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  • 1. Aid, T.
    et al.
    Hyvarinen, S.
    Vaher, M.
    Koel, M.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Saccharification of lignocellulosic biomasses via ionic liquid pretreatment2016Ingår i: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 92, s. 336-341Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work focuses on the pretreatment efficiency of ILs combined with heat for woody biomass consisting of spruce, birch and pine as well as winter wheat straw. The latter was investigated as a comparison and with the aim to enhance its digestibility during enzymatic hydrolysis whereby the influence of IL-treatment to cellulose resistance for hydrolysis was investigated. Considering the wood species, the most common and industrially important wood species in Northern Europe were chosen in the present work and the goal was to obtain fermentable sugars and their degradation product, i.e. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), which is known valuable platform chemical. Further, the differences in the yields of IL-obtainable carbohydrates between these species were studied. The highest sugar yields were obtained to glucose in the case of spruce and arabinose in the case of pine sapwood, 12.07 and 7.72 mmol/L, respectively. The highest 5-HMF yield was obtained for spruce heartwood (9.18 mmol/L) with longer treatment time, such as 100h. However, regarding woody biomass, the present work was focused more on the study and analysis of the IL-containing liquid part, wood hydrolysate, after IL-treatment aiming to answer the analysis challenges related to this fraction.

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kauneliene, Violeta
    Cicenaite, Aurelija
    Jegorova, Ilona
    Katkeviciute, Jolita
    Tentative levels of pops in Lithuanian environment2005Ingår i: Environment, technology, resources: proceedings of the 5th International Scientific and Practical Conference on Environment, Technology and Resources, JUN 16-18, 2005 / [ed] Noviks, G, Rezekne: Rezekne higher education institution - Rezeknes Augstskola , 2005, s. 172-178Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from POPs. In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment. This study was done in order to evaluate tentative POPs levels in Lithuania. Limited amount of PAHs and PCBs were analyzed in Siauliai air, in two biggest Lithuanian rivers - Nemunas and Neris, and in one of the biggest waste landfill in Lapes. Sampling was done using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The same procedure of sampling and analyses was used to ensure data comparability. In general, POPs pollution levels were compared with results from other studies.

  • 3.
    Erhagen, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, S-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Ilstedt, Ulrik
    Nilsson, Mats B.
    Temperature sensitivity of heterotrophic soil CO2 production increases with increasing carbon substrate uptake rate2015Ingår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 80, s. 45-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature profoundly affects saprotrophic respiration rates, and carbon quality theory predicts that the rates' temperature Sensitivity should increase as the quality of the carbon source declines. However, reported relationships between saprotrophic respiration responses to temperature and carbon quality vary widely. Some of this variability may arise from confounding effects related to both substrate quality and substrate availability. The importance of these variables, as well as substrate diffusion and uptake rates, for the temperature sensitivity of saprotrophic respiration has been validated theoretically, but not empirically demonstrated. Thus, we tested effects of varying substrate uptake rates on the temperature sensitivity of organic carbon degradation. For this purpose we created a model system using the organic layer (O-horizon), of a boreal forest soil, specifically to test effects of varying monomer uptake and release rates. The addition of both monomers and polymers generally increased the temperature sensitivity of saprotrophic respiration. In response to added monomers, there was a linear increase in the temperature sensitivity of both substrate-induced respiration and the specific growth rate with increasing rate of substrate uptake as indicated by the CO2 production at 14 degrees C. Both of these responses diverge from those predicted by the carbon quality theory, but they provide the first empirical evidence consistent with model predictions demonstrating increased temperature sensitivity with increased uptake rate of carbon monomers over the cell membrane. These results may explain why organic material of higher carbon quality induces higher temperature responses than lower carbon quality compounds, without contradicting carbon quality theory. 

  • 4.
    Fazlhashemi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Österberg, EvaHistoriska institutionen vid Lunds universitet.
    Omodernt: Människor och tankar i förmodern tid2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan vi idag ha något att lära av de klassiska, medeltida och tidigmoderna kulturerna? Många skulle svara ja på den frågan, men det finns också de som skulle beskriva det förmoderna som irrationellt, traditionsbundet, kollektivistiskt och framför allt otidsenligt.

    Att behålla kontakten med det förmoderna behöver inte betyda att man bekräftar ett "arv" från det förflutna eller ägnar sig åt återbruk av äldre tiders idéer. Bättre är att omvandla, utveckla eller avveckla tidigare tankar eller kritik kring sociala och estetiska mönster. I antologin Omodernt - Människor och tankar i förmodern tid medverkar elva forskare som representerar en rad humanistiska discipliner. Deras texter berättar på mångfacetterade sätt om idéer och föreställningar, språk och texter från antiken till 1600-talet som är relevanta än idag. De argumenterar för vikten av kunskap om de perioder som ligger före vår moderna tid och ger konkreta exempel på forskning i den andan.

    Det viktiga är att uppmuntra kommunikation över seklen, viljan att vidga sina egna associationer kring mänskligt handlande, att fördjupa sina insikter om hur människor i historien försökt att hantera sin existentiella och samhälleliga situation. Genom sådana perspektivbyten kan vi i bästa fall få klargörande idéer även om vår egen tid.

  • 5. Ferro-Vazquez, C.
    et al.
    Novoa-Munoz, J. C.
    Costa-Casais, M.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Martinez-Cortizas, A.
    Metal and organic matter immobilization in temperate podzols: a high resolution study2014Ingår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 217, s. 225-234Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aluminium and Fe fractions were obtained in samples from two temperate podzols by selective extraction with NaOH (Al-n, Fe-n), Na-dithionite-citrate (Al-d, Fe-d), acid NH4-oxalate (Al-o, Fe-o) and Na-pyrophosphate (Al-p, Fe-p) following the traditional fractionation procedures, and also by the use of the chlorides of K (Al-K), La (Al-La) and Cu (Al-cu) as non-buffered extractants for Al. Carbon content was also determined in the Na-pyrophosphate extract (C-p). Soil sampling was done at high-resolution to allow a more detailed characterization of the vertical processes than the traditional sampling by whole soil horizons. Results showed that Al-p and Fe-p make a large proportion of the Alo and Fe-o meaning that organoaluminic complexes dominated in the "active" metal pool instead of inorganic compounds. The degree of metal saturation of soil organic matter (estimated by the (Al-p Fe-p)/C-p molar ratios) increases with depth, especially in the uppermost samples of spodic horizons (Bhs1) where it increases up to 0.1. Aluminium dominates in the adsorption positions of the organic matter in the spodic horizon (Fe-p/Al-p ratios <0.5), except in the Bhs1 horizon (ratios > 1), indicating that the immobilization of Fe containing complexes occurs 10-15 cm above that of Al The highly stable Al-OM complexes accounted on average for 60% of the organoaluminic associations (>70% in the Bhs horizons). The moderately stable complexes predominate in A horizons (57-77% in ACB1 and 37-48% in ACB2) and the largest proportions of low stability complexes were found in the uppermost samples of the spodic horizons (Bhs1) of both soils (9-21%), together with the highest Fep contents and a decrease in pH values. From a stepwise multiple regression model it is suggested that pH is the main variable accounting for the stability of Al-OM compounds together with C and organically bound Fe contents. It is suggested that the illuviation of unsaturated organic acids lower the pH in upper spodic horizons, leading to the complexation of metals from formerly precipitated organometallic complexes and/or leading to their redissolution, enabling their migration to deeper soil layers. Iron complexes would be less soluble at soil pH, resulting in a differentiation of an upper Fe-rich Bhs1 horizon and a lower Bhs2 Al-rich horizon. The depth variation in C accumulation was found to be related to the proportion of highly stable Al-OM fraction.

  • 6. Hund, Andreas
    et al.
    Richner, Walter
    Soldati, Alberto
    van Fracheboud, Yvan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Stamp, Peter
    Root morphology and photosynthetic performance of maize inbred lines at low temperature2007Ingår i: European Journal of Agronomy, ISSN 1161-0301, E-ISSN 1873-7331, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 52-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    At low temperature, as occurs in the spring, a high photosynthetic performance of maize (Zea mays L.) in combination with a large leaf area is an important measure for early vigor. However, little is known about adaptation of root morphology to low-temperature conditions. The objectives were (i) to characterize a set of 21 modern inbred lines for photosynthesis-related traits and root morphology at 15/13 degrees C (day/night) and (ii) elucidate relationships between shoot and root traits. Plants were grown in sand substrate until the two-leaf (V2) stage; the operating efficiency of photosystem II (phi(PSII)), chlorophyll content (SPAD), and leaf area were used to estimate the rate of CO2 assimilation per plant ((A) over cap (p)). The genotypes were separated as follows: those that maximize leaf area and those that maximize phi(PSII). The morphological organization of the root systems of the genotypes varied to a great extent. Using a principal component analysis (PCA) of root traits (i.e. length of the primary, seminal, and crown roots), genotypes with homogeneous (similar primary and seminal roots) and heterogeneous (lateral roots of the primary root generally longer than the lateral roots of the seminal roots) root systems were identified. The length of the primary lateral roots was most closely associated with all (A) over cap (p)-related traits and with high plant dry weight. Therefore, most of the genotypes with an heterogeneous root system outperformed those with an homogeneous root system with regard to dry matter accumulation and photosynthetic performance. In conclusion, differences in the organization of the embryonic root system are associated with early vigor.

  • 7.
    Josefsson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden ; Institute for Subarctic Landscape Research, Arjeplog, Sweden .
    Ramqvist, Per H
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier. nstitute for Subarctic Landscape Research, Arjeplog, Sweden.
    Hörnberg, Greger
    nstitute for Subarctic Landscape Research, Arjeplog, Sweden.
    The history of early cereal cultivation in northernmost Fennoscandia as indicated by palynological research2014Ingår i: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 23, nr 6, s. 821-840Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The age of the introduction of cereal cultivation in northern Europe has long been debated by researchers from many disciplines, in particular archaeology and palaeoecology. Over the past 40 years extensive palynological data have been collected concerning pre-industrial land use in northern Fennoscandia. This paper reviews palynological studies that include records of fossil cereal pollen from northernmost Sweden, Finland and Norway at latitudes north of 63A degrees N. The geographical extent of known early cultivation sites is constantly expanding, with more than 100 records of cereal pollen pre-dating ad 1700. The oldest records of scattered cereal pollen derive from Neolithic times. Periods of continuous cultivation, indicated by cereal pollen recorded recurrently in the sediment profiles, derive from the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age. Collectively, the reviewed pollen records indicate that cereal cultivation was first introduced into areas close to the coast and later to the interior, and that it may have been practiced locally long before sedentary settlements based on intensive cultivation were established during medieval times. The data do not indicate a latitudinal spread of cultivation from south to north. However, methodological problems relating to pollen morphology of cereals, site characteristics and lack of connections to archaeologically excavated sites imply that the value of many early cereal pollen finds remains unclear. To increase our understanding of the context in which cereal cultivation was introduced in northernmost Fennoscandia, multidisciplinary studies integrating palaeoecology, archaeology and history are needed.

  • 8.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Neutrality and national preparedness: State-led agricultural rationalizations in cold war Sweden2010Ingår i: Science for welfare amd warfare: Technology and state initiative in cold war Sweden / [ed] Per Lundin, Niklas Stenlås and Johan Gribbe, Sagamore Beach/USA: Science History Publications , 2010, First, s. 173-193Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Jörgensen, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Restitution och jordbruksförändring: Ägande och marknad i de självständiga baltiska staterna i ljuset av 1900-talsutvecklingen, med tonvikt på fallet Estland2000Ingår i: Öster om Östersjön: Ägande och marknad i de självständiga baltiska staterna i ljuset av 1900-talsutvecklingen, med tonvikt på fallet Estland. / [ed] Göran Hoppe, Stockholm: Svenska Sälllskapet för Antropologi och Geografi , 2000, s. 144-162Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 10.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Running amuck? Urban swine management in late medieval England2013Ingår i: Agricultural History, ISSN 0002-1482, E-ISSN 1533-8290, Vol. 87, nr 4, s. 429-451Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swine as agricultural products were extremely common in the medieval townscape, but pigs are also notoriously damaging if allowed to run amuck This article explores how local governments tried to regulate pig rearing as an integrated element in urban space, arguing that the authorities attempted to control the movement, feeding, and slaughter of swine as much as possible to circumvent damage to goods, crops, and even people. Urban government and court records from the most populous English urban centers as well as smaller towns from the end of the thirteenth century through the sixteenth century show that swine were not free roamers in towns of the Middle Ages. Because swine were a daily part of urban life, and an integral part of local agricultural production, they required cradle-to-grave controls.

  • 11. Kang, Jinho
    et al.
    Choi, Moon-Young
    Kang, Sunmi
    Kwon, Hyuk Nam
    Wen, He
    Lee, Chang Hoon
    Park, Minseok
    Wiklund, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kim, Hyo Jin
    Kwon, Sung Won
    Park, Sunghyouk
    Application of a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach combined with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis as an efficient tool for discriminating between Korean and Chinese herbal medicines2008Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, nr 24, s. 11589-11595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Correct identification of the origins of herbal medical products is becoming increasingly important in tandem with the growing interest in alternative medicine. However, visual inspection of raw material is still the most widely used method, and newer scientific approaches are needed. To develop a more objective and efficient tool for discriminating herbal origins, particularly Korean and Chinese, we employed a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach combined with an orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) multivariate analysis. We first analyzed the constituent metabolites of Scutellaria baicalensis through NMR studies. Subsequent holistic data analysis with OPLS-DA yielded a statistical model that could cleanly discriminate between the sample groups even in the presence of large structured noise. An analysis of the statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) spectrum identified citric acid and arginine as the key discriminating metabolites for Korean and Chinese samples. As a validation of the discrimination model, we performed blind prediction tests of sample origins using an external test set. Our model correctly predicted the origins of all of the 11 test samples, demonstrating its robustness. We tested the wider applicability of the developed method with three additional herbal medicines from Korea and China and obtained very high prediction accuracy. The solid discriminatory power and statistical validity of our method suggest its general applicability for determining the origins of herbal medicines.

  • 12.
    Liljenäs, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten.
    Allmänningsskogarna i Norrbottens län: deras betydelse för det enskilda jord- och skogsbruket1977Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Makoto, Kobayashi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hirobe, Muneto
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Bryanin, Semyon V.
    Procopchuk, Valentina F.
    Koike, Takayoshi
    Effects of fire-derived charcoal on soil properties and seedling regeneration in a recently burned Larix gmelinii/Pinus sylvestris forest2011Ingår i: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 11, nr 8, s. 1317-1322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Fire is a primary form of disturbance in boreal ecosystems. Charcoal is an important by-product of forest fire and has been reported to have the potential to influence the plant community establishing after fire. To date, however, no study has effectively tested the relationship between charcoal and plant regeneration in the actual post-fire forests. To determine the contribution of charcoal to soil properties and plant regeneration after forest fires, we conducted in situ investigations concerning the relationship between charcoal and the plant-soil system.

    Materials and methods: We conducted a field investigation in a recently burnt Gmelin larch (Larix gmelinii)/Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest in the Russian Far East to investigate charcoal contents, pH, water contents, and nutrient availability in soil together with the regeneration of larch and pine seedlings.

    Results and discussion: Positive correlations were found between charcoal contents and soil pH, water contents, and available P contents. Additionally, charcoal contents and the number of pine seedlings were positively correlated. There was, however, no significant relationship between charcoal content and extractable NH(4) (+) content or the number of larch seedlings. These results suggest that while charcoal influences are somewhat obscure in the field, charcoal significantly contributes to the amelioration of water and nutrient availability together with the success of regeneration of pine seedling. 

    Conclusions: Charcoal produced during fire events in Gmelin larch and Scots pine forests of eastern Russia has a modest influence on soil properties, but has the potential to improve regeneration in these fire-prone ecosystems.

  • 14.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    'Amsterdam is Standing on Norway', Part I: The Alchemy of Capital, Empire and Nature in the Diaspora of Silver, 1545–16482010Ingår i: Journal of Agrarian Change, ISSN 1471-0358, E-ISSN 1471-0366, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 33-68Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first of two essays in this Journal, I seek to unify the historicalgeography of early modern ‘European expansion’ (Iberia and Latin America)with the environmental history of the ‘transition to capitalism’ (northwestern Europe). The expansion of Europe’s overseas empires and the transitions to capitalism within Europe were differentiated moments within the geographicalexpansion of commodity production and exchange – what I call the commodityfrontier. This essay is developed in two movements. Beginning with a conceptual and methodological recasting of the historical geography of the rise of capitalism,I offer an analytical narrative that follows the early modern diaspora of silver.This account follows the political ecology of silver production and trade from the Andes to Spain in Braudel’s ‘second’ sixteenth century (c. 1545–1648). In highlighting the Ibero-American moment of this process in the present essay, Icontend that the spectacular reorganization of Andean space and the progressive dilapidation of Spain’s real economy not only signified the rise and demise of a trans-Atlantic, Iberian ecological regime, but also generated the historicallynecessary conditions for the unprecedented concentration of accumulation andcommodity production in the capitalist North Atlantic in the centuries thatfollowed.

  • 15.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Ecology, Capital, and the Nature of Our Times: Accumulation & Crisis in the Capitalist World-Ecology2011Ingår i: Journal of World-Systems Research, ISSN 1076-156X, E-ISSN 1076-156X, ISSN 1076-156X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 108-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay, I elaborate the possibilities for a unified theory of historical capitalism – one that views the accumulation of capital and the production of nature (humans included!) as dialectically constituted. In this view, the modern world-system is a capitalist world-ecology, a world-historical matrix of human- and extra-human nature premised on endless commodification. The essay is organized in three movements. I begin by arguing for a reading of modernity’s “interdependent master processes” (Tilly) as irreducibly socio-ecological. Capitalism does not develop upon global nature so much as it emerges through the messy and contingent relations of humans with the rest of nature. Second, the paper engages Giovanni Arrighi’s handling of time, space, and accumulation in The Long Twentieth Century. I highlight Arrighi’s arguments for a “structurally variant” capitalism, and the theory of organizational revolutions, as fruitful ways to construct a theory of capitalism as world-ecology. I conclude with a theory of accumulation and its crises as world-ecological process, building out from Marx’s “general law” of underproduction. Historically, capitalism has been shaped by a dialectic of underproduction (too few inputs) and overproduction (too many commodities). Today, capitalism is poised for a re-emergence of underproduction crises, characterized by the insufficient flow of cheap food, fuel, labor, and energy to the productive circuit of capital. Far from the straightforward expression of “overshoot” and “peak everything,” the likely resurgence of underproduction crises is an expression of capitalism’s longue durée tendency to undermine its conditions of reproduction. The world-ecological limit of capital, in other words, is capital itself.

  • 16.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Environmental crises and the metabolic rift in world-historical perspective2000Ingår i: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 123-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a new theoretical framework to study the dialectic of capital and nature over the longue durée of world capitalism. The author proposes that today’s global ecological crisis has its roots in the transition to capitalism during the long sixteenth century. The emergence of capitalism marked not only a decisive shift in the arenas of politics, economy, and society, but a fundamental reorganization of world ecology, characterized by a “metabolic rift,” a progressively deepening rupture in the nutrient cycling between the country and the city. Building upon the historical political economy of Marx, Foster, Arrighi, and Wallerstein, the author proposes a new research agenda organized around the concept of systemic cycles of agro-ecological transformation. This agenda aims at discerning the ways in which capitalism’s relationship to nature developed discontinuously over time as recurrent ecological crises have formed a decisive moment of world capitalist crisis, forcing successive waves of restructuring over long historical time.

  • 17.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Introduction: The World-Historical Imagination2011Ingår i: Journal of World-Systems Research, ISSN 1076-156X, E-ISSN 1076-156X, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 1-3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is the editor's introduction to the special issue of the Journal of World-Systems Research, entitled The World-Historical Imagination: Giovanni Arrighi's The Long Twentieth Century in Prospect and Retrospect.

  • 18.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Nature and the transition from feudalism to capitalism2003Ingår i: Review: A Journal of the Fernand Braudel Center, ISSN 0147-9032, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 97-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An epochal transformation of nature-society relations was inscribed in the transition from feudalism to capitalism. This article advances three central propositions. First, the origins of today’s global ecological crisis are found in the emergence of the capitalist world-economy in the “long” sixteenth century - not in industrialization, population growth, or market expansion, as the conventional wisdom would have it. Secondly, the crisis of feudalism was a general crisis not only of medieval Europe’s political economy, but in equal measure an expression of feudalism’s underlying ecological contradictions. Thirdly, the rise of capitalism effected a radical recomposition of world ecology. As early as the sixteenth century, we can see how the emergent logic of capital, which at once implies endless expansion and seeks to flatten socio-ecological diversity, undermined the possibilities for a sustainable relation between nature and society. Capitalism thus differed radically from feudalism and all other precapitalist formations. Where earlier ecological crises had been local, capitalism globalized them. From this standpoint, the origins of capitalism may shed light on today’s ecological crises.

  • 19.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    The end of the road?: agricultural revolutions in the capitalist World-ecology, 1450-20102010Ingår i: Journal of Agrarian Change, ISSN 1471-0358, E-ISSN 1471-0366, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 389-413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Does the present socio-ecological impasse – captured in popular discussions of the ‘end’ of cheap food and cheap oil – represent the latest in a long history of limits and crises that have been transcended by capital, or have we arrived at an epochal turning point in the relation of capital, capitalism and agricultural revolution? For the better part of six centuries, the relation between world capitalism and agriculture has been a remarkable one. Every great wave of capitalist development has been paved with ‘cheap’ food. Beginning in the long sixteenth century, capitalist agencies pioneered successive agricultural revolutions, yielding a series of extraordinary expansions of the food surplus. This paper engages the crisis of neoliberalism today, and asks: Is another agricultural revolution, comparable to those we have known in the history of capitalism, possible? Does the present conjuncture represent a developmental crisis of capitalism that can be resolved by establishing new agro-ecological conditions for another long wave of accumulation, or are we now witnessing an epochal crisis of capitalism? These divergent possibilities are explored from a perspective that views capitalism as ‘world-ecology’, joining together the accumulation of capital and the production of nature in dialectical unity.

  • 20.
    Moore, Jason W.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    The Socio-Ecological Crises of Capitalism2011Ingår i: Capital and its Discontents: Conversations with Radical Thinkers in a Time of Tumult / [ed] Sasha Lilley, Oakland: PM Press , 2011, s. 136-152Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    I think the lesson is that Malthus was wrong because he took the problem of limits outside of history, outside the history that women and men make in the modern world. So the issue is not that there is no scarcity — of course, capitalism is a system that is premised on induced scarcity. That’s why markets in the capitalist era function the way that they do. So I think the mistake of the left has been in a certain reluctance to deal with the problems of scarcity, or in some cases back into an embrace of a neo-Malthusian scarcity mentality in which there are these “natural limits” that are outside of how capitalism functions historically as an ecological regime.

  • 21.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    En katalysator för det moderna jordbruket: mossodlingens betydelse för konstgödselns genombrott 1880-19202008Ingår i: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000 / [ed] Leif Runefelt, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2008, s. 129-146Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Pu, Xiao
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. College of Resource, Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing, China ; State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.
    Cheng, Hongguang
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Yang, Shengtian
    Lin, Chunye
    Lu, Lu
    Xie, Jing
    Responses of soil carbon and nitrogen to successive land use conversion in seasonally frozen zones2015Ingår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 387, nr 1-2, s. 117-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy-oriented successive land use conversion intensively occurred in seasonally frozen zones of China during the past five decades. However, responses of soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to land use conversion under cold temperate climates are not fully understood. The objective was to characterize C and N variations following a succession of forest, dryland and paddy. Soil cores were collected for 6 layers with a 10 cm increment from three adjacent chronosequences to determine concentrations of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkaline hydrolysable nitrogen (HN). Analysis of variance with multivariate general linear model was operated on data sets. Significant losses of SOC and TN storages subject to land use conversion were merely confined within 0 - 10 cm layer, decreasing by 16 % and 38 % for forest to dryland and by 23 % and 43 % for forest to paddy, respectively. Cultivation also influenced SOC and TN stocks at 20 - 40 cm depth for dryland and 20 - 60 cm depth for paddy with increases by 38 Mg C ha(-1) and 2.8 Mg N ha(-1) for forest to dryland, and by 56 Mg C ha(-1) and 4.1 Mg N ha(-1) for forest to paddy, respectively. Successive land use conversion from forest to cropland affected C and N levels in deeper layers, demonstrating the high potentials of subsoil in sequestrating C and N. The extents of cultivation-induced SOC and TN redistribution along soil profile varied among different agricultural systems. DOC and HN changes interpreted SOC and TN changes with land use, presenting high involvements of soluble compartments in SOC and TN variations. The net variation in SOC/TN ratio effectively indicated C and N changes when dryland was converted to paddy.

  • 23.
    Stenroth, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fältström, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Land-use effects on terrestrial consumers through changed size structure of aquatic insects2015Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 136-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the influence of agricultural land use on aquatic-terrestrial linkages along streams arising from changes in the emergence of aquatic insects. We expected that terrestrial predators would respond to a change in the abundance and/or the size structure of the emerging aquatic insects by an increase or decrease in population size. We measured the flux of emergent aquatic insects and the abundance of terrestrial invertebrate predators and birds along 10 streams across a forest-to-agriculture land-use gradient. We also performed stable isotope analyses (hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen) of terrestrial invertebrate predators. Small aquatic insects (Nematocera) were most abundant under agricultural land use, whereas larger bodied aquatic insects (Plecoptera and Trichoptera) were more associated with forest land use. Carabid beetles and linyphiid spiders were associated with agricultural streams (where there was a high abundance of small aquatic insects), whereas lycosid spiders and birds were associated with forest streams and a high abundance of large-sized aquatic insects. The contribution of aquatic insects to the diets of riparian Lycosidae, Linyphiidae and Carabidae was estimated to be 44%, 60% and 43%, respectively, indicating the importance of aquatic subsidies to the terrestrial system. Our results show that agricultural land use in an overall forested landscape can have significant effects on the abundance and diet of terrestrial consumers through its impact on the size structure of the assemblage of emerging insects, rather than the overall magnitude (numbers) of the aquatic subsidy. Hence, our results suggest that the composition, not just quantity, of a cross-habitat resource may influence the recipient system.

  • 24.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wardle, David A.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vincent, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Contrasting nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics across an elevational gradient for subarctic tundra heath and meadow vegetation2014Ingår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 383, nr 1-2, s. 387-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores soil nutrient cycling processes and microbial properties for two contrasting vegetation types along an elevational gradient in subarctic tundra to improve our understanding of how temperature influences nutrient availability in an ecosystem predicted to be sensitive to global warming. We measured total amino acid (Amino-N), mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations, in situ net N and P mineralization, net Amino-N consumption, and microbial biomass C, N and P in both heath and meadow soils across an elevational gradient near Abisko, Sweden. For the meadow, NH4 (+) concentrations and net N mineralization were highest at high elevations and microbial properties showed variable responses; these variables were largely unresponsive to elevation for the heath. Amino-N concentrations sometimes showed a tendency to increase with elevation and net Amino-N consumption was often unresponsive to elevation. Overall, PO4-P concentrations decreased with elevation and net P immobilization mostly occurred at lower elevations; these effects were strongest for the heath. Our results reveal that elevation-associated changes in temperature can have contrasting effects on the cycling of N and P in subarctic soils, and that the strength and direction of these effects depend strongly on dominant vegetation type.

  • 25.
    Viklund, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Arkeologi och samiska studier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Tidiga fähus: de arkeobotaniska beläggen1998Ingår i: Fähus från bronsålder till idag: stallning och utegångsdrift i långtidsperspektiv / [ed] Karin Viklund, Roger Engelmark och Johan Linderholm, Stockholm: Nordiska museets förlag, 1998, s. 14-21Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Yu, Jun
    et al.
    Biostokastikum, SLU.
    Ranneby, Bo
    Biostokastikum, SLU.
    Nonparametric and probabilistic classification of agricultural crops using multitemporal images2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Zhang, Huichun
    et al.
    College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Dorr, Gary
    Faculty of Science, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4343, Australia.
    Zhang, Jiaqiang
    College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Zhou, Hongping
    College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China.
    Yu, Jun
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Wind tunnel experiment and regression model for spray drift2015Ingår i: Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, ISSN 1002-6819, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 94-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With greater environmental awareness, the movement of pesticides within and off of a spray target area is acritical public concern. Ideally, all of the material applied should be deposited within the targeted swath on the intendedpest or plant. But realistically, a portion of the spray remains airborne and is carried downwind to non-target areas.Airborne spray leaving the targeted area reduces the applied dosage, and could cause damage to neighboring plant andwater source or other detrimental environmental impacts. To study the influences of nozzle type, spray mixture and windspeed on spray drift, experiments were conducted using a wind tunnel. Spray drift risk was assessed by adding a tracer tothe spray mixture and measuring the quantities of spray deposited downwind from the nozzle on horizontal polythenelines with 2 mm diameter perpendicular to the wind direction in a vertical and a horizontal array. At a distance of 2 mdownwind from the static nozzle, five collector lines (V1 to V5) were positioned one above the other at the spacing of0.1 m to provide an estimate of the spray still airborne through this vertical profile. An additional five sampling collectorstrings (H1 to H5) were placed in a horizontal array with one-meter horizontal spacing at 0.1 m height to determine thefallout volumes and gradients of the spray from 2 to 6 m downwind. A water-soluble fluorescent tracer was dissolvedinto tap water as the spray liquid, and after the experiments, the collecting lines were washed with deionized water tomeasure deposit and drift. The results indicated that deposits on sampling collector decreased with increased verticalelevation and horizontal distance. Average fallout and airborne deposit resulting from the different spray applicationswere shown in the paper. These figures showed the expected fallout and airborne profiles for all tested nozzle types andsizes. The highest fallout deposits were measured at a position closest to the nozzle (H1) with a systematic decrease withthe distance from the nozzle. The highest airborne deposits were found at the lowest sampling collector (V1) with asystematic decrease with increasing height above the wind tunnel floor. Airborne spray drift was affected by wind speed.At all sample positions, deposits on collectors were reduced at lower wind speed. Nozzle’s structure was also found toinfluence droplet’s size, so injector/pre-orifice nozzle produced coarser droplets and reduced spray drift. The amount ofspray recovered is based on the amount of active ingredient of spray mixture within each droplet rather than the totaldroplet volume. On that basis, a multiple non-linear model for statistical drift prediction including four independent,non-correlated variables (target distance, wind speed, nozzle type and chemical type) was established. The regressionmodel provided a drift evaluation approach, and it was important in the interpretation of wind tunnel data for differentnozzle types, chemical types and sampling methodologies.

  • 28.
    Öhman, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Nordin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Hedman, H
    Jirjis, R
    Reasons for slagging during stemwood pellet combustion and some measures for prevention2004Ingår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 597-605Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ash related problems have more than occasionally been observed in pellet burners during the last years. These problems lead to reduced accessibility of the appliances and also bad publicity for the pellet market. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (i) determine the critical levels of the problematic ash components in stemwood pellets regarding slagging, (ii) document the variations of these problematic elements in the outgoing pellets from two pellet-mills during one operational season, (iii) determine how frequently these elements exceed the critical levels, (iv) determine how different sub-processes in the pelletising process (especially the dryer) effect the slagging properties of the pellet, and if possible (v) suggest some measures for prevention. A significant number of wood pellets reported to be problematic and problem-free, regarding slagging in ordinary residential pellet burners, were collected from the Swedish market. The ash compositions of these fuels were analysed and the results compiled in a database. Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and F-tests were used to statistically identify both the critical ash components and the critical levels of these components that separated the two reported classes. In addition, chemical equilibrium model calculations were used to interpret the findings. The variations of these elements in the in-going raw material and in the produced pellets were determined during one season in two pellet mills equipped with exhaust gas dryers. The results showed that the problematic wood-pellets had a significantly higher amount of Si, but also Al and Fe, in the fuel ash. The critical level of Si (given as SiO2) was about 20-25 wt% of the fuel ash, i.e. pellets with levels in or over this range resulted in slagging problems in residential burners. This critical Si content was exceeded once and twice for the analysed samples in the two studied pellet mills. In one of the studied mills, this was because of contamination by sand of the raw material during storage and handling, and in the other mill the reason was found to be contamination of the raw material by elutriated particles from the dryer fuel. The major conclusion of the work is that both raw materials and drying fuels/processes should be carefully treated to avoid mineral contamination, and an additional cyclone separator could potentially also be used to improve the pellet quality.

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