unnur
    School of Education, University of Iceland.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Ólafsdóttir, Anna
    School of Education, University of Iceland.
    Gunnarsdóttir, Ingibjörg
    The National University Hospital of Iceland , Unit for Nutrition Research, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Wergedahl, Hege
    Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergren, Norway,.
    Lagström, Hanna
    University of Turku, Turku Institute of Child and Youth Research, Turku, Finland.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Olsson, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Perspectives about health outcomes related to food among Nordic children2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perspectives about health outcomes related to food among Nordic children

    Linda Berggren* 1, Sanna Talvia2, Eldbjørg Fossgard3, Unnur Björk Arnfjörð4, Agneta Hörnell 1, Anna Ólafsdóttir 4,Ingibjörg Gunnarsdóttir 5, Hege Wergedahl 3, Hanna Lagström 6, Maria Waling1, Cecilia Olsson1

    1Umeå University, Department of food and nutrition, Umeå, Sweden, 2Child and Youth Research institute, Turku, Finland,3Faculty of Education, Bergen University College, Bergren, Norway, 4School of Education, University of Iceland, 5TheNational University Hospital of Iceland , Unit for Nutrition Research, Reykjavik, Iceland, 6University of Turku, TurkuInstitute of Child and Youth Research, Turku, Finland

    Preferred presentation type: Only Poster

    Background and aims: Dietary intake in school has previously been studied but little is known about Nordic children’sperspectives on food healthiness in the school lunch context. This study aims to explore 10-year-old Nordic children’sperspectives on outcomes of healthy eating in the school lunch context.

    Methods: Seventy-two focus groups were conducted in Sweden, Finland, Norway and Iceland with a total of 423participants. A flexible topic guide and 14 preselected photos displaying different school lunch contexts were used asstimuli material. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis.

    Results: Children reasoned that school lunch are and should be healthy since the food eaten at school has short andlong term outcomes related to cognitive and physical health. It was commonly expressed that food eaten in school affectsschool work and functioning in learning activities. It was also stated that food eaten in school can have negative andpositive effects on your mood, e.g. eating unhealthy food or an insufficient amount of food, puts you in a bad mood whichcan affect the rest of the school day. The discussions mainly relied on negative short term effects such as feeling ill andreduced stamina. Some food and food groups such as vegetables, milk and fish, were mentioned in a more positivesense highlighting the positive short- and long term outcomes on health. When describing the long-term outcomes ofeating, children mentioned that healthy eating helps to build muscles, grow and prevent diseases, such as cancer anddiabetes. Sugar and fat was frequently mentioned as being the cause of overweight and some other diseases.

    Conclusion: In general, Nordic children have an adequate understanding of established relations between food andhealth. Yet, we know that many pupils do not eat according to recommendations. This highlights the importance of takingthe complexity of food choice into consideration in nutritional education.

    Disclosure of Interest: None to declare

  • 30.
    Bergh, Kurt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kostvetenskap.
    Kost, gener och träning är nyckeln till ökad prestation2005Ingår i: Svensk idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 4-9Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Kosten kan liksom fysisk aktivitet påverka våra gener. Gentranskriptionen påverkas olika beroende på kostens sammansättning och med rätt kunskap kan kosten öka den fysiska prestationsförmågan och göra återhämtningen mer effektiv.

  • 31.
    Berglund, Staffan K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik. EURISTIKOS Excellence Centre for Paediatric Research, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Torres-Espinola, Francisco J.
    Garcia-Valdes, Luz
    Teresa Segura, Ma
    Martinez-Zaldivar, Cristina
    Padilla, Carmen
    Rueda, Ricardo
    Petez Garcia, Miguel
    McArdle, Harry J.
    Campoy, Cristina
    The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring2017Ingår i: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 118, nr 7, s. 533-540Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Both maternal Fe deficiency (ID) and being overweight or obese (Ow/Ob, BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)) may negatively affect offspring brain development. However, the two risk factors correlate and their independent effects on infant neurodevelopment are unclear. PREOBE is a prospective observational study that included 331 pregnant Spanish women, of whom 166 had pre-gestational Ow/Ob. Fe status was analysed at 34 weeks and at delivery, and babies were assessed using Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment at 18 months. In confounder-adjusted analyses, maternal ID at 34 weeks was associated with lower composite motor scores at 18 months (mean 113.3 (SD 9.9) v. 117.1 (SD 9.2), P=0.039). Further, the offspring of mothers with ID at delivery had lower cognitive scores (114.0 (SD 9.7) v. 121.5 (SD 10.9), P = 0.039) and lower receptive, expressive and composite (99.5 (SD 8.6) v. 107.6 (SD 8.3), P= 0.004) language scores. The negative associations between maternal ID at delivery and Bayley scores remained even when adjusting for maternal Ow/Ob and gestational diabetes. Similarly, maternal Ow/Ob correlated with lower gross motor scores in the offspring (12.3 (SD 2.0) v. 13.0 (SD 2.1), P = 0.037), a correlation that remained when adjusting for maternal ID. In conclusion, maternal ID and pre-gestational Ow/Ob are both negatively associated with Bayley scores at 18 months, but independently and on different subscales. These results should be taken into account when considering Fe supplementation for pregnant women.

  • 32.
    Berglund, Staffan K
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Westrup, Björn
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Iron Supplementation Until 6 Months Protects Marginally Low-Birth-Weight Infants From Iron Deficiency During Their First Year of Life2015Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 390-395Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (<2500 g) have an increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) during their first 6 months of life. The optimal dose and duration of iron supplementation to LBW infants are, however, unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect on iron status and growth in marginally LBW (2000-2500 g) infants, of iron supplements given until 6 months of life. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 285 healthy marginally LBW infants received 0, 1, or 2 mg . kg(-1).day(-1) of iron supplements from 6 weeks to 6 months of age: At 12 months and 3.5 years of life we measured length, weight, head circumference, and indicators of iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and transferrin saturation) and assessed the prevalence of iron depletion, functional ID, and ID anemia. Results: At 12 months of age, there was a significant difference in ferritin between the groups (P = 0.00 6). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of iron depletion (23.7%, 10.6%, and 6.8%, respectively, in the placebo, 1-mg, and 2-mg groups, P = 0.009) and similar nonsignificant trends for functional ID and ID anemia. At 3.5 years of life there were no significant differences in iron status and the mean prevalence of iron depletion was 3.2%. Anthropometric data were not affected by the intervention. Conclusions: Iron supplements with 2 mg . kg(-1) . day(-1) until 6 months of life effectively reduces the risk of ID during the first 12 months of life and is an effective intervention for preventing early ID in marginally LBW infants.

  • 33. Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Marklund, Matti
    Olsen, Anja
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Plasma alkylresorcinols, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes in Scandinavian men and women2016Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, nr 1, s. 88-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies that use dietary biomarkers to investigate the association between whole-grain intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) are lacking. Objective: We examined the association between plasma total alkylresorcinols and the alkylresorcinol C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, biomarkers of whole-grain wheat and rye intake and relative whole grain rye over whole-grain wheat intake, respectively, and the risk of T2D among Scandinavian men and women. Design: A nested case-control study was established within the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Alkylresorcinol concentrations and the ratios of C17:0 to C21:0 were determined in plasma samples from 931 case-control pairs. ORs for T2D were calculated for plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration or C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio in quartiles with the use of conditional logistic regression that was adjusted for potential confounders. Additional analyses with whole-grain wheat and rye intake estimated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) as exposures were also performed. Results: The plasma total alkylresorcinol concentration was not associated with T2D risk (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.88) for the highest compared with the lowest quartiles in multivariable adjusted models. However, the C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio was associated with a lower diabetes risk (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.78). Analyses with whole-grain intake estimated from FFQs yielded similar results. Conclusions: Total whole-grain wheat and rye intake, reflected by alkylresorcinols in plasma, was not associated with a lower risk of T2D in a population with high whole-grain intake. In contrast, the proportion of whole-grain rye to whole-grain wheat intake, indicated by the plasma C17:0-to-C21:0 ratio, was inversely associated with T2D. This suggests that whole-grain intake dominated by rye may be favorable for T2D prevention.

  • 34. Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Marklund, Matti
    Olsen, Anja
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Reply to A Abbasi2016Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, nr 6, s. 1725-1726Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35. Biskup, Izabela
    et al.
    Kyrø, Cecilie
    Marklund, Matti
    Olsen, Anja
    van Dam, Rob M.
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Landberg, Rikard
    Reply to J-B Qin et al2016Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 104, nr 6, s. 1723-1724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36. Bisschop, Charlotte N. Steins
    et al.
    van Gils, Carla H.
    Emaus, Marleen J.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Monninkhof, Evelyn M.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Aleksandrova, Krasmira
    Jenab, Mazda
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Boutron-Rualt, Marie-Christine
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Racine, Antoine
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Vicente Argueeles, Marcial
    Jose Sanchez, Maria
    Jose Tormo, Maria
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Bonet, Catalina
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Key, Tim
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Orfanos, Philippos
    Naska, Androniki
    Kaaks, Rudolph R.
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Pischon, Tobias
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Overvad, Kim
    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Braaten, Tonje
    Siersema, Peter D.
    Freisling, Heinz
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    May, Anne M.
    Weight change later in life and colon and rectal cancer risk in participants in the EPIC-PANACEA study2014Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 99, nr 1, s. 139-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A moderate association exists between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer. Less is known about the effect of weight change. Objective: We investigated the relation between BMI and weight change and subsequent colon and rectal cancer risk. Design: This was studied among 328,781 participants in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating study (mean age: 50 y). Body weight was assessed at recruitment and on average 5 y later. Self-reported weight change (kg/y) was categorized in sex-specific quintiles, with quintiles 2 and 3 combined as the reference category (men: -0.6 to 0.3 kg/y; women: -0.4 to 0.4 kg/y). In the subsequent years, participants were followed for the occurrence of colon and rectal cancer (median period: 6.8 y). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to study the association. Results: A total of 1261 incident colon cancer and 747 rectal cancer cases were identified. ME at recruitment was statistically significantly associated with colon cancer risk in men (HR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07). Moderate weight gain (quintile 4) in men increased risk further (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.68), but this relation did not show a clear trend. In women, BMI or weight gain was not related to subsequent risk of colon cancer. No statistically significant associations for weight loss and colon cancer or for BMI and weight changes and rectal cancer were found. Conclusions: BMI attained at adulthood was associated with colon cancer risk. Subsequent weight gain or loss was not related to colon or rectal cancer risk in men or women.

  • 37. Blain, H.
    et al.
    Masud, T.
    Dargent-Molina, P.
    Martin, F. C.
    Rosendahl, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    van der Velde, N.
    Bousquet, J.
    Benetos, A.
    Cooper, C.
    Kanis, J. A.
    Reginster, J. Y.
    Rizzoli, R.
    Cortet, B.
    Barbagallo, M.
    Dreinhofer, K. E.
    Vellas, B.
    Maggi, S.
    Strandberg, T.
    A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement2016Ingår i: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, ISSN 1279-7707, E-ISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 647-652Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  • 38.
    Blomquist, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Alvehus, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Christel
    Department of Food and Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mellberg, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Söderström, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity2017Ingår i: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, E-ISSN 1930-739X, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 892-900Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed.

    METHODS: Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters.

    RESULTS: Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P < 0.001) on adipose gene expression were found for toll-like receptor 4 (decreased at 24 months) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (increased at 24 months) in both groups. Serum interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α levels were decreased at 24 months in both groups (P < 0.001) with a significant diet-by-time interaction for serum IL-6 (P = 0.022). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was decreased in the PD group at 24 months (P = 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: A reduction of abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression.

  • 39.
    Blomquist, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Mellberg, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Worrsjö, Evelina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Fysiologisk kemi.
    Makoveichuk, Elena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Fysiologisk kemi.
    Larsson, Christel
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olivecrona, Gunilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Fysiologisk kemi.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Decreased lipogenesis-promoting factors in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with overweight on a Paleolithic-type diet2018Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 1436-6207, E-ISSN 1436-6215, Vol. 57, nr 8, s. 2877-2886Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We studied effects of diet-induced postmenopausal weight loss on gene expression and activity of proteins involved in lipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

    Methods: Fifty-eight postmenopausal women with overweight (BMI 32.5 ± 5.5) were randomized to eat an ad libitum Paleolithic-type diet (PD) aiming for a high intake of protein and unsaturated fatty acids or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Anthropometry, plasma adipokines, gene expression of proteins involved in fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and mass in SAT were measured at baseline and after 6 months. LPL mass and activity were also measured after 24 months.

    Results: The PD led to improved insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01) and decreased circulating triglycerides (P < 0.001), lipogenesis-related factors, including LPL mRNA (P < 0.05), mass (P < 0.01), and activity (P < 0.001); as well as gene expressions of CD36 (P < 0.05), fatty acid synthase, FAS (P < 0.001) and diglyceride acyltransferase 2, DGAT2 (P < 0.001). The LPL activity (P < 0.05) and gene expression of DGAT2 (P < 0.05) and FAS (P < 0.05) were significantly lowered in the PD group versus the CD group at 6 months and the LPL activity (P < 0.05) remained significantly lowered in the PD group compared to the CD group at 24 months.

    Conclusions: Compared to the CD, the PD led to a more pronounced reduction of lipogenesis-promoting factors in SAT among postmenopausal women with overweight. This could have mediated the favorable metabolic effects of the PD on triglyceride levels and insulin sensitivity.

  • 40.
    Bodén, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Van Guelpen, Bethany
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Shivappa, Nitin
    Hebert, James R
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Dietary inflammatory index and risk of first myocardial infarction: a prospective population-based study2017Ingår i: Nutrition Journal, ISSN 1475-2891, E-ISSN 1475-2891, Vol. 16, artikel-id 21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic, low-grade inflammation is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The inflammatory impact of diet can be reflected by concentrations of inflammatory markers in the bloodstream and the inflammatory potential of diet can be estimated by the dietary inflammatory index (DII(TM)), which has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk in some previous studies. We aimed to examine the association between the DII and the risk of first myocardial infarction (MI) in a population-based study with long follow-up.

    METHOD: We conducted a prospective case-control study of 1389 verified cases of first MI and 5555 matched controls nested within the population-based cohorts of the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS), of which the largest is the ongoing Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) with nearly 100 000 participants during the study period. Median follow-up from recruitment to MI diagnosis was 6.4 years (6.2 for men and 7.2 for women). DII scores were derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered in 1986-2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using quartile 1 (most anti-inflammatory diet) as the reference category. For validation, general linear models were used to estimate the association between the DII scores and two inflammatory markers, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in a subset (n = 605) of the study population.

    RESULTS: Male participants with the most pro-inflammatory DII scores had an increased risk of MI [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.57 (95% CI 1.21-2.02) P trend = 0.02], which was essentially unchanged after adjustment for potential confounders, including cardiovascular risk factors [ORQ4vsQ1 = 1.50 (95% CI 1.14-1.99), P trend = 0.10]. No association was found between DII and MI in women. An increase of one DII score unit was associated with 9% higher hsCRP (95% CI 0.03-0.14) and 6% higher IL-6 (95% CI 0.02-0.11) in 605 controls with biomarker data available.

    CONCLUSION: A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with an elevated risk of first myocardial infarction in men; whereas for women the relationship was null. Consideration of the inflammatory impact of diet could improve prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  • 41.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Vasa Faculty of Education, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    "He just has to like ham": the centrality of meat in home and consumer studies2015Ingår i: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 95, s. 101-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to describe Discourses on meat in the school subject Home and Consumer Studies in five different northern Swedish schools. Fifty-nine students and five teachers from five different schools were recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons. Results indicate that meat was seen as central to nutritional health, sensory experience, culture and social relationships. This positive view was challenged by an alternative Discourse where meat was threatening to health, sensory experience and psychological comfort, but this was not strong enough to affect centrality. Even when participants sought to promote the health advantages of reducing meat consumption, the dominant centrality Discourse was strengthened. This implies that the possible tension between physical and psychosocial/emotional health can make the benefits of a reduction difficult both to convey and accept. A form of critical food literacy may help teachers deconstruct the arbitrary power of the centrality Discourse, but it may also strengthen meat-eater identities because the social norms that guide food choice become salient. A redesign of Discourses might facilitate a reduction in meat consumption, but such a paradigm shift is dependent on the development of society as a whole, and can only be briefly touched upon within the limited timeframes and resources of Home and Consumer Studies.

  • 42.
    Bohm, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Lindblom, Cecilia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Åbacka, Gun
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    'Don't give us an assignment where we have to use spinach!': food choice and discourse in home and consumer studies2016Ingår i: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 57-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe classroom Discourses about vegetables during the planning, cooking, eating and evaluation of meals in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Fifty-nine students and five teachers were recruited from five northern Swedish villages and towns, and then observed, recorded and in some cases video-taped during lessons that took place between 2010 and 2012. Based on 56 instances of talk about vegetables, four Discourses were identified and related to the three aspects of Belasco's culinary triangle of contradictions: identity, responsibility and convenience. The results indicated that the identity-based sensory and cultural Discourses sometimes clashed with the more responsibility-oriented health and evaluation Discourses. The health Discourse was only used when there was an element of evaluation, with assignments connected to grades. In all other cases, the sensory and cultural Discourses guided vegetable use. Sometimes different sensory or cultural assumptions could clash with each other, for example when the teacher insisted on the use of a specific recipe regardless of a student's taste preferences. Since these preferences did not always harmonize with curricular demands for responsibility, there might be a risk of basing grades on aspects of students' identity. Alternatively, students might feel constrained to argue against their own identity in order to be favourably evaluated. Then again, if teachers always bow to student tastes, this limits their chances of learning about food and physical health. Viewing the dilemma through the lens of the culinary triangle of contradictions may help teachers and researchers develop teaching methods that take all aspects of food choice into account.

  • 43.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Göteborgs Universitet.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Diet-Induced Weight Loss alters Functional Brain Responses during an Episodic Memory Task2015Ingår i: Obesity Facts, ISSN 1662-4025, E-ISSN 1662-4033, Vol. 8, s. 261-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: It has been suggested that overweight is negatively associated with cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a reduction in body weight by dietary interventions could improve episodic memory performance and alter associated functional brain responses in overweight and obese women. Methods: 20 overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to either a modified paleolithic diet or a standard diet adhering to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations for 6 months. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function during an episodic memory task as well as anthropometric and biochemical data before and after the interventions. Results: Episodic memory performance improved significantly (p = 0.010) after the dietary interventions. Concomitantly, brain activity increased in the anterior part of the right hippocampus during memory encoding, without differences between diets. This was associated with decreased levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Brain activity increased in pre-frontal cortex and superior/middle temporal gyri. The magnitude of increase correlated with waist circumference reduction. During episodic retrieval, brain activity decreased in inferior and middle frontal gyri, and increased in middle/superior temporal gyri. Conclusions: Diet-induced weight loss, associated with decreased levels of plasma FFA, improves episodic memory linked to increased hippocampal activity.

  • 44. Bozorgmanesh, Mohammad Reza
    et al.
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Mehrabi, Yadollah
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Temporal Changes in Anthropometric Parametersand Lipid Profile according to Body Mass Indexamong an Adult Iranian Urban Population2008Ingår i: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 53, s. 13-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine changes in anthropometric parametersand lipid profiles over a period of 3.6 years in an Iranian adultpopulation according to body mass index (BMI) groups.Methods: Between 1998 and 2001 (phase 1) and 2002 and2005 (phase 2), 5,618 nondiabetic Iranian adults aged 6 20years were examined. Analysis of covariance was used to delineatetrends in anthropometric parameters as well as totaland low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC, LDL-Cand HDL-C, respectively) across BMI groups. Results: AlthoughBMI increased in women, this increase was not significantin obese persons. Among the men, however, a significantincrease in BMI was observed only in lean persons.Waist circumference (WC) increased across all BMI groupsin both sexes. A significant decrease was observed in TC[men: –0.83 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval (CI) –1.27 to–0.40; women: –0.78 mmol/l, CI –0.97 to –0.60] and LDL-C(men: –0.63 mmol/l, CI –1.13 to –0.13; women: –0.51 mmol/l,CI –0.78 to –0.24). A significant decrease in mean HDL-Cwas observed only among men (–0.09 mmol/l, CI –0.13to –0.04), with no difference among BMI groups (p = 0.3).There were no significant decreases in TC/HDL-C and LDLC/HDL-C ratios in men or women. Conclusions: Despite an 

    increase in WC, favorable trends were observed in TC andLDL-C levels. The favorable trend in TC levels was counterbalancedby changes in HDL-C, as reflected by the absence of asignificant decrease in TC/HDL-C or LDL-C/HDL-C

  • 45. Braem, Marieke G. M.
    et al.
    Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte
    Schouten, Leo J.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Hansen, Louise
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Overvad, Kim
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Dossus, Laure
    Floegel, Anna
    Boeing, Heiner
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Benetou, Vassiliki
    Goufa, Ioulia
    Pala, Valeria
    Galasso, Rocco
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Palli, Domenico
    Tumino, Rosario
    Gram, Inger T.
    Lund, Eiliv
    Gavrilyuk, Oxana
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Quiros, Ramon
    Gonzales, Carlos A.
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Huerta Castano, Jose M.
    Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio
    Idahl, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Ohlson, Nina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Jirstrom, Karin
    Witfalt, Elisabet
    Allen, Naomi E.
    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.
    Kaw, Kay-Tee
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Dik, Vincent K.
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Norat, Teresa
    Riboli, Elio
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of ovarian cancer: a prospective cohort study and updated meta-analysis2012Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 95, nr 5, s. 1172-1181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund Report concluded that there was limited and inconsistent evidence for an effect of coffee and tea consumption on the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Objective: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we aimed to investigate whether coffee intakes, tea intakes, or both are associated with the risk of EOC. Design: All women participating in the EPIC (n = 330,849) were included in this study. Data on coffee and tea consumption were collected through validated food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. Furthermore, we performed an updated meta-analysis of all previous prospective studies until April 2011 by comparing the highest and lowest coffee- and tea-consumption categories as well as by using dose-response random-effects meta-regression analyses. Results: During a median follow-up of 11.7 y, 1244 women developed EOC. No association was observed between the risk of EOC and coffee consumption [HR: 1.05 (95% CI: 0.75, 1.46) for the top quintile compared with no intake] or tea consumption [HR: 1.07 (95% Cl: 0.78, 1.45) for the top quintile compared with no intake]. This lack of association between coffee and tea intake and EOC risk was confirmed by the results of our meta-analysis. Conclusion: Epidemiologic studies do not provide sufficient evidence to support an association between coffee and tea consumption and risk of ovarian cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:1172-81.

  • 46. Breimer, Lars H
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Departments of Laboratory Medicine, Örebro University Hospital; Departments of Clinical Medicine & Biomedicine, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University.
    Has folate a role in the developing nervous system after birth and not just during embryogenesis and gestation?2012Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, ISSN 0036-5513, E-ISSN 1502-7686, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 185-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now 30 years since the first publications stating that supplementation with folate could prevent neural tube defects appeared and 20 years since the definitive data, including prevention of other birth defects. Since then epidemiological studies and animal experiments have identified folate as a molecule at the crossroads of neural development. Fortification of food has greatly reduced the incidence of spina bifida. Much interest has focussed on long-term sequelae in children born to mothers severely deprived of folate (and other nutrients) such as during the Dutch Hunger Winter of 1944 and in poor parts of the world. In addition, deficiency in folate and B12 are increasingly discussed as a possible contributing factor in dementia and congenital orofacial and heart malformations. The year 2011 saw the publication of a study that implicated low folate intake in poorer school performance of adolescents as judged by school marks. This has enormous social implications but needs confirmation from other settings. This review assesses the current state of evidence and sets the data in context of whether folate has a role in the development and plasticity of the nervous system even after birth, with particular emphasis on childhood and adolescence.

  • 47. Bronsky, J.
    et al.
    Campoy, C.
    Braegger, C.
    Braegger, Christian
    Bronsky, Jiri
    Cai, Wei
    Campoy, Cristina
    Carnielli, Virgilio
    Darmaun, Dominique
    Decsi, Tamas
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Embleton, Nicholas
    Fewtrell, Mary
    Fidler Mis, Natasa
    Franz, Axel
    Goulet, Olivier
    Hartman, Corina
    Hill, Susan
    Hojsak, Iva
    Iacobelli, Silvia
    Jochum, Frank
    Joosten, Koen
    Kolacek, Sanja
    Koletzko, Berthold
    Ksiazyk, Janusz
    Lapillonne, Alexandre
    Lohner, Szimonetta
    Mesuiten, Dieter
    Mihalyi, Krisztina
    Mihatsch, Walter A.
    Mimouni, Francis
    Molgaard, Christian
    Moltu, Sissel J.
    Nomayo, Antonia
    Picaud, Jean Charles
    Prell, Christine
    John, Puntis
    Arieh, Riskin
    Saenz De Pipaon, Miguel
    Senterre, Thibault
    Shamir, Raanan
    Simchowitz, Venetia
    Szitanyi, Peter
    Tabbers, Merit M.
    Van Den Akker, Chris H. B.
    Van Goudoever, Johannes B.
    Van Kempen, Anne
    Ver-Bruggen, Sascha
    Wu, Jiang
    Weihui, Yan
    ESPGHAN/ESPEN/ESPR/CSPEN guidelines on pediatric parenteral nutrition: Vitamins2018Ingår i: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 2366-2378Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48. Bronsky, Jiri
    et al.
    Campoy, Cristina
    Embleton, Nicholas
    Fewtrell, Mary
    Mis, Nataša Fidler
    Gerasimidis, Konstantinos
    Hojsak, Iva
    Hulst, Jessie
    Indrio, Flavia
    Lapillonne, Alexandre
    Molgaard, Christian
    Moltu, Sissel Jennifer
    Verduci, Elvira
    Vora, Rakesh
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Palm Oil and Beta-palmitate in Infant Formula: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition2019Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 68, nr 5, s. 742-760Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Palm oil (PO) is used in infant formulas in order to achieve palmitic acid (PA) levels similar to those in human milk. PA in PO is esterified predominantly at the SN-1,3 position of triacylglycerol (TAG), and infant formulas are now available in which a greater proportion of PA is in the SN-2 position (typical configuration in human milk). As there are some concerns about the use of PO, we aimed to review literature on health effects of PO and SN-2-palmitate in infant formulas. Methods: PubMed and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were systematically searched for relevant studies on possible beneficial effects or harms of either PO or SN-2-palmitate in infant formula on various health outcomes. Results: We identified 12 relevant studies using PO and 21 studies using SN-2-palmitate. Published studies have variable methodology, subject characteristics, and some are underpowered for the key outcomes. PO is associated with harder stools and SN-2-palmitate use may lead to softer stool consistency. Bone effects seem to be short-lasting. For some outcomes (infant colic, faecal microbiota, lipid metabolism), the number of studies is very limited and summary evidence inconclusive. Growth of infants is not influenced. There are no studies published on the effect on markers of later diseases. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to suggest that PO should be avoided as a source of fat in infant formulas for health reasons. Inclusion of high SN-2-palmitate fat blend in infant formulas may have short-term effects on stool consistency but cannot be considered essential.

  • 49. Bruck, Wolfram M
    et al.
    Redgrave, Michele
    Tuohy, Kieran M
    Lönnerdal, Bo
    Graverholt, Gitte
    Hernell, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Gibson, Glenn R
    Effects of bovine alpha-lactalbumin and casein glycomacropeptide-enriched infant formulae on faecal microbiota in healthy term infants2006Ingår i: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 43, nr 5, s. 673-679Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Certain milk factors may promote the growth of a host-friendly gastrointestinal microbiota, for example, one that is predominated by bifidobacteria, a perceived healthpromoting genus. This may explain why breast-fed infants experience fewer intestinal infections than their formula-fed counterparts who are believed to have a more diverse microbiota, which is similar to that of adults. The effects of formulas supplemented with 2 such ingredients from bovine milk, a-lactalbumin (alpha-lac) and casein glycomacropeptide (GMP), on gut flora were investigated in this study.

    Patients and Methods: Six-week-old (4-8 wk), healthy term infants were randomised to a standard infant formula or 1 of 2 test formulae enriched in alpha-Jac with higher or lower GMP until 6 months. Faecal bacteriology was determined by the culture-independent procedure fluorescence in situ hybridisation.

    Results: There was a large fluctuation of bacterial counts within groups with no statistically significant differences between groups. Although all groups showed a. predominance of bifidobacteria, breast-fed infants had a small temporary increase in counts. Other bacterial levels varied in formula-fed groups, which overall showed an adult-like faecal microflora.

    Conclusions: It can be speculated that a prebiotic effect for alpha-lac and GMP is achieved only with low starting populations of beneficial microbiota (eg, infants not initially breast-fed).

  • 50.
    Brugård Konde, Åsa
    et al.
    Livsmedelsverket.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap.
    Mat för spädbarn 0-1 år2012Ingår i: Barnläkaren, ISSN 1651-0534, nr 5, s. 6-8Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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