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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson Nordin, Jennifer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lundmark, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    En studie om högstadieelevers lunchvanor2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intake of a balanced school lunch has been associated with healthier eating habits in general, for example better meal planning and healthier snacks.Objective: To investigate the lunch habits of pupils during school days, in one secondary school in Arjeplog and Arvidsjaur, respectively.Method: A survey was handed out to 110 pupils in 8th and 9th grade in Arjeplog and Arvidsjaur. The survey asked for the pupils’ lunch habits, intake of high sugary and fast food as well as fruit and vegetables.Results: Four out of five pupils ate school lunch daily (77 %, n=84). Less than every five of these pupils ate a balanced school lunch according to the Swedish food administration’s definition (17 %, n=14). More pupils ate a balanced school lunch in Arvidsjaur (p=0,009). The most chosen reason to eat school lunch was to satisfy ones hunger, and for not to eat that they didn’t like the food. Among non-school lunch eaters, it was most common to eat fast food instead. Of all the pupils, 62 % (n=67) thought that the school lunch was lacking main course options. Candy was eaten at least two days per week by 53 % (n=57) of the pupils. Among balanced school lunch eaters, fruit and vegetables where consumed more frequently than among those eating an unbalanced school lunch (p=0,023; p<0,001, respectively). Vegetables where eaten daily by 37 % (n=15) of the girls and 17 % (n=11) of the boys (p=0,025).Conclusion: The eating habits during lunchtime in Arjeplog and Arvidsjaur indicate less healthy dietary habits in general. There are tendencies of less healthy food habits in Arjeplog. When deciding whether to eat school lunch or not, taste and quality of the food is of major importance. Investment in school meals is an important investment in public health.

  • 2.
    Agerhäll, Britta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Söderqvist, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Energi- och näringsinnehåll i det faktiska intaget av skollunch: en jämförelse mellan pojkar och flickor i årskurs 52014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Establishing good eating habits during childhood are important since these lay the foundation for the future. Having a balanced and healthy diet is associated with a better learning ability. Research shows differences in intake of energy and nutrients between boys and girls.

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate possible differences between boys and girls referring intake of school lunch and to compare them to Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) with a focus on content of energy and nutrients.

    Method This study was established through a partnership with ProMeal. Data was collected during five days through a weighed and photographed food record of school lunch among 29 children in the 5th grade. The participants’ portions of food were calculated concerning contents of energy and nutrients through the computer program DietistNet. Data was statistically analyzed in order to detect differences in intake of energy and nutrients between the sexes. A comparison between the participants’ energy and nutrient intake and the NNR was made.

    Results This research showed no statistical significant difference between boys’ and girls’ intake of energy (p=0,226). Regardless of sex the participants’ median intake of energy was lower than the estimated energy demand for the age group according to NNR. There was no statistical significant difference between boys and girls concerning the intake of energy from macronutrients. The share of energy from carbohydrates, protein and fat was relatively even distributed between the sexes. In comparison boys had a significantly higher intake of dietary fiber (p=0,008), iron (p=0,037) and vitamin C (p=0,034) than girls. 

    Conclusion Overall the participants had a noteworthy low intake of energy and micronutrients in relation to the estimated demands and recommendations of NNR. During five days there was no statistical significant difference between boys and girls concerning intake of energy. Further research is needed. 

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Bergh, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hauer, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Jonsson, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindberg, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Nygren, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Reivell, Gun-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Rönnlund, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sandahl, Carla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kostvetenskaplig kompetens: belyst med kvalitativ metod1996Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ailert Andersson, Natalie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Persson, Linn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Föreställningar och attityder till mellanmål hos studenter vid Umeå universitet och Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background In-between meals can include anything consumed between breakfast, lunch and dinner. There are no explicit recommendations about in-between meals in Sweden. Dietary habits are affected by social norms and peers. Usually dietary habits change during college or university. The eating habits created during this time is often kept for the future.

    Objective Examine students’ ideas about and attitudes towards in-between meals.

    Method Eight semi-structured individual interviews were held with students from Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Umeå University. The participants were recruited by the authors at both Universities. The interviews were recorded and transcribed word by word. The data collection was analyzed using a qualitative content analysis.

    Results The participants had different views about in-between meals. Some believed in-between meals was a good thing while others thought it was pointless. Lack of time and bad planning were the biggest reasons not to have in-between meals. The participants described that their friends and acquaintances affected their in-between meals. The participants believed that a person’s body shape and what they ate affected how they saw that person. Some of the female participants brought up social pressure about weight and how it restrained their food choices.

    Conclusion Individuals greatly differed in their opinions towards in-between meals and when it should be consumed. Assortment, social norms and peers was affecting student's thoughts and action towards in-between meals. More research is required to see if there is a need for general advice about in-between meals and how they should be mediated. More research is also required about social norms and in-between meals, but also about their health benefits.

  • 5.
    Almroth, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Holmgren, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    ”...det är lite spela roll känsla när jag är ensam.” - En kvalitativ studie om förälderns upplevelser kring sin kosthållning med barn i växelvis boende.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden 35% of children with separated parents live in equally shared care on an every-other-week basis. There is a lack of studies in research addressing equally shared care and dietary concerns. It is a family situation like no other: neither a single-parent household, nor a single-member household, nor cohabitation in the usual sense. Life changes affect dietary habits. The shift to shared custody can be considered such a change and is therefore worth investigating.

    Objective: The aim was to assess how parents living in shared-care situations experienced dietary concerns, and to examine what challenges foodwise such a family construct may evoke.

    Method: Four men and three women were interviewed using a semi-structural interview guide about their dietary concerns as parents with equally shared care of children. Collected data from the interview were analysed with a qualitative content analysis method.

    Result: There were some special qualities in this family situation that are not found in other household settings. Most significant was the duality in the household structure: there was the importance of continued cooperation with the other parent, time and food were more important with the children than without them, and there was a sense of lack when the children were not there. All informants, regardless of gender, expressed that they spent much more time and care preparing meals during weeks with the children.

    Conclusion: There was a duality in the way dietary concerns were valued between weeks with and without children. There exists an emotional as well as a practical difference between the weeks which affect diet and possibly health. Gender roles of the parents are seemingly being equalized. Equally shared care differs enough as a household setting to warrant more studying to understand how parents are affected by this way of living.

  • 6.
    Alvlund, Marine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kostvanor hos personer med nedstämdhet alternativt depression2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Depression is common, and research shows that diet influences our well-being. Interest in the relationship between diet and depression has increased, but important information about dietary habits when depressed is still missing.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify dietary habits when feeling downhearted or depressed among individuals over age 15 and relate results to the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations, to see if these individuals are following the recommendations as well as indication of possible areas of improvement.

    Method: A quantitative method in the form of a questionnaire survey was chosen, focusing on six areas. The questionnaire was distributed through health care providers and was also available on the Internet. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics Desktop V22.

    Results: Half of the respondents felt that they had an unhealthy diet. Less than half followed the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations of three larger meals per day. The majority ate breakfast and consumed larger meals regularly. The median consumption of fish and fatty fish was 0.75 times per week. The Vitamin-D rich products consumed most frequently were milk and sour milk/yogurt, however, the enriched option wasn’t always chosen. Difficulty in reaching recommendations on 500g of fruit and vegetables per day could be indicated, since only four respondents had a consumption frequency of five times a day or more. Consumption frequency of unsaturated fat sources such as fish, avocado, nuts and seeds and requested fats as margarine, oil and butter were low.

    Conclusion: The study shows a low consumptions frequency of fruit and vegetables, vitamin D-rich products and the studied fat sources fish, avocado, nuts and seeds, margarine, oil and butter in comparison with the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. This shows areas of improvement, but the results are not generalizable to the target audience. It is desirable to have more studies to draw conclusions about the diets with downheartedness or depression.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Det smarta vinvalet: Ekologiska viner ur konsumentens synpunkt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Vindelälvens naturbeteskött: Framdelar har sina fördelar2010Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ernstsson, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "Jag ville ge mitt barn de bästa förutsättningarna": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om tankar kring matvanor under graviditet hos nyblivna förstagångsmammor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Den blivande mammans matvanor under graviditeten är viktiga eftersom hon har ett ökat näringsbehov och försörjer en annan individ. En del av grunden för barnets framtida hälsa och matvanor ges redan i mammans mage. Trots det har studier visat att mammans matintag är otillräckligt jämfört med rekommendationerna samt att intaget av godis och fikabröd ofta ökar under graviditeten.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att utforska inställningen till hälsosam och ohälsosam mat, samt hur denna inställning upplevdes påverka matintaget, hos nyblivna förstagångsmammor under graviditeten.

    Metod Åtta intervjuer genomfördes med nyblivna förstagångsmammor. Intervjuerna genomfördes med en semistrukturerad intervjuguide och spelades in med hjälp av en inspelningsapp. Data som samlades in transkriberades och analyserades sedan med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat Deltagarna berättade att de ändrade inställningen till sina matvanor då de blev gravida. Det blev allt viktigare att äta en varierad kost innehållande mycket grönsaker och frukt (hälsosam mat), och intaget av snabbmat och produkter innehållande mycket socker minskade (ohälsosam mat). Denna inställning följdes inte under hela graviditeten, och intaget av snabbmat och sockerrika livsmedel ökade under den senare delen. Kostråden från vårdpersonal upplevdes som bristfälliga på grund av att de gavs för få råd, och att mycket information själv fick hämtas från framförallt Livsmedelsverket.

    Slutsats Deltagarna följde inte sin initiala inställning till upplevd hälsosam och ohälsosam mat under hela graviditeten. Deltagarna efterfrågade även mer information om mat under graviditet från vårdpersonal. Mer stöd och information från vården kan ge den gravida kvinnan bättre förutsättningar till att hålla en hälsosam kost under hela graviditeten.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Rosendahl, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Treåringars matvanor, fysiska aktivitet, samt Body Mass Index i Västerbotten: I relation till amningsduration och familjekonstellation2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Forskning har visat att hur länge barn ammats, har betydelse för deras hälsa senare i livet. Även barnens sociala miljö har visat sig ha effekt på hälsan och barnens matvanor. Salut är en satsning av Västerbottens läns landsting med målet att förbättra länsbornas hälsa fram till 2030.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att undersöka treåringars matvanor, Body Mass Index (BMI) och fysiska aktivitet i relation till amningsduration och familjekonstellation.

    Metod Studien genomfördes genom ett samarbete med Salut som utformade och delade ut en enkät via barnavårdscentraler till samtliga föräldrar vid treårskontrollen. Enkäten innehöll frågor om barnens fysiska och psykiska hälsa, samt livsstil och levnadsvanor och totalt beabetades 210 av enkäterna i denna studie, där 16 frågor valdes ut. Dessa analyserades sedan statistiskt i IBM SPSS 21.0 Statistics. Signifikansnivån sattes till p<0,05.

    Resultat De flesta av barnen åt enligt rekommendationerna för livsmedelsintag, med undantag för rekommendationerna om fisk samt sötsaker. De flesta barnen nådde även upp till rekommendationerna om fysisk aktivitet. De flesta mödrar ammade inte sina barn efter rekommendationerna. Det utlästes en signifikant skillnad mellan hur länge barnen ammats totalt och hur ofta de åt sötsaker som visade att barn som ammats under sex månader hade ett högre intag än de som ammats längre. (p=0,033)

    Slutsats Barnen åt enligt rekommendationerna för de flesta livsmedel, utom fisk, som barnen åt mer sällan än vad som rekommenderas, samt sötsaker, som intogs oftare. Den information som framkommit i denna studie kan förtydliga vikten av att börja ett hälsofrämjande arbete i tidig ålder för att grundlägga goda vanor som sedan följer med barnen genom livet.

     

  • 11.
    Apell, Amandine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Burman, Viktoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hur upplevs och hanteras familjens vardag av mödrar till barn med celiaki?: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT                         

    Background: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder with a prevalence of 2/100 in Sweden. The only treatment is a diet free from gluten. Gluten occurs in grains of wheat, rye, barley and being diagnosed with CD often means that a change in eating habits is necessary. Living together with someone with CD has been shown to be problematic. Family life may be negatively affected and parents of children with CD experience worry and anxiety for their child.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine how mothers of children with CD experienced and handled everyday life in relation to their child's gluten-free diet (GFD).

    Method: A targeted selection was used and qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine mothers of children with CD. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and then analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: All participants felt that everyday life had been adapted to the child with CD and there were different ways to deal with the GFD. Some chose to have the home as a gluten-free zone to avoid the stress of risking to give the child wrong food. Others chose to have both gluten-containing and gluten-free foods at home because of economic aspects and preferences from other family members. The level of knowledge about CD in the community was considered low, which was perceived to complicate everyday life for mothers of a child with CD. The majority of participants expressed that best support was found through Internet and social media.

    Conclusion: According to mothers of children with CD, the disease involved some dilemmas and daily life was at times perceived as worrisome, which can affect quality of life. Internet and social media were considered as good support in everyday life. Increased knowledge in society and greater understanding from the environment could improve families everyday life.

  • 12.
    Arnesson, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Karlsson, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Husmanskost och vin: En studie av husmanskostens form, funktion och förändring och dess kombination med vin2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Arogén, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Information om viktminskning på internet: En intervjustudie med fokus på tillförlitlighet, ideal och viktminskningsmetoder2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Dagens samhälle är präglat av en medvetenhet kring övervikt, vilket kan ha lett till de ideal som råder när det gäller kropp och hälsa. Media påverkar samhällets ideal kring utseende och har en viktig roll vid spridning av kostinformation gällande viktnedgång.

    Syfte Syftet är att utforska synen på webbpublicerad kostinformation gällande viktnedgång.

    Metod Fyra kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes och urvalet baserades på att deltagarna skulle ha en vilja att minska i vikt samt regelbundet läste kostinformation gällande viktnedgång på internet.

    Resultat Deltagarna trodde inte att informationen som ges i kvällstidningarnas webbupplaga är tillförlitlig och att enda syftet är att tjäna pengar. Man upplevde förvirring kring nya rön och metoder gällande viktminskning och ansåg att omgivningen lätt tar till sig den information som finns på internet. Idealen i samhället och som visas på internet ansågs vara förvridna och ohälsosamma. Idealet tycktes vara en smal och vältränad kropp vilket informanterna inte själva upplevde sig kunde nå upp till och kände ett misslyckande över och gjorde att de även kände sig än mer uppgivna inför en viktminskning. Man menade också att begrepp som hälsa och sundhet förvridits till att mest handla om smalhet och att forma kroppen. Vidare uppfattade informanterna att de så kallade fettdieterna florerar mycket på webben och kändes svåra att särskilja. Samtidigt lockade snabba metoder i allmänhet och man betraktade snabba reslutat som önskvärt.

    Slutsats Denna studie har indikerat att idealen som upplevs råda i samhället vad gäller utseende kan leda till obehagskänslor hos de som inte kan nå upp till dem. Vad som är tillförlitligt är inte helt självklart och en viss förvirring uppfattas råda bland människor vad gäller råd om viktnedgång. 

  • 14.
    Artberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Dyra kalorier i frukt och grönsaker: En studie om prisutveckling och kostnader för livsmedel i relation till energitäthet2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Livsmedel med låg energitäthet är förknippat med bättre hälsa och lägre risk att drabbas av fetma. Studier visar att livsmedel med låg energitäthet inte bara är dyrare per kilokalori utan också har ökat mer i pris än energitäta livsmedel. Därför var det intressant att undersöka om priset och prisutvecklingen på livsmedel i Sverige skiljer sig åt beroende på energitäthet.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att undersöka huruvida det fanns ett samband mellan energitäthet och prisutveckling för livsmedel under åren 1991-2010. Vidare var syftet att undersöka ifall priset för livsmedel skiljer sig åt beroende på energitäthet.

    Metod Utifrån en kostfrekvensenkät från Västerbottens hälsoundersökning och statistiska centralbyråns prisdatalistor valdes 122 livsmedel ut. Energitäthet räknades ut och livsmedlen räknades om till pris per ätlig del och pris per kilokalori. Prisförändringar och energikostnader för livsmedel indelade i sextiler utifrån energitäthet och procentuell prisförändring analyserades med hjälp av statistiska tester.

    Resultat De livsmedel som hade ökat mest i pris mellan 1991 och 2005/2010 samt 2005 och 2010 hade ingen signifikant lägre energitäthet än de livsmedel som ökat minst. Skillnaden mellan livsmedel med låg energitäthet och energitäta livsmedel gällande pris per 1000 kilokalorier var betydande. För den gruppen med lägst energiinnehåll var det genomsnittliga priset 91,3 kr och för energitätaste gruppen var genomsnittspriset på 14,5 kr (p<0,001).

    Slutsats Det fanns inget samband mellan energitäthet och prisförändringar mellan åren 1991, 2005 och 2010. Livsmedel med låg energitäthet var dyrare per kilokalori. Detta kan vara en orsak till att personer med begränsad ekonomi väljer att köpa billigare energitäta livsmedel. Att införa en skatt på ohälsosamma livsmedel skulle vara ett alternativ för att få personer att äta mer hälsosamt.

  • 15.
    Arvola, Sandra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Liedgren, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    En vegetariska dag i veckan: En studie som utvärderar gymnasieelevers inställning till och efterfrågan av vegetarisk skollunch, samt deras upplevda delaktighet kring skollunchen i en skola i Umeå kommun.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Meat consumption increased in Sweden between the years 2000-2010 with 20 % per capita. Meanwhile, there are recommendations from the Swedish National Food Agency to reduce intake from charcuteries and red meat, as well as to increase intake of vegetables and pulses.

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate Umeå municipality’s project: “A vegetarian day once a week”, through assessing upper secondary school pupil’s attitudes to and perceived demand of vegetarian school lunch as well as their participation at mealtimes at a school in Umeå.

    Method A questionnaire was designed in the program esMakerNX2. The questionnaire was distributed through mail and as a paper-based version in an upper secondary school in the municipality of Umeå, during the spring of 2014. Convenience sampling was used. Data collected were analyzed in IBM SPSS Statistics 21 with a significance level of p<0,05.

    Results A total of 122 pupils participated, 68 girls and 54 boys. About half of the participants, 51 % (n=62), ate every time when only the vegetarian meal alternative was offered. Girls chose the vegetarian meal alternative more often than boys (p<0,001). Almost half of the pupils, 48 % (n=28), chose the vegetarian meal primarily because of the good taste. Results even showed that 14 % (n=17) ate vegetarian meals more often since the start of the project, whilst 9 % (n=10) ate less often.

    Conclusion The pupils had different opinions about vegetarian meals in school. Almost half of the pupils chose not to eat when the lunch served was exclusively vegetarian. The interest of vegetarian food was stronger among girls than boys. A few upper secondary school pupils were influenced by the project to eat more vegetarian food, which shows that changing people ́s meal patterns is a big task where more knowledge and work is needed. 

  • 16.
    Aspholme, Carita
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Persson, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Svensson, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    "Har ni något överhuvudtaget som jag kan äta?": Att ha ett barn med dubbeldiagnosen celiaki-diabetes: föräldrars upplevelser av kosten.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The prevalence of both coeliac disease and diabetes type I in the pediatric population varies between 2.4-16.4 %. Both diseases demand a strictly controlled diet A limited number of studies are investigating the practical implementation of the two diets. Objective To investigate parent’s experiences of the diet, when having a child with both coeliac disease and diabetes type I. Method A qualitative method was used in form of narratives, collected through a web based form. The informants consisted of 26 parents, having a child of age 3-16 years, diagnosed with both coeliac disease and diabetes type I. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the narratives. Result Difficulties were experienced by the informants considering the practical implementation of the two diets. The double diagnosis demanded frequent planning. Lack of knowledge in the surroundings was experienced, for example in staff at school and restaurants. The possibilities of saving time and money were limited and there were limitations also in the food supply, especially gluten-free products with low glycemic index. Due to experience of inconvenience and negative treatment from their surroundings, the feelings of being different were enhanced. Conclusion Difficulties in trusting others knowledge regarding the diet lead to compliance issues and put restraint to the children’s social life. Perceptions of lack of treatment and understanding in the surroundings could enhance the feeling of not being like everyone else and being a nuisance. A need for education aimed at staff in schools and restaurants exists to increase knowledge and understanding. More materials regarding cooking with the double-diagnosis are desirable. Constant planning lead to limitations in the daily life and the parenting role became more controlling, which could create difficulties when guiding the child into independence. Also the supply of gluten-free products with low glycemic index is limited and need further development.

  • 17.
    Augustsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Berglund, Ida-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Vegankost eller blandkost?: En jämförelse av näringsintag, livsmedelsval och måltidsmönster hos förskolebarn som äter vegankost och blandkost.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The discussions and studies on vegan diet for children are many and with diverged opinions and results. The negative views, where the risks of deficiencies in the diet is in focus often dominates. Many studies show that if the most common pitfalls are avoided the growth of vegan children is normal. Today, the debate often focus on the risks of giving children a vegan diet, while the unbalanced mixed diet is easily forgotten. The latest national study of children´s dietary habits in Sweden (2003), reported a satisfactory distribution of protein, fat and carbohydrates, while the type of fat and carbohydrates consumed were of bad quality.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the nutritional intake, food choice and meal patterns among vegan and omnivore preschool children. The study also investigated whether the nutrient intake was consistent with the recommendations by the National Food Agency (NFA).

    Method: A quantitative method was used where a three-day estimated dietary registration of twelve children was performed, where half of the children were vegans and the other half omnivores. 

    Results: Children who ate a vegan diet consumed more fruit and vegetables, fibers and had a higher energy intake. The difference on the intake of fruit and vegetables was not significantly. The omnivores had a higher intake of sugar, salt and saturated fat, with a significant difference for the latter two. The vegan children had consistently a higher mean value of all nutrients with the exception of selenium and B12. The difference was only significant for the intake of vitamin C. Both groups had a satisfactory meal patterns.

    Conclusion: The vegan children had an intake more in accordance with the NFA recommendations than the omnivore children, indicating highly motivated and knowledgeable parents of the children who ate a vegan diet. 

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Whole grain intake in adolescents assessed by the web-based dietary assessment method Riksmaten flex – a validation study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the year 2016-2017 the Swedish national food agency will perform a national dietary survey focusing on adolescents. In the work with the survey a new web based dietary assessment method, Riksmaten flex was developed. The current study was a part of the pilot study prior to the main survey.

    Objective To validate the reported intake of whole grains from Riksmaten flex against 24-hour recalls and alkylresorcinols as a biomarker of whole grain intake from wheat and rye.

    Method A crossover study was performed on adolescents, from elementary schools grade five and eight together with high school second graders, from different regions of Sweden. A total of 78 participants conducted two days of both dietary assessment methods and left blood samples for non-fasting plasma alkyresorcinol homologues to be analyzed.

    Results The intake from whole grains and whole grains from wheat and rye was 3.0 respectively 1.0 in the 24-hour recalls and 3.5 respectively 1.1 in Riksmaten flex. Spearman’s correlation coefficient between non-fasting plasma total alkylresorcinols and whole grains from wheat and rye was 0.36 for Riksmaten flex. Furthermore single and multiple regression models showed significant associations between the energy adjusted intake of whole grains from wheat and rye (g/MJ) and total alkylresorcinols in Riksmaten flex (p<0.01).

    Conclusion A significant correlation was seen between the reported intake of whole grains from wheat and rye in Riksmaten flex and the 24-hour recalls. A significant correlation was furthermore seen between the intake of whole grains from wheat and rye in Riksmaten flex and non-fasting plasma alkylresorcinol homologue levels. The correlation between the methods was weak but the overall result from this study suggests that Riksmaten flex captures the whole grain intake from wheat and rye in a valid way and can be used to assess this intake in Swedish adolescents.

  • 19.
    Berg, Elina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Engström, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Matvanor bland anställda vid Västerbottens läns landsting: En enkätstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Unhealthy eating habits are a contributing factor for poor health in Sweden. Food intervention programs at the workplace can improve employee’s health. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the eating habits and the food situation among employees at different workplaces in Västerbottens läns landsting. Method Seventy-nine workplaces in Västerbottens läns landsting were asked to participate. After loss there were 207 participants from 18 different workplaces in the study. The data was processed and analyzed in SPSS 20.0 using chi-2-test and multiple response set, the level of significance was set to p<0,05. Results Thirty-five percent had needs for improvements of their eating habits while three percent had good eating habits, relation was seen with age. There were 30 % who didn’t eat fruit daily, connection with gender and age. There were 32 % who didn’t eat vegetables daily, connection with gender. The majority (54 %) ate fish/shellfish less than twice a week, association with occupation. There were 40 % who didn’t use liquid margarine for cooking, relation with income and age. Half (49 %) ate sausage at least once a week, relation with gender, age and accommodation. The majority (60 %) ate a snack daily, connection with gender, occupation, workplace, education, fruit- and vegetable intake. Offering of food at workplace varied between different workplaces and the experience of eating at work was both positive and negative. Improvements suggested were better canteen and better range of food served. Conclusion The result suggested that efforts need to be taken to improve healthy eating habits. Increase the intake of fruit, vegetables and fish/shellfish and the choice of fat in cooking/on bread need to improve. Food interventions at worksite can become an important channel to reach out with our message and improving the public health.

  • 20.
    Berggren, Beatrice
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Falk, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Gymnasieelevers upplevda psykiska hälsa i relation till livsstilsfaktorer: En enkätstudie på gymnasieelever i Västernorrland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SAMMANFATTNING

    Bakgrund: Stress är en del av dagens psykiska ohälsa som kan påverka koncentrationsförmågan. Studier har visat ett samband mellan måltidsordning samt val av livsmedel och psykisk hälsa och att fysisk aktivitet kan påverka hälsan positivt.

     

    Syfte: Syftet var att undersöka gymnasieelevers upplevda psykiska hälsa med fokus på upplevd stress och koncentration, samt livsstilsfaktorer med fokus på konsumtion av sötade livsmedel, måltidsordning och fysisk aktivitet. Ytterligare ett syfte var att undersöka om det fanns något samband mellan upplevd psykisk hälsa och ovan nämnda livsstilsfaktorer samt eventuella skillnader mellan könen.

     

    Metod: En webbaserad enkät skickades till elever vid två gymnasieskolor i Västernorrland, under våren 2017. Enkäten besvarades av 212 deltagare och analyserades med Chi2-test, Fischers Exact test, Independent samples T-test och Mann-Whitney U test.

     

    Resultat: Majoriteten av gymnasieeleverna upplevde sin stressnivå som låg och att de oftast kunde koncentrera sig under lektionerna. Vidare var flertalet deltagare fysiskt aktiva och hade en god måltidsordning, däremot konsumerade 47 % sötade livsmedel flera gånger per vecka. Kvinnor upplevde sig vara mer stressade än män (p = <0,001) och en större andel av männen upplevde att de alltid eller oftast kunde koncentrera sig på lektionerna (p = 0,016). De gymnasieelever som hade en regelbunden måltidsordning upplevde sig mer stressade (p = 0,043) än övriga och de fysiskt aktiva upplevde sig oftare kunna koncentrera sig på lektionerna (p = 0,045).

    Slutsats: Majoriteten av gymnasieeleverna hade låg stressnivå, god koncentration, regelbunden måltidsordning och var fysiskt aktiva. Däremot så konsumerade många sötade livsmedel flera gånger i veckan. Det fanns även vissa könsskillnader och intressant vore att studera vad de kan bero på och om det går att göra något åt dem.

  • 21.
    Bergman, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Gustafsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Svenska dietister ställer diagnos: Nutritionsdiagnoser en del av nutritionsbehandlingsprocessen, en kvantitativ studie ur ett dietistperspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Nutrition care process is a systematic, problem-solving approach with a standardized language used by dietitians for documentation. It stimulates dietitians to critically appraise and take evidence-based decisions on a patient's nutritional problems. The Swedish Association of Clinical Dietitians (DRF) appeals qualified dietitians to work according the NCP.

    Objective The aim was to study Swedish dietitians’ work with nutrition diagnosis according to the NCP.

    Method(s) A web-based questionnaire was developed. Dietitians was recruited through the social media Facebook and the DRF website. The collected data were processed in SPSS, analyzed by Chi-2-test and Correlate Bivariate Spearman, with significance level at p < 0.05.

    Results A total of 119 dietitians responded to the questionnaire and 103 (87 %) of the respondents wrote nutrition diagnosis. The respondents had on average worked with the NCP for 2 years (range 1-3 years), and over half worked in hospitals. There was a correlation between years working according to the NCP and the number of written diagnosis (r=-0.197, p=0.046). Also, the time for writing a nutritional diagnosis was reduced as the experience of working with NCP increased (r=-0.226, p=0.022). It was 60 % that thought their knowledge and experience in NCP could be improved, 89 % stated that the NCP was useful. The English in the reference sheets 48 % of the respondents said partly was difficult to understand and (n=13) wanted them to be translated into Swedish. It showed that more than half (53 %) of the dietitians sometimes composed PES-statements without finding the appropriate signs/symptoms in the reference sheet.

    Conclusion Swedish dietitians consider themselves to be in need of more knowledge and training in the NCP, and translations of the reference sheets would possibly increase the use of nutrition diagnosis. A further implementation of the NCP is needed in Sweden.

  • 22.
    Bergqvist, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Livsmedelsval vid vegankost: Intagsfrekvenser av livsmedel och kosttillskott2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background On a vegan diet it is important to make sure that one receives the nutrients that the body needs; for example vitamin B12, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, iron, calcium, iodine and selenium. Few studies are made on food choices and food intake frequencies among people on a vegan diet.

    Objective To investigate food choices and intake frequencies of food and nutritional supplements among adults on a vegan diet in Sweden.

    Methods The objective was investigated by using a web based questionnaire. The web based questionnaire was published on the website Facebook. The criteria for inclusion were to be on a vegan diet, ≥18 years old and live in Sweden. Frequency tables, cross tables and Chi square test were used when analyzing data.

    Results The questionnaire was answered by 335 informants. Most of the informants chose organic foodstuffs. Pulses were eaten by 91 percent a few times a week or more often. Out of the participants 45 percent took vitamin D supplements a few times a week or more often. People who were ≥30 years were more likely to take omega-3 supplements compared to younger people (p<0.001). University-educated people took omega-3 supplements (p=0.034) and ate whole grain products (p=0.035) more frequently than the ones without university education. Informants who had lived on a vegan diet >3 years took omega-3 supplements more often than the ones who had lived on a vegan diet ≤3 years (p=0.002).

    Conclusion Many of the informants had a high intake frequency of nutritious foodstuffs, but some had a low intake frequency. An age >30 years, university education and being on a vegan diet for ≥3 years positively affected intake. Many informants took supplements of algae oil. It is important to make sure that proper dietary advice is given to people on a vegan diet.

  • 23.
    Björk, Amanda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindblom, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Valet av kostundersökningsmetod påverkar resultatet: En jämförelse mellan frekvensenkäter och kostregistreringar där barns intag av energi och vitamin D studerats2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Frekvensenkät (FFQ) och kostregistrering är två vanliga kostundersökningsmetoder. För varje metod finns det felkällor och idag finns ingen fulländad kostundersökningsmetod. Genom att undersöka skillnader mellan kostundersökningsmetoder ökar förståelsen för att metoderna kan ge olika resultat. Vid kostundersökningar då näringsintag som t.ex. intag av vitamin D studeras, är det viktigt att ta hänsyn till energiintag. Detta för att ett missvisande energiintag kan ge ett felaktigt näringsintag.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att jämföra eventuella skillnader mellan FFQ’s och kostregistreringar där barns intag av energi och vitamin D studerats.

    Metod FFQ där intaget av livsmedel uppskattades per månad, vecka eller dag och en vägd kostregistrering under tre dagar användes för att undersöka barns intag av energi och vitamin D. Barnen var mellan 5-8 år. Resultaten från de två metoderna jämfördes med varandra. Data analyserades i SPSS 22.0. Wilcoxon signed-rank test och correlate bivariate Spearman användes för att hitta skillnader respektive samband mellan resultaten från metoderna.

    Resultat Tjugosju FFQ’s jämfördes med 27 kostregistreringar. Medelåldern för barnen var 6 år och fyra månader. Det fanns en skillnad från uppskattningen av det totala intaget av vitamin D mellan de olika metoderna (p=0,001). Medelvärdet av intaget vitamin D från FFQ’s var 7,4 μg och 5,2 μg från kostregistreringarna. Enligt FFQ’s nådde sex barn det rekommenderade intaget (10 μg) av vitamin D. Inget barn nådde rekommendationen enligt kostregistreringarna. Intaget av fet fisk respektive intaget av mjölk 3% uppskattades i två fall lika mellan båda metoderna. Hos övriga deltagare skiljde sig intaget av alla livsmedel mellan kostundersökningsmetoderna.

    Slutsats Undersökningen visade signifikanta skillnader i resultaten av barns intag av vitamin D mellan FFQ’s och kostregistreringarna. Av den anledningen konkluderar vi att valet av kostundersökningsmetod påverkar resultatet. Eftersom FFQ´s visar ett medelintag över en längre tid kunde FFQ´s i den här studien med fördel använts som enda undersökningsmetod.

  • 24.
    Blåfield, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    A time travel for school meals in United Kingdom: Ideas and opinions about school meals in UK-media between 2000 and 20142015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Starting from September 2014, all children aged four to seven received their school lunches for free in the UK, to increase healthy eating and decrease obesity.

    Aim To investigate how school meals (especially school lunches) were depicted in different newspapers in the UK, from 2000 to 2014 when free school meals were introduced.

    Method Four newspapers in the UK between the years 2000 and 2014 were chosen for the study. In total, 616 texts were found from which 426 were analysed. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis of articles and letters to press was made in several steps. The texts were read and grouped into several main messages/contents. These were grouped into subjects and put together in timelines to show when and how much they were depicted in media during the studied years. Finally the subjects were grouped into topics, to show the main focus during the time period.

    Result During the years 2000 to 2014 several topics related to school meals were discussed. Among these were both positivity and negativity towards Jamie Oliver’s school food campaign, unhealthy packed lunches, the ban of packed lunches, ban of going outside schools on school breaks and the free school meals plan and free school meals for all children aged four to seven. The free school meals and texts related to economy were the most discussed during these years. In the study it was possible to see that Jamie Oliver have been a big part of the results of free school meals for the children between four and seven.

    Conclusion A long process could be seen progressing until free meals were given to all schoolchildren aged four to seven. There were regulations and actions towards better school meals and encouragements for children to choose the healthier foods. It is possible that people became more and more aware about health and school meals, and the relation between these over the years. 

  • 25.
    Blåfield, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Livsmedelstillsyn och Oivahymy: Vasa stads café- och restaurangägares åsikter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Denna uppsats skrevs på uppdrag av Vasa stads miljöavdelning. Livsmedelsinspektörer som arbetar i Vasa upplever att café- och restaurangägare har bristfälliga egenkontrollprogram samt svårt att förstå protokoll som följer inspektioner. Dessutom har en negativ inställning till tillsynsavgifter uppmärksammats. I Finland kommer ett system som heter Oivahymy att införas våren 2013. Systemet innebär att livsmedelstillsynens resultat ska offentliggöras, både på internet och via märkning vid ingången till restaurangen. Detta vill livsmedelsinspektörerna studera åsikter kring. Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka vilken inställning och kunskap Vasa stads café- och restaurangägare har till livsmedelstillsynen samt Oivahymy systemet. Ett annat syfte är att undersöka skillnader mellan stora och små alternativt äldre och yngre caféer och restauranger. Metod: En enkätundersökning genomfördes. Det delades ut 108 enkäter, varav 48 enkäter besvarades. Data bearbetades och analyserades i SPSS version 21.0 samt Excel. Chi-två test och Fishers exakta test användes för att analysera om det fanns skillnader mellan grupper. Signifikansnivån sattes till p<0,05. Resultat: Överlag var café- och restaurangägarna positivt inställda till livsmedelstillsynen. De ansåg även att de hade ett bra egenkontrollprogram. Verksamhetsägarna överlag önskade att de skulle få mer information av livsmedelsinspektörerna angående förändringar inom tillsynen. Det framkom även att majoriteten av respondenterna inte visste vad Oivahymy systemet var och av de som visste, var de flesta positivt inställda till systemet. Inga skillnader mellan stora och små alternativt äldre och yngre caféer och restauranger fanns. Slutsats: Slutsatserna bör granskas kritiskt på grund av lågt antal respondenter. Undersökningen visade att verksamhetsägare var positivt inställda till livsmedelsinspektioner. Verksamhetsägarna visste inte mycket om Oivahymy systemet. Innan Oivahymy systemet kommer igång skulle det vara bra med mer utgående information om systemet.

  • 26.
    Bodin, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Restaurör i teori och praktik2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Bolling, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Sjöqvist, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Sälskap vid bordet: En studie om hur sälkött bereds och tillagas2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Boman, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Forslund, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Årets kock: Trender i samspel med svensk matkultur 1983 - 20332007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 29.
    Boman, Tor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Korvens historia från förra sekelskiftet till idag: Hur korvindustrin och globaliseringen har utvecklat korvens innehåll, smak och struktur2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Borg, Rebecca
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Johansson, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    I en djungel av kost- och hälsobudskap, var finner ungdomar sin sanning?: En kvantitativ enkätstudie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Unga vuxna har en sämre kosthållning än övriga befolkningen. Ett enormt informationsflöde gör det svårt att avgöra vilken information som är sann, vilket kan påverka livsmedelsval och befolkningens framtida hälsa.

    Syfte Syftet med studien var att utforska ungdomars val av informationskällor när det gäller kost och hälsa och hur de värderar dessa.

    Metod En enkätundersökning genomfördes på tre gymnasieskolor i tre svenska städer. Målgruppen var ungdomar mellan 15–20 år. Enkäten bestod av 20 frågor och besvarades av 134 deltagare. Resultatet analyserades med Chi-2, ANOVA och Kruskal-Wallis. 

    Resultat Det var mindre än hälften av ungdomarna som sökte eller läste information om kost och hälsa. De informationskällor som ungdomarna använde sig mest av var familj, dokumentärer/filmer och olika hemsidor. Huvudparten av deltagarna tyckte att det var lätt att skilja på reklam, personliga åsikter och vetenskap. Fysisk prestation var en viktig anledning till att deltagarna sökte information om kost vilket även visades i ett samband mellan hög aktivitetsnivå och intresse för kost (p<0,001). En majoritet av deltagarna önskade mer utbildning om kost.

    Slutsats. Vid val av källa prioriterade ungdomarna en upplevd trovärdighet för personen eller dokumentären som förmedlade informationen, att källan var lättillgänglig och hade ett tydligt innehåll. Majoriteten upplevde inga svårigheter med att tolka medias budskap, vilket kan vara problematiskt då inlägg och artiklar ofta vinklas. Om ungdomarna överskattar sin förmåga att tolka media och inte är medvetna om agendan finns risk att de tar till sig felaktiga kostråd. Därför skulle ett större fokus på utbildning inom kost behövas för att ungdomar självständigt ska kunna hitta relevant information om kost men även planera och tillaga närings- och energianpassade måltider. 

  • 31.
    Borgström, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Pensionärerna i Kramfors efterlyser mer fantasi i sina matlådor: En enkätstudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Brandel, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Folatintag och folatstatus hos prematura barn: En kvalitetsundersökning vid en neonatalavdelning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Bredwad, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Heiser, Emmily
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Matlagning med guldfisken: Från låda till matlåda2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Bremsjö, Beatrice
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hallberg, My
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Jag vill aldrig bli så stor igen: En kvalitativ studie om motiovation till bibehållande av en lägre vikt efter viktnedgång2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Övervikt är ett ökande problem i världen, Sverige är inget undantag. Det finns många olika sätt att gå ner i vikt, och även om du lyckats är det svårt att behålla den lägre vikten. Studier har kommit fram till strategier som bidrar till att lyckas bibehålla en lägre vikt efter viktminskning. Det har visats vara av betydelse att även behandla kognitiva beteenden i samband med viktnedgång och bibehållande av vikt och att motivation är en viktig del i detta.Syfte Syftet med studien är att undersöka vad som bidrar till motivation och påverkar förutsättningar för att bibehålla en lägre vikt efter självvald viktnedgång.Metod Åtta semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med personer som under en längre tid arbetat med sin vikt. Materialet transkriberades ordagrant för att sedan analyseras enligt Graneheim och Lundmans kvalitativa innehållsanalys.Resultat Informanterna hade utformat egna strategier för att överkomma de hinder de stött på i vardagen. De satte ett högt värde i att hitta en balanserad livsstil för att kunna bibehålla den lägre vikten en lägre tid. Omgivningen hade en avgörande roll i deras förändringsarbete samtidigt som de upplevde att motivationen var tvungen att komma från dem själva. I och med förändringen uppkom nya känslor om dem själva som de var tvungna att hantera.Slutsats Den här studien visade att det finns flera faktorer som bidrar till motivation och påverkar förutsättningar att bibehålla en lägre vikt, och att dessa kom från olika håll i informanternas liv. Informanterna i denna studie ansåg att det var viktigt att motivationen kom inifrån dem själva. 

  • 35.
    Brita, Öhman
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Carolin, Rydén
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Språk- och kulturella barriärer i mötet mellan dietist och patient: En kvalitativ studie ur ett dietistperspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year the immigration increases in Sweden, as an effect of that, more individuals from other countries and cultures seek help from the healthcare system. The Swedish law states that healthcare providers have an obligation to give each individual equal care. Because communication is a big part of the meeting between the caregiver and the patient, the language and cultural barriers could lead to a lack of care. This also means that healthcare providers may experience a sense of frustration.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to elucidate and explore clinical dietitians’ experiences of language and cultural barriers during the meeting with patients with a first language other than Swedish.

    Method: Based on a qualitative research method six clinical dietitians were interviewed. During the interviews a semi-structured interview guide was used. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data was analyzed withqualitative content analysis.

    Results: In order to give patients good care the dietitians had to use creative approaches to overcome language and cultural barriers. The interpreter was seen as one of the most important instrument during the meeting with the patient, but an interpreter who did not carry out their work in a good way could affect the meeting negatively. The informants felt that communication difficulties could lead to unsuccessful treatmentwhen the message did not reach the patients. This led to a sense of failure and frustration among the informants.

    Conclusions: Language and cultural barriers can be an obstacle in order to give the patient the care the dietitian wishes. Despite creative solutions and the use of an interpreter there is a risk that the quality of care does not reach the demands according to the Swedish legislation. In conjunction with increased immigration, procedures and education on language and cultural barriers should be reviewed.

  • 36.
    Byström, Matilda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kvaliteten har ökat markant med dietisten: - En kvalitativ studie om personalens uppfattning om dietistens roll och arbetet med nutritionsbehandlingen inom ätstörningsvård för barn och unga2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Bäck, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Enegren, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Svårigheter att äta: Utveckling av konsistensanpassade matsedlar för äldreomsorgen i Piteå kommun2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Bäcklund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Promoting physical activity among overweight and obese children: Effects of a family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity and metabolic markers2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Overweight and obesity in childhood is associated with physical, psychological and social consequences. Physical inactivity is regarded as one of the main factors that have contributed to the increase in childhood obesity through out the world. Overweight and obesity as well as physical activity level are shown to track from childhood to adolescence and adulthood, thereby influencing not only the current health status but also long-term health. The general purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of a 2-year family-based lifestyle intervention on physical activity and metabolic health among children with overweight and obesity.

    Methods Children with overweight or obesity living in northern Sweden were recruited to the study. In total 105 children, mean age 10.5 years (SD±1.09), were randomized into either an intervention or a control group. The intervention group was offered as a 2-year family-based lifestyle intervention; the 1st year consisted of 14 group sessions and during the 2nd year the intervention was web-based. The control group did not participate in any intervention sessions, but performed all measurements. Physical activity was measured in all children using SenseWear Pro2 Armband (SWA) during 4 consecutive days before, in the middle and after the intervention, data regarding anthropometrics and blood values were collected in the same periods. Twenty-two of the children wore SWA during 14 days before the intervention in order to validate energy expenditure (EE) estimated by SWA against EE measured with double labelled water.

    Results The SWA, together with software version 5.1, proved to be a valid device to accurately estimate EE at group level of overweight and obese children. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups neither before nor after the intervention regarding physical activity and screen-time. All children significantly decreased their time being active ≥3 METs during the study period. After the study period, significantly fewer in the control group achieved the national physical activity recommendation, and they had significantly increased their screen-time. However, these changes were not seen within the intervention group. The intervention group had a significantly lower apolipoprotein B/A1 compared to the control group at 1-year measurement; no other significant differences were found regarding metabolic markers. No statistical difference was found between the groups regarding body mass index after the 2-year study period.

    Conclusion Even though a comprehensive program, the 2-year family-based lifestyle intervention had limited effects on physical activity and metabolic health in overweight and obese children. SWA is a device that can be used in future studies to measure energy expenditure among free-living overweight or obese children.

  • 39. Bøhn, Thomas
    et al.
    Rover, Carina Macagnan
    Semenchuk, Philipp Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Daphnia magna negatively affected by chronic exposure to purified Cry-toxins2016In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 91, p. 130-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cry-toxin genes originating from Bacillus thuringiensis are inserted into genetically modified (GM) plants, often called Bt-plants, to provide insect resistance to pests. Significant amounts of Bt-plant residues, and thus Cry-toxins, will be shed to soil and aquatic environments. We exposed Daphnia magna to purified Cry1Ab and Cry2Aa toxins for the full life-span of the animals. We used single toxins in different doses and combinations of toxins and Roundup, another potential stressor on the rise in agricultural ecosystems. Animals exposed to 4.5 mg/L (ppm) of Cry1Ab, Cry2Aa and the combination of both showed markedly higher mortality, smaller body size and very low juvenile production compared to controls. Animals exposed to 0.75 mg/L also showed a tendency towards increased mortality but with increased early fecundity compared to the controls. Roundup stimulated animals to strong early reproductive output at the cost of later rapid mortality. We conclude that i) purified Cry-toxins in high concentrations are toxic to D. magna, indicating alternative modes-of-action for these Cry-toxins; ii) Cry-toxins act in combination, indicating that 'stacked events' may have stronger effects on non-target organisms; iii) further studies need to be done on combinatorial effects of multiple Cry-toxins and herbicides that co-occur in the environment.

  • 40.
    Carlsson, Elinor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Måltidssammansättning på ett sjukhus i Nordnorge jämfört med nationella rekommendationer2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund Det bedöms att 10 - 60 % av alla patienter på norska sjukhus och sjukhem är undernärda. Mer än hälften av dessa patienter går ned ytterligare i vikt under tiden de är inlagda på sjukhus. Norska riktlinjer (Kosthåndboken) för måltidsplanering på vårdinstanser rekommenderar systematisk måltidsplanering för att förebygga och behandla undernäring på sjukhus.

    Syfte Att ta fram information om aktuell situation gällande måltiderna som serverades vid ett regionalt sjukhus i Nordnorge och jämföra med nationella rekommendationer, samt att ta fram underlag för ett åtgärdsförslag.

     

    Metod Studien är en tvärsnittsstudie som genomfördes vid Nordlandssykehuset, Bodø, Nordnorge. Samtliga huvudmåltider i de två huvudkosterna (Nøkkelrådskost och Energi- og næringstett kost) näringsberäknades och jämfördes med rekommendationen. Recept, produktinformation och portionskalkyler inhämtades med intervju av kökspersonal. Tolv måltider, som uppnådde rekommenderad energinivå, validerades genom att varje portion vägdes.

    Resultat Inga recept fanns nedskrivna eller var näringsberäknade tidigare. Måltiderna innehöll i genomsnitt mindre energi än rekommenderat. Nøkkelrådskost nådde inte rekommenderad energinivå på 1800 kcal för huvudmåltider (exkluderat mellanmål/kvällsmat) medan Energi- og næringstett kost innehöll 98 % av 1440 kcal. Innehållet av protein varierade; Nøkkelrådskost; 50 gram -111 gram per dag, Energi- og næringstett kost; 51 - 89 gram per dag. Dagstotalen uppfyllde rekommenderat innehåll av kostfiber förutsatt att patienterna fick serverat mellanmål/kvällsmat, båda kosterna hade ett högt innehåll av salt. De validerade måltiderna var i genomsnitt större än planerad portionsstorlek.

    Slutsats Studien ger ett underlag för vidare arbete med måltidsplanering på sjukhuset. Den visar brister i måltidsplaneringen då inga recept fanns nedskrivna eller var näringsberäknade tidigare. Energinivåerna i huvudmåltiderna låg under rekommenderade nivåer för sjukhus och varierade stort, de innehöll för lite protein och för mycket salt. Energifördelning och fiberinnehåll uppfyller rekommendationen från Kosthåndboken. Sjukhuset rekommenderas arbeta vidare med måltidsplanering för att kvalitetssäkra matutbudet till de inskrivna patienterna.

     

  • 41.
    Carlsson, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hjorth, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Odqvist, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Vi vill veta mer: - En kvalitativ studie om mödrars upplevelser av kostsamtal inom mödra- och barnhälsovården2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Bakgrund: Våra matvanor grundläggs tidigt i livet. Med tanke på det rådande hälsoläget i Sverige och världen behöver långvarigt preventiva insatser sättas in i tidig ålder för att bekämpa utvecklingen av fetma. Salut-satsningen är ett exempel på en preventiv insats som syftar till att främja hälsa hos barn och ungdomar. Syfte: Att undersöka hur förstagångsmödrar upplever och uppfattar den information om hälsosamma matvanor som mödrahälsovården (MHV), barnavårdscentralen (BVC) och folktandvården ger inom Salut-satsningen. Metod: Kvalitativa semistrukturerade telefonintervjuer utfördes med 18 strategiskt utvalda förstagångsmödrar vars barn var i åldern ett till ett och ett halvt år. Data analyserades enligt Graneheims kvalitativa innehållsanalys. Mödrarna ingår i Västerbottens Salut-satsning och bor inom upptagningsområdet för Västerbottens läns landsting. Resultat: De flesta mödrar fick information om utrymmesmat, måltidsordning samt frukt och grönsaker. Informationen som vissa av mödrarna fått upplevdes för generell. Något mödrarna saknade från samtalen var mer individanpassad information samt att den skulle vara djupare. Den information som gavs varierade beroende på vilken hälsocentral mödrarna besökt. De hade inställningen att hela familjen bör äta hälsosamt samt att man som förälder bör vara en bra förebild. Många hade inställningen att de hade goda matvanor sedan tidigare och att förändring ej var nödvändig. Slutsats: Informationen om frukt och grönsaker är det budskap som framförallt gått fram till mödrarna, vilket motiverat dem till att göra förändringar i familjens matvanor. Mödrarna upplevde att informationen var för generell och att de saknar bakgrund till råden. En återkommande inställning bland mödrarna var att de redan ansåg sig ha goda matvanor och därför inte behövde ta åt sig av råden. 

  • 42.
    Carlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lundberg, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Varför väljer vuxna i Sverige att följa olika former av dieter?: En studie om orsak till samt val av diet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diets receive increasing media attention while more and more follow some kind of a diet.

    Objective: The aim was to investigate if and why adults in Sweden have chosen to follow any kind of diet. The impact of socioeconomics factors, on the choice of following a diet, were further analysed.

    Method: A web-based survey was distributed via Facebook where 235 people participated through a convenience sample. The questionnaire consisted of 23 closed questions. Responses were compiled and analyzed in IBM SPSS Statistics 21.0. The results were analyzed using the Chi-2 test, Mann Whitney U test and boxplots. The significance level was set at p <0.05.

    Results: The study showed that more women than men, more obese than normal-weight and more participants living in smaller municipalities than cities followed some kind of diet (p = 0.001, p = 0.002 and p = 0.047). Most common diet was LCHF and the most common reason to follow a diet was to feel good followed by reasons of appearance, which was the same for both sexes. Most common reason to choose their, for the time ongoing or latest diet, was that it was considered sustainable. Participants indicated that they came in contact with that same diet by friend, family or acquaintance who also were indicated as the most common way to gain further knowledge about the diet.

    Conclusion: A diet is not automatically healthy and a definition would facilitate future work in the field. In order to change people's eating habits social factors can play an important role.

  • 43. Chen, Xiao
    et al.
    Zhu, Guoying
    Wang, Zhongqiu
    Liang, Yihuai
    Chen, Bo
    He, Ping
    Nordberg, Monica
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Gunnar F
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Ding, Xiaoqiang
    Jin, Taiyi
    The association between dietary cadmium exposure and renal dysfunction - the benchmark dose estimation of reference levels: the ChinaCad study2018In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263, Vol. 38, no 10, p. 1365-1373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tolerable dietary intake of cadmium was recommended at provisional tolerable monthly intake of 25gkg(-1) body weight. However, several studies indicated that this tolerable level should be re-evaluated for sufficient health protection. In this study, we show the reference levels of dietary cadmium intake for renal dysfunction by using a benchmark dose (BMD) approach. A total of 790 subjects (302 men and 488 women) living in control and cadmium-polluted areas were included. The dietary cadmium intake was estimated by a food survey. Blood cadmium, urinary cadmium and renal function markers (microalbuminuria, N-acetyl--d-glucosaminidase [NAG] and its isoform B [NAGB], (2)-microglobulin and retinol binding protein) in urine were measured. We calculated the 95% lower confidence bounds of BMD (BMDLs) of cumulative cadmium intake. In control and two polluted areas, the median cumulative cadmium intake was 0.5, 2.1 and 11.1g. The odds ratio of the intermediate (1.0-3.0g), second highest (3.0-11.0g) and the highest cumulative cadmium intake (>11.0g) compared with the lowest cumulative cadmium intake (<1.0g) were 2.8 (95% CI: 1.4-5.8), 8.1 (95% CI: 3.8-17.2) and 11.4 (95% CI: 6.5-26.4) for urinary NAG and 6.6 (95% CI: 3.2-13.8), 14.8 (95% CI: 6.8-32.2) and 22.5 (95% CI: 10.7-47.5) for urinary NAGB. The BMDLs of cumulative cadmium intake were 1.1-1.2g (benchmark response [BMR]=5%) for urinary NAG, and were 0.7-0.9g (BMR=5%) for urinary NAGB, and were 1.3-1.4g (BMR=5%) for urinary (2)-microglobulin. The BMDLs of cumulative cadmium intake in a Chinese population were lower than the critical standard previously reported. Further evaluations are needed for sufficient health protection. Several studies indicated that the tolerable dietary intake of cadmium should be re-evaluated for sufficient health protection. In this study, we show the reference levels of dietary cadmium intake for renal dysfunction by using benchmark dose (BMD) approach. The lowest BMD lower bound confidence limits of cumulative cadmium intake were 0.7-0.9g (benchmark response=5%). The BMD lower bound confidence limits of cumulative cadmium intake were lower than the critical standard previously reported. Further evaluations are needed for sufficient health protection.

  • 44.
    Clausen, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Kundservice: Hur väl syns den på företagets hemsida?2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Cronqvist, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    von Almassy, Mathilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Genmodifierade organismer – För eller emot?: En kvantitativ studie om attityder gentemot samt köpvillighet av genmodifierade livsmedel bland konsumenter i Sverige.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) involves using genetic engineering to move a specific gene from one organism and crossing it with another to create characteristics of an organism which it naturally does not have. Attitudes and willingness to purchase genetically modified (GM) foods has been shown to differ between countries as well as between different groups.

    Objective The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumers in Sweden differ in attitudes towards GMOs and how incentives affect willingness to purchase GM-fruits and vegetables, depending on gender, age, level of education, and perceived knowledge about GMOs.

    Method Quantitative method was used with data collection via a web-based questionnaire containing 21 questions divided into three categories; inclusion criterias, attitudes, and willingness to purchase. The sample strategy used was a convenience sample where the survey was spread through the authors' Facebook profiles. The data from the 110 respondents was analyzed in SPSS with Pearson Chi-squared test and Fisher’s Exact Test.

    Results The results showed that women and 31 years and older had both a more negative attitude towards and was less willing to purchase GM-foods. No difference was detected between the levels of education. However, results showed a more positive attitude among those with a high perceived knowledge about GMO unlike those with a low or mediumperceived knowledge.

    Conclusion The results largely corresponded with previous research indicating that a change has not occurred since similar studies were conducted in Sweden in the early 2000s. The most prominent result is that women and 31 years and older respondents have a more negative attitude towards as well as are less willing to purchase GM-foods regardless of incentives.

  • 46.
    Dagman, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Inställning till och val av livsmedelsprodukter bland personer som är över 55 år2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Dahl, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Berge, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Dietary factors and food preparation techniques related to iron absorption: Knowledge and practice in the Kandal Province, Cambodia2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Malnutrition and coexisting micronutrient deficiencies are common in the developing world. A high prevalence of anemia is found in Cambodia with children and women being the most affected. Anemia is defined as lack of red blood cells, resulting in impaired blood function and poor oxygen transport. Iron deficiency (ID) is often an underlying factor of anemia. Diet modifications to increase intake and absorption of iron can to some extent prevent iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which is often caused by lack of iron in the diet. Objective The aim was to study knowledge and practice regarding food preparation techniques and dietary factors related to iron absorption in Kandal Province, Cambodia. Method Structured interviews based on a written questionnaire consisting of 17 closed questions were conducted in eight villages in Kandal Province, Cambodia. A total of 143 questionnaires were collected for analysis. Chi-square tests were performed using SPSS 18.0 and the significance level was set to p<0.05. Results The food habits showed lack of diversity. The diet was mainly rice based and red meat consumption was low. The majority used an iron pot for cooking, although not many knew that it could enhance the iron content in the food. The knowledge on bioavailability of iron appears to be limited. A significant correlation was found between those who had received information on iron and those who stated that red meat is a good source of iron(p=0.046). Conclusion Knowledge on food preparation techniques, dietary sources of iron, stimulating- and inhibiting factors for iron absorption appears to be limited. Interventions including education on bioavailability and how to enhance the iron content in the diet are important and they should be adapted to the local community. 

  • 48.
    Danielson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kostintag, energiförbrukning och kroppssammansättning hos orienterare2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Background Orienteering is an endurance sport where pace and intensity varies and differs from regular endurance running since it also includes hilly terrain and a cognitive component. The performance of orienteers can therefore be assumed to be more dependent on dietary composition than ordinary runners. There is currently insufficient research on body composition, energy expenditure and food intake of orienteers. Objective The aim of the study was to examine body composition, energy expenditure and dietary intake in orienteers and compare this with their needs and the recommendations and requirements for orienteers to perform optimally in their sport. Methods The study included 18 orienteers, 9 men and 9 women between 16 and 29 years, from just below the elite level to the elite level in orienteering. Body composition was investigated with Bodpod and bioimpedance. For three days, including two days of training and one day of rest the energy expenditure was investigated by activity monitors and an activity diary and dietary intake with a three-day weighed food record. Results The male participants had a body fat percentage of 11, 4 ± 4, 4 % and female at 26, 2 ±4, 5 %. Energy expenditure for male participants was 3804 ±451 kcal and for female participants 2963 ± 391 kcal. Energy intake was 3233 ±564 kcal for men and 2384 ± 428 kcal for women. Intake of protein was 1.6 g / kg body weight and intake of carbohydrates was 4.8 g / kg body weight. Average fat intake was 32 energy percent. The majority of participants had higher energy expenditure than their energy intake. Conclusion The study demonstrates a negative energy balance of the majority of participants. Many participants would be able to increase the intake of carbohydrates and fluids in order to optimize their performance. The amount of protein and fat was good in relation to the recommendations. 

  • 49.
    Danielsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Macellaro, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Vilka källor använder gravida för att få väsentlig kostinformation?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    David, Jonsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Livsmedelsval och näringsintag i svensk LCHF-kost ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background LCHF (Low Carbohydrate, High Fat) is a low-carbohydrate diet that have had a major impact in Sweden. The swedish National Food Administration are concerned regarding how this development will affect the public health, especially due to the rising cholesterol levels seen during the same period. The spokesmen of this diet are questioning the current recommendations meaning they are to blame for us being fat and ill. Despite this debate there’s a lack of data regarding the make up of  this diet.

    Objective The objective of the preset study was to chart the LCHF-diet regarding foodstuff choice and nutrient intake and discuss it from a public health perspective.

    Method 14 individuals who concidered eating a LCHF-diet were recruited to perform a scaled food record during three days. To estimate whether the participant where at risk consuming to little of a specifik nutrient the reported intake was compared with the estimated average requirement (EAR).

    Results Eight participants where included in the study. BMI (body mass index) exceeded 25 amongst all participants and five stated they where trying to loose weight. The reported energi intake(REI) was 34% lower than the estimated energy requirement. The mean carbohydrate consumtion contributed with 8% of the energy and fat 69%, of which saturated fat 29%. The consumption of dietary fiber was 7,5 g/day and the intake of cholesterol 625 mg/day. Sucrose contributed to 0,6% of total energy consumption. Intake <EAR where most common for iodine, iron and folic acid. Vitamin E, niacin, vitamin B12 and phosphate where consumed with margin to EAR.

    Conclusion The LCHF-diet in this study consisted of a large amount of fat and little carbohydrates, which has been reported to result in both advantages and disadvantages on public health. Should this diet be kept for a long time adjustments has to be made to minimize the reported risks. 

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