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  • 1.
    Agnemo, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skogen i våra hjärtan: Erfarenheter, emotionella band, värderingar och attityder till skog, natur och allemansrätten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish landscape is dominated by highly valued forests and stakeholders argue different uses. The aim of this study was to investigate peoples experience, emotional bonds and values of forests and nature, their attitudes towards human utilization of nature and right of public access (allemansrätt), including relationships them in between. All in all 663 university students among who 254 were women and 401 were men, with the mean age of 24, answered a survey. The results from correlations show relationships between all variables. An attitude saying that the right of public access is important was predicted by stronger emotional bonds and spending more time in the forest. An attitude saying that the right of public access should be restricted was predicted by higher valuing of forest production and was more common among forest owners. The results implicate that emotions, which are strong incentives for action and created by experience, should be considered to better accomplish environmental goals. Environments necessary for experiencing nature should be provided, which is today made possible by right of public access to nature. 

  • 2.
    Agritellis, Ioannis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social media as the Cosmo Neighborhood2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world has been transformed through the internet into a "global village",and social media platforms have possibly transformed the world into a larger neighborhood covering many regions of the world. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter came into people’s lives through the Internet, growing daily at a large rate, and it has been proven that they are very popular. This study examines links between different phenomena through social media platforms (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, blogs, etc.). It is discusses cohesiveness, desire to belong, sense of community, beliefs and opinions about different forms of these phenomena in popular virtual platforms in correlation with trust in social media, criticism of information that is spread by these virtual platforms, and if people are influenced in consumer decision making. A questionnaire has been distributed to a convenient sample of 159 international and Swedish students in Sweden in October-November 2012 in both English and Swedish versions. According to the peoples’ answers, tendencies were observed such as to not trust the platforms, and also the information received, beliefs such that social media are "controlled", negative critique, but also an expression for a need for ‘membership’.

  • 3.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Evaluation of Insight Training of Ambulance Drivers in Sweden Using DART: a New E-learning Tool2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a new e-learning tool for insight training of ambulance drivers can have an effect on drivers’ driving behaviors, perceived driving competence, competence to assess risks, self-reflection, and safety attitudes.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study design, with participants nonrandomly assigned into a control and intervention group, was used. The intervention group participated in the insight-training course and the control group did not. Both groups completed a self- and peer assessment online questionnaire before and after the training.

    Results: The main finding is that the ambulance drivers assessed themselves through the instruments after the training, with the e-learning tool Driver Access Recording Tool (DART), as safer drivers in the areas of speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In the answers from the group-based evaluation, the ambulance drivers responded that they were more reflective/analytical, had increased their risk awareness, and had changed their driving behaviors.

    Conclusions: After insight training, the ambulance drivers in this study assessed themselves as safer drivers in several important areas, including speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In future training of ambulance drivers there should be more focus on insight training instead of previous training focusing on maneuvering capabilities.

  • 4.
    Alfredsson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    INNOVATIVE TOOL-MODIFICATIONS AND TOOL SELECTIVITY IN NEW CALEDONIAN CROWS (CORVUS MONEDULOIDES)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tool-use and tool-manufacture are thought to require high cognitive skills and have been considered as an exclusive attribute to primates. Recent observations of New Caledonian crows (NCCs) challenge this assumption. In this study 13 NCCs were tested with two different tool production tasks. The NCC either had to straighten a hook or bend a stick to retrieve food from two different kinds of tree trunks. The result showed that 3/5 birds bent sticks and used them to retrieve food and 1/5 birds straightened hooks to retrieve food. The birds managed to solve both tasks but not the birds in the control group. This indicates that NCC's tool making is a flexible innovative act and not just an innate predisposition to bend flexible material. This finding is interesting given that recent studies on human children show that below 8 years of age children fail in similar innovative tool making tasks.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anchoring in inference and preference judgments2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making is an important part of everyday life and we often need to make trade-offs among different alternatives with desirable traits. Previous studies investigating the anchoring bias suggest that when a question is asked with a reference value, the reference value will affect the answer to that question. This effect seems to occur in a variety of different domains. However, previous studies have mainly focused on anchoring using inference questions. The present study, therefore, aims to investigate if high and low anchors have an effect, not only on inference judgments but also on subjective preferences when making a trade-off decision. A computer-based questionnaire was used to collect data (N = 90) in a between-subject design. The anchor showed to have an effect on the inference questions. For the preference questions, one of the questions were close to the chosen threshold (p < .05). The other question for preference showed not to be significant. The result from this study imply that the anchoring effect was more explicit in inference judgment than in preferences with trade-offs.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjuk av lukter2014In: Fagbladet Allergi i praksis, ISSN 0806-5462, Vol. 3, p. 6-14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Box 7629, SE-90712 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 129-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 8.
    Appelblad, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sandzén, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bilingualism and the Simon effect: A multimodal approach2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has studied the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive abilities. In some of those studies results have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals in visual Simon tasks (i.e. they are less distracted by the incongruent stimuli). The aim of the current study is to see if a similar effect can be found in Simon tasks using the tactile and auditory sensory modalities. In this study bilingual participants (36 university students) with different proficiency in their second language performed a Simon task employing two intensities of vibration and two different sounds as the relevant stimuli. The results indicated no negative correlation between either bilingual proficiency and Simon effect or daily use of the second language and Simon effect when controlling for working memory. Without controlling for working memory a negative correlation for the tactile condition and a positive correlation for the auditory condition between Simon effect and daily use of the second language was found. It’s concluded that the statistical power of this study suffers from a lack of participants and that if the test was reproduced with more participants with a greater spread in their language abilities a stronger effect might be seen. Also concluded is that more cross-modal studies need to be performed before conclusions about general cognitive effects of bilingualism can be drawn.

  • 9. Appelgren, Alva
    et al.
    Osika, Walter
    Theorell, Töres
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Horwitz, Eva
    Tuning in on motivation: Differences between non-musicians, amateurs, and professional musicians2019In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The drive to learn and engage in music varies among individuals. Global motivation to do something can be intrinsic, for example, the joy and satisfaction in an activity. But motivation behind our action can also be extrinsic, such as the desire for fame, status or increased financial resources. The type of motivation probably influences to what degree individuals engage in musical activities. In this study, we examined the associations between the level of musical engagement and self-rated global motivation, factoring in age and sex, in a sample of 5,435 individuals. Musical engagement ranged from no music activity to amateurs and professional musicians. We found that intrinsic motivation increases with level of music activity and that motivation differs depending on sex, with females scoring higher on intrinsic motivation than males. Such differences may be considered in adjusting the forms of support offered to young musicians in music education. The phenomenon of motivation is complex, and we have highlighted areas that require further investigation, but this study has elucidated some differences in motivation types found in men and women, and between non-musicians, amateurs and professional musicians.

  • 10. Bangsbo, Jens
    et al.
    Blackwell, Joanna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    DRCMR, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Caserotti, Paolo
    Dela, Flemming
    Evans, Adam B.
    Jespersen, Astrid Pernille
    Gliemann, Lasse
    Kramer, Arthur F.
    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper
    Lykke Mortensen, Erik
    Juul Lassen, Aske
    Gow, Alan J.
    Harridge, Stephen D.R.
    Hellsten, Ylva
    Kjaer, Michael
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Rhodes, Ryan E.
    Pike, Elizabeth C.J.
    Skinner, Timothy
    Skovgaard, Thomas
    Troelsen, Jens
    Tulle, Emmanuelle
    Tully, Mark A.
    van Uffelen, Jannique G.Z.
    Viña, Jose
    Copenhagen Consensus statement 2019: physical activity and ageing2019In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From 19th to 22nd November 2018, 26 researchers representing nine countries and a variety of academic disciplines met in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity and older adults. It was recognised that the term ‘older adults’ represents a highly heterogeneous population. It encompasses those that remain highly active and healthy throughout the life-course with a high intrinsic capacity to the very old and frail with low intrinsic capacity. The consensus is drawn from a wide range of research methodologies within epidemiology, medicine, physiology, neuroscience, psychology and sociology, recognising the strength and limitations of each of the methods. Much of the evidence presented in the statements is based on longitudinal associations from observational and randomised controlled intervention studies, as well as quantitative and qualitative social studies in relatively healthy community-dwelling older adults. Nevertheless, we also considered research with frail older adults and those with age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, and in a few cases molecular and cellular outcome measures from animal studies. The consensus statements distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity is used as an umbrella term that includes both structured and unstructured forms of leisure, transport, domestic and work-related activities. Physical activity entails body movement that increases energy expenditure relative to rest, and is often characterised in terms of intensity from light, to moderate to vigorous. Exercise is defined as a subset of structured physical activities that are more specifically designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, cognitive function, flexibility balance, strength and/or power. This statement presents the consensus on the effects of physical activity on older adults’ fitness, health, cognitive functioning, functional capacity, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion. It also covers the consensus on physical activity implementation strategies. While it is recognised that adverse events can occur during exercise, the risk can be minimised by carefully choosing the type of activity undertaken and by consultation with the individual’s physician when warranted, for example, when the individual is frail, has a number of co-morbidities, or has exercise-related symptoms, such as chest pain, heart arrhythmia or dizziness. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with the presentation of the state-of-the-science in each domain, followed by group and plenary discussions. Ultimately, the participants reached agreement on the 30-item consensus statements.

  • 11.
    Bergqvist, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ulander, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ledarskapets effekt på prestation och upplevd motivation - en experimentell studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within sports, leadership is considered having a great impact on individuals’ motivation. Leadership could, within a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, be sorted into two different styles, autonomous and controlling leadership. There is a gap in current research concerning the effects of autonomous and controlling leadership on motivation in experimental settings. The aim of the present study was to, in an isolated environment, examine how an autonomy supportive- or a controlling leadership affects intrinsic motivation and performance. The study included 37 participants who, over a period of 20 minutes, performed a lego building task under a neutral, an autonomy supportive- or a controlling leadership style condition. The results indicated that the controlling leadership style had a negative impact on motivation and that the controlled group had lower perceived competence compared to the autonomous group. None of the leadership styles affected performance. Further, perceived motivation was found to significantly correlate with task.

  • 12. Berlin, Martin
    et al.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being2019In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 73, p. 34-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affect—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory component of affect, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reports of both variables, including current-mood bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experience sampling survey that we conducted on a population sample of Swedes aged 18–50 (n=252). Our main estimates of the correlation between life satisfaction and long-run affective well-being range between 0.78 and 0.91, indicating a stronger convergence between these variables than many previous studies that do not account for measurement issues.

  • 13.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Test-enhanced learning and the effects of individual differences in cognition and personality2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Test-enhanced learning refers to the well-established finding that repeated testing of a material will result in better recall of the material than repeated study will do, i.e. the testing effect. However, an under-researched aspect is how the effect of test-enhanced learning may vary due to individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality characteristics. The overarching purpose of this thesis is two-folded. First to evaluate the effects of test-enhanced learning. Second to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity, Need for Cognition, Grit, and test-enhanced learning. The within-subjects intervention consisted of 60 Swedish-Swahili word pairs. Subjects repeatedly studied 30 items and were repeatedly tested on 30 items. The effect of the intervention was measured immediately after training, 1 week later and 4 weeks later. The results showed that test-enhanced learning led to improved learning compared to restudy at all retention tests, replicating the testing effect. No association was found between either repeated testing or repeated study and WMC, NFC, or Grit.  

  • 14.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017In: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 241-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 15.
    Birbas, Nicole
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Terneborg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Second language proficiency and its effects on cognitive functions:: Relations between bilingualism and tactile and visual versions of the Simon task2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals have repeatedly shown to have better results than monolinguals in non-verbal cognitive tasks that require inhibition of distracting stimuli. Evidence suggests that this enhanced performance is due to training effects of non domain specific executive functions, and that this gain in cognitive performance can contribute to a cognitive reserve in old age. One of the most frequently used methods when studying the relationship between second language proficiency and cognitive abilities is the Simon task in the visual sensory modality. The present study aimed to determine if the advantage found in the visual Simon task also could apply to a tactile Simon task. The sample consisted of 40 individuals aged 43 to 64 with different levels in their second language. An operational span test (OSPAN) was used to control for working memory capacity. No significant correlation was found between bilingualism and the Simon effect in either modality. Since the study has low statistical power and a small range in second language proficiency, it was concluded that further research investigating whether the bilingual advantage found in the visual Simon task can be found across modalities is necessary before any conclusions regarding a relationship between bilingualism and cognitive control can be made. 

  • 16.
    Björk, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Could musical mastery affect how attractive a person is rated as a prospective partner?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary psychology explains and predicts human behaviour based on its adaptive value. Some apparently non-adaptive behaviours such as humans’ devotion to music can be explained by sexual selection of costly signals, since it takes time and effort to learn to play an instrument well. Here, participants rated pictures of persons of the opposite sex that were said to play a piece of music that was heard while watching each picture. The music performances were either of low, medium, or high level of skill, and a better performance was predicted to lead to higher ratings of partner attractiveness because it is more costly. No effect of the music was found, except that women rated men as less desirable for a long-term relationships when the skill level was high than when it was medium.

  • 17.
    Borén, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kvinnor, kriminalitet och psykisk ohälsa: Lider kvinnliga brottslingar vanligen av psykisk ohälsa?2014Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Brodén, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundbladh, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The effects of sleep disturbances on memory2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the effects of sleep quality and non-restorative sleep on both subjective and objective memory function in an elderly population. Data was drawn from a longitudinal study in Umeå and consisted initially of 956 persons. After excluding people under 65 years of age and controlling for missing values the remaining sample consisted of 389 male (n=185) and female (n=204) persons. Linear multiple regressions were performed to analyze if sleep quality disturbance and non-restorative sleep predicted subjective and objective memory function. The result showed that both high values of sleep quality disturbances and non-restorative sleep were predictive of subjective memory complaints. However, neither of the two sleep dimensions were predictive of objective memory function. Future research should focus on the longitudinal effects of sleep disturbances on objective memory performance as well as the effect of sleep disturbances on episodic memory. 

  • 19.
    Brown, Gavin T. L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Swedish student perceptions of achievement practices: the role of intelligence2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 69, p. 94-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of intelligence and motivational constructs in school achievement is well attested. Beliefs and attitudes about assessment (including classroom assessment, homework and tests) can be adaptive within a self-regulation of learning framework. However, the role of intelligence upon the student and parent coping with school assessment practices is less well known. This paper examines responses of Swedish Grade 6 (modal age 13) students (N = 4749) participating in the Education Through Follow-up (ETF) project to four cognitive tests and survey items concerning achievement demands. Their responses were integrated with parent perceptions of grading and school pressure. Robust factors for intelligence, student perceptions, and parental perceptions were found and introduced into a structural equation model with intelligence as the predictor. The well-fitting SEM model showed that intelligence had statistically significant predictions on all four student and three parent perceptions factors, of which two predicted student factors. However, only one prediction was substantive; intelligence on coping with school demands (beta = 0.48). Although not allowing for causal inference, the results support the claim that general cognitive abilities act as a predictor of self-regulating capability of coping with school demands.

  • 20. Burstrom, Asa
    et al.
    Mora, Mariela Acuna
    Ojmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    Sparud-Lundin, Carina
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hanseus, Katarina
    Frenckner, Bjorn
    Nisell, Margret
    Moons, Philip
    Bratt, Ewa-Lena
    Ready for Transfer to Adult Care?: A Triadic Evaluation of Transition Readiness in Adolescents With Congenital Heart Disease and Their Parents2019In: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, article id UNSP 1074840719864255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer to adult care for adolescents with chronic conditions ought to be determined by transition readiness. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the level of readiness for transition in adolescents with congenital heart disease, (b) to compare adolescents' assessment of transition readiness with their parents' assessments, and (c) to study potential correlates of transition readiness. A total of 157 triads of adolescents aged 14 to 18 years and their parents completed the Readiness for Transition Questionnaire. Adolescents scored higher on overall readiness than their parents. Multivariable analyses revealed that higher levels of adolescents' overall readiness were associated with a less threatening view of the illness, a higher level of empowerment, and with higher mothers' and fathers' overall readiness scores. Adolescents' responsibility scores were positively associated with age and parental adolescent responsibility scores. Parental involvement scores were negatively associated with adolescents' age and positively with the mothers' parental involvement scores. By using a triadic evaluation, the results of the present study significantly extend what is currently known about this population.

  • 21.
    Börjesson, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychometric studies of the Swedish version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) instrument2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes studies into the psychometric properties of a Swedish language version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) instrument. The psychometric properties of this instrument have been examined in two previous studies: an American study was conducted by the developers of the interview, Friedman and Utada (1989), and a Swiss study was undertaken by Bolognini et al. (2001). The American and the French (as used in the Swiss study) versions of ADAD exhibit good validity and reliability, in the form of both interrater reliability and the internal consistency of the composite scores. Study I evaluated the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the ADAD interview in normal adolescents and adolescents with antisocial problems. It was found that the instrument has good interrater reliability, that the composite scores exhibit moderate internal consistency, and that the concept validity was acceptable and similar to that of the American and Swiss versions. The results also showed that the problem areas of ADAD produced meaningful correlations. The interviewer ratings, the adolescent’s ratings and the composite scores were compared and discussed. Some problems concerning the composite scores were discovered and will need to be analyzed in future studies. Study II investigated the utility and problems associated with the composite scores in the ADAD within and between normal adolescents and adolescents with antisocial problems. When comparing interviewer severity ratings and composite scores within the two groups, the composite scores were found to behave differently to the interviewer ratings. For normal adolescents, the composite scores are generally higher than the interviewer ratings, but for the adolescents with antisocial problems the reverse is true. The interviewer severity ratings seem to be the most appropriate outcome when the objective is to separate antisocial and normal groups of adolescents from each other. The difference between the two groups is smaller as measured by composite scores. The composite scores appear to function as viable indicators of current problems in all areas except for Medical and Alcohol problem area. The critical items within the Medical and Alcohol composite scores are explored and discussed.  Study III investigated the concurrent and predictive validity of the ADAD Psychological status and problem area. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between the ADAD, Youth Self Report (YSR) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. The predictive validity of this problem area of the ADAD was tested by exploring its correlations with the YSR, BDI, and DICA problem ratings; moderate correlations were observed, suggesting that in clinical practice, the ADAD Psychological status and problem area may be a useful tool for the assessment and measurement of current psychological problems. The utility obtained by making decisions using the test is substantial. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the Swedish version of ADAD appears to be a psychometrically good instrument for assessing the severity of adolescents’ problems and their need for treatment, but there are some problems with the Medical and Alcohol composite scores.

  • 22.
    Börjesson, Josefine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Concurrent and predictive validity of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD)2012In: Open Psychology Journal, ISSN 1874-3501, Vol. 5, p. 20-30Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concurrent and predictive validity of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) in the Psychological status and problem area was examined for two adolescent groups: a non-clinical population of 121 Swedish adolescents (62 girls and 59 boys) aged 15 to17 years and a clinical population of 31 adolescents (14 girls and 17 boys) aged 12 to 19 years detained in special youth homes. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between the ADAD, Youth Self Report (YSR) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. Findings regarding the predictive validity of ADAD show moderate associations with YSR, BDI and DICA problem ratings. The findings suggest that for clinical practice the ADAD Psychological status and problem area may be an appropriate assessment tool for measurement of current psychological problems. The utility obtained by making decisions using the test is substantial.

  • 23.
    Carlberg, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Are normative probabilty judgments a "system two"-operation?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human judgment and decision making has demonstrated systematic and predictable biases of judgment in experimental settings. One example of this is the tendency to intuitively violate the conjunction rule - a simple rule of probability. This was well illustrated in the famous Linda-problem. (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). According to the dual-process theory of reasoning, (Kahneman, 2011) reasoning fallacies such as the conjunction fallacy occurs when people fail to use analytic reasoning and instead overly rely on their intuition. The dual process theory proposes that cognitive processes underlying our intuitive impulses and our conscious reasoning constitutes two different modes in the mind –system 1 and system 2- and that the intuitive system 1 are not able to compute probabilities. Furthermore, it is assumed that processes that are labeled system 1 are fast whereas system 2 are thought to be slow. We tested these time course assumptions of dual process theory in a within-subject design by comparing response time latencies between conjunction fallacy judgments and accurate probability judgments. The results showed that inducing accurate responding did not result in delayed response latency. This indicates that making accurate probability judgments does not require more processing time which goes against what would be expected by the dual-process framework.

  • 24.
    Carlehed, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Katz, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression: a population-based study2017In: Mental Health & Prevention, ISSN 2212-6570, Vol. 6, p. 57-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Colledge, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hypertension, Infection and Inflammation and their Effects on Memory and Visuospatial Skills in Ageing2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Blood pressure has previously been associated with decline in memory over time, though the exact mechanism behind this effect is uncertain. Infections, which can lead to systemic inflammation have also been linked to some cardiovascular damage to the brain, known as microbleeds, which have themselves been linked to greater declines in cognition in old age. The present study investigates whether blood pressure, a self-reported history of infection, and an indirect measure of inflammation known as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate have any association with on episodic and semantic memory and visuospatial skills in the Betula study, a Swedish longitudinal population study. The effect of elevated blood pressure (over 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic), high blood sedimentation (top 33% against bottom 33% of participants), and self-reported infection were all found to not have any significant effect on episodic memory, semantic memory or visuospatial skills. Some of the possible explanations are elaborated in the discussion.

  • 26.
    Dahlin, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Train your brain: updating, transfer, and neural changes2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An initial aim of this thesis was to determine whether training of a specific executive function (updating) produces improvements in performance on trained and transfer tasks, and whether the effects are maintained over time. Neural systems underlying training and transfer effects were also investigated and one question considered is whether transfer depends on general or specific neural overlap between training and transfer tasks. An additional aim was to identify how individual differences in executive functioning are mapped to functional brain changes. In Study I, significant training-related changes in performance on the letter memory criterion task were found in both young and older adults after 5 weeks of updating training. Transfer to a 3-back test of updating was also demonstrated in the young adults. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) revealed overlapping activity in letter memory and 3-back tasks in fronto-parietal areas and striatum pre-training, and a joint training-related activity increase for the tasks in a striatal region. No transfer was observed to a task (Stroop) that engaged fronto-parietal areas, but not the striatal region and updating per se. Moreover, age-related striatal changes imposed constraints on transfer. In Study II, additional transfer tasks and a test of long-term maintenance were included. Results revealed that training-related gains in performance were maintained 18 months post-training in both young and older adults, whereas transfer effects were limited to tasks requiring updating and restricted to young participants. In Study III, analyses of brain activity and performance during n-back (1/2/3-back) were executed. This task enables manipulation of executive demand, which permits examination of how individual differences in executive functioning can be mapped to functional brain changes. Relative to a young high-

    performing group, capacity constraints in executive functioning were apparent between 1–2-back for the elderly participants and between 2–3-back for a young low-performing group. Capacity constraints in neural activity followed this pattern by showing a monotonically increasing response in the parietal cortex and the thalamus for young high performers, whereas activity levelled off at 1-back for elderly performers and at 2-back for young low performers. The response in the dorsal frontal cortex followed a similar pattern. Together, these findings indicate that fronto-parietal as well as sub-cortical areas are important for individual differences in executive functioning, training of updating and transfer effects.

  • 27.
    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz
    et al.
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Danish Research Centre for Chemical Sensitivities, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Chemical Intolerance2015In: Current Rheumatology Reviews, ISSN 1573-3971, E-ISSN 1875-6360, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 167-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance (CI) is a term used to describe a condition in which the sufferer experiences a complex array of recurrent unspecific symptoms attributed to low-level chemical exposure that most people regard as unproblematic. Severe CI constitutes the distinguishing feature of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). The symptoms reported by CI subjects are manifold, involving symptoms from multiple organs systems. In severe cases of CI, the condition can cause considerable life-style limitations with severe social, occupational and economic consequences. As no diagnostic tools for CI are available, the presence of the condition can only be established in accordance to criteria definitions. Numerous modes of action have been suggested to explain CI, with the most commonly discussed theories involving the immune system, central nervous system, olfactory and respiratory systems as well as altered metabolic capacity, behavioral conditioning and emotional regulation. However, in spite of more than 50 years of research, there is still a great deal of uncertainties regarding the event(s) and underlying mechanism( s) behind symptom elicitation. As a result, patients are often misdiagnosed or offered health care solutions with limited or no effect, and they experience being met with mistrust and doubt by health care professionals, the social care system and by friends and relatives. Evidence-based treatment options are currently unavailable, however, a person-centered care model based on a multidisciplinary treatment approach and individualized care plans have shown promising results. With this in mind, further research studies and health care solutions should be based on a multifactorial and interdisciplinary approach.

  • 28.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Woodman, Tim
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 457-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of individual differences in anger regulation as potential moderators of the anger–performance relationship. Extending Lazarus’s (1991, 2000a) cognitive–motivational–relational theory of emotion, we investigated the influence of trait anger and the anger regulation styles of anger-in and anger-out on the performance of a physical task. As hypothesized, trait anger and anger-out were positively associated with anger-derived performance enhancement on a peak force task; anger-in significantly inhibited the trait anger–performance relationship. Results are discussed in relation to Lazarus’s cognitive–motivational–relational theory and future research directions are offered.

  • 29.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bäckström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Department of Psychology, Uppsala University.
    Kinematic characteristics of second‐order motor planning and performance in 6‐ and 10‐year‐old children and adults: Effects of age and task constraints2019In: Developmental Psychobiology, ISSN 0012-1630, E-ISSN 1098-2302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored age‐related differences in motor planning as expressed in arm‐hand kinematics during a sequential peg moving task with varying demands on goal insertion complexity (second‐order planning). The peg was a vertical cylinder with either a circular or semicircular base. The task was to transport the peg between two positions and rotate it various amounts horizontally before fitting into its final position. The amount of rotation required was either 0°, 90°, 180°, or −90°. The reaching for the peg, the displacement of it, and the way the rotation was accomplished was analyzed. Assessments of end state comfort, goal interpretation errors, and type of grip used were also included. Participants were two groups of typically developing children, one younger (Mage = 6.7 years) and one older (Mage = 10.3 years), and one adult group (Mage = 34.9 years). The children, particularly 6‐year‐olds, displayed less efficient prehensile movement organization than adults. Related to less efficient motor planning, 6‐year‐olds, mainly, had shorter reach‐to‐grasp onset latencies, higher velocities, and shorter time to peak velocities, and longer grasp durations than adults. Importantly, the adults rotated the peg during transport. In contrast, the children made corrective rotations after the hand had arrived at the goal.

  • 30.
    Domellöf, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developmental progression and side specialization in upper-limb movements from 4 to 8 years in children born preterm and fullterm2018In: Developmental Neuropsychology, ISSN 8756-5641, E-ISSN 1532-6942, Vol. 43, no 3, p. 219-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated developmental changes and differences in upper-limb movement organization from 4 to 8 years of age in children born preterm (PT) and fullterm (FT). Kinematic recordings of precision-demanding unimanual movements and lateral assessments were carried out in 37 children (18 PT). All children, particularly children born PT, displayed considerable gain in movement kinematics. Contrary to controls, children born PT displayed persistently less-evident side preference. Gestational age (GA) contributed significantly to kinematic differences shown, with larger upper-limb deviances in the lowest GAs, in agreement with cross-sectional findings of altered hemispheric connections and delayed side-specialization among children born very PT.

  • 31.
    Dornheim, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kaltsouni, Elisavet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå center for Functional Brain Imaging.
    Neural correlates of selective attention during working memory in presence of distraction2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Briefly maintaining information in working memory (WM) requires focusing on goal-specific information and filtering out irrelevant information. Selective attention has been indicated as critical in successful WM encoding and maintenance of the short-term information. Spatial selective attention mediates WM processing of goal-relevant information and concurrently inhibiting distractors. This is a result of reverberating top-down signals of a distributed frontoparietal network interacting with sensory areas. The current fMRI study used a delayed-match-to-sample task to explore the differential contribution of the network during WM information encoding and maintenance phases, by presenting relevant and distracting stimuli simultaneously. The aim of the study was to test for increased activity in frontoparietal network in the distractor presence compared to the target only condition during the encoding and maintenance phases. Moreover, by examining contralateral to target activation in both conditions, we investigated how the short-term representations would affect allocation of attention. Behavioral results showed a small but significant distractor interference. However, no evidence for top-down modulation in the distractor contexts was obtained from the univariate fMRI analyses, neither for the encoding nor the maintenance phase. Whole-brain and ROI analyses for contralateral activity to target location, revealed no links to the top-down network and attentional allocation. This study provided no definitive evidence on selective attention modulation during WM processing, which indicates the need for greater WM load manipulation in future designs.

  • 32. du Preez, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Cassimjee, Nafisa
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Ghazinour, Seyedmehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Richter, Jörg
    Personality and mental health: An investigation of South African police trainees2011In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 108, no 1, p. 301-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between personality and mental health was investigated in one cohort of police trainees at a South African police academy (1,145 police recruits; 648 men, 497 women). Male trainees reported less somatisation, depression, anxiety, and phobic anxiety symptoms and lower harm avoidance as well as higher persistence than female trainees. A cluster analysis based on the personality scores was used to identify three clusters with personality profiles characterized as Vulnerable, Healthy, and Intermediate profiles. Sociodemographic variables and temperament and character domain scores contributed separately and differentially to the explanation of variance in mental health symptom scores. Selection tools should be developed to identify vulnerable individuals in terms of personality characteristics during selection and prior to training, to prevent later problems with stress reactions. Additional training modules focusing on coping skills could possibly reduce vulnerability to stress in some trainees.

  • 33. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    Rajeh, Mohammed Yahya Mohammed
    Sex differences on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices within Saudi Arabia and across the Arab world: females' advantage decreases from childhood to adolescence2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 134, p. 66-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in intelligence are of great importance with regard to understanding intelligence's underlying evolutionary forces. Previous research in this area has had a strong focus on Western countries and data across developmental stages are fragmented. Here, we present new data on Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices from three samples in Saudi Arabia, and combine these with nine previously published studies from other Arab countries, which also provide data for each year of age. We specifically consider Lynn's developmental theory of sex differences in intelligence, whereby a female advantage becomes pronounced due to earlier average puberty and then decreases as males enter puberty. The estimates for each age do not differ significantly from zero, and very few from each other, apparently due to large heterogeneity across studies. Nevertheless, the age trend is largely consistent with Lynn's model. Moreover, its specific predictions are seemingly borne out in many individual countries. Plausible explanations for incongruities in Sudan, Libya, Yemen and Saudi Arabia are also examined.

  • 34. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    van der Linden, Dimitri
    Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why do high IQ societies differ in intellectual achievement?: The role of schizophrenia and left-handedness in per capita scientific publications and Nobel prizes2019In: The Journal of creative behavior, ISSN 0022-0175, E-ISSN 2162-6057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has attempted to understand why countries with relatively favorable conditions and high estimated average IQs (such as Finland and Japan) have a relatively low per capita number of scientific Nobel prizes. In the present study, we examine whether there is a relationship between national schizophrenia and left‐handedness prevalence, on the one hand, and per capita scientific and literary achievement, on the other hand, in countries with IQ estimates of at least 90. We found that per capita science and literature Nobel prizes and scientific publications are strongly negatively associated with schizophrenia and strongly positively correlated with left‐handedness. There also was a very pronounced negative correlation between schizophrenia rate and left‐handedness rate. These results suggest that genius can be regarded as a combination of very high IQ, aspects of high‐functioning autism (specifically low empathy) plus relatively low impulse control, consistent with observations of intellectually outstanding individuals, and the fact that schizophrenia appears to constitute the opposite pole of these aspects of autism spectrum. We posit differences in androgen levels as a possible underlying explanation for these findings.

  • 35.
    Edberg, Arvid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ahlzén, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aspects of modern health worries as predictors of development of anxiety and depression symptoms2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Worries about the negative health effects of modern life (Modern health worries, MHW) have increased during the last decades, but the phenomenon is not fully understood. The present study investigated the associative and predictive relationship between different types of MHW and symptoms of anxiety and depression in a large sample from Västerbotten county, Sweden (n=2223). The four subscales of the Modern Health Worries Scale (MHWS) were used to assess different types of MHW, while symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Spearman's correlation analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used to assess the degrees of association and prediction, respectively. It was shown that the subscales were associated with symptoms of both anxiety and depression to varying degrees, however MHW did not significantly predict symptoms of neither anxiety nor depression. This suggests that when using the MHWS in clinical settings, examining the subscales rather than the global score of MHWS provides a more nuanced understanding of an individual's experience. It also suggests that experiencing MHW does not cause an increase in neither anxiety nor depression.

  • 36. Ekström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Larsson, Maria
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline2019In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments may provide early indications of future health outcomes in older adults. Thus, an important question concerns whether these impairments can be self-assessed. Previous findings of cross-sectional studies indicate low correlations between self-reported olfactory function and objective olfactory performance. On the other hand, subjective olfactory impairments predict future dementia and mortality in longitudinal settings. No previous study has assessed the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured decline in olfaction over time. Based on data for 903 older adults derived from the Betula Study, a Swedish population-based prospective study, we tested whether rate-of-change in odor identification could be predicted from subjective olfactory decline over a time span of 10 years during which subjective and objective odor functions were assessed on 2 or 3 test occasions. Indeed, we found that participants who experienced subjective olfactory decline over the study period also had significantly steeper rates of decline in odor identification, even after adjusting for demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors that previously have been associated with performance in odor identification. This association was, however, not present in a subsample with baseline cognitive impairment. We interpret these results as evidence that when asked about whether they have an olfactory impairment or not, older persons are assessing intraindividual olfactory changes, rather than interindividual differences. Our results indicate that subjective olfactory loss reflects objective olfactory decline in cognitively intact older adults. This association might be harnessed to predict health outcomes and highlights the need to develop effective olfactory self-assessments.

  • 37.
    Elentari, Aruna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Evaluating the effect of the Sensavis visual learning tool on student performance in a Swedish elementary school2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dual coding theory implies that engaging multiple modalities (e.g., visual, auditory) in instruction enhances learning. Presenting information via 3D images and 3D animations appears to improve student performance but the results are inconsistent across multiple studies. The present study investigated the effect of the Sensavis visual learning tool, a 3D educational software, on performance in chemistry among students in a Swedish elementary school. Thirty-seven students from grades 7 and 9 received training involving a 3D animation on chemical bonds while nineteen students in grade 8 had traditional instruction. ANCOVA results controlling for age and average chemistry grade revealed a statistically significant difference in the posttest performance with the control group outperforming both experimental groups. These results indicate that the Sensavis tool did not have a positive effect on learning chemistry compared to traditional instruction. Interpretation of the results is presented in discussion. 

  • 38.
    Emanuelsson, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundmark, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Utvärdering av KONTAKT i en klinisk verksamhet: Förändringar i sociala färdigheter hos en grupp 15-åriga pojkar med autismspektrumtillstånd2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Brist på sociala färdigheter är en svårighet som kopplas till autismspektrumtillstånd (AST). Många olika interventioner har föreslagits för att förbättra sociala färdigheter för barn och ungdomar med AST med blandade resultat. KONTAKT är en relativt ny manualbaserad metod som fått ökat intresse inom kliniska verksamheter och forskning. Syftet med studien var att utvärdera kort- och långsiktiga behandlingseffekter av KONTAKT. Studien genomfördes vid en Barn- och ungdomshabilitering som en klinisk effektstudie utan kontrollgrupp. Fem pojkar i 15-årsåldern, 11 föräldrar samt ett antal lärare till var och en av pojkarna deltog i studien. Data samlades in genom enkäter och semistrukturerade intervjuer. De kvantitativa resultaten visade huvudsakligen inte på någon effekt förutom en viss positiv förändring avseende föräldrarnas upplevelse av ungdomarnas sociala färdigheter, medan de kvalitativa resultaten skulle kunna antyda en mer positiv förändring. Sammanfattningsvis skulle KONTAKT kunna vara en användbar metod för att förbättra sociala färdigheter. Resultatet bör dock tolkas med försiktighet med tanke på urvalsstorleken, frånvaron av kontrollgrupp samt databortfall. Vidare forskning med randomiserade kontrollgrupper behövs för att kunna säkerställa effekten av KONTAKT.

  • 39.
    Emil, Lundgren
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Toivanen Persson, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effekter av kortvarig fysisk aktivitet på kognitiva förmågor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Quick work out sessions has been shown to improve students’ academic performance. Furthermore, certain cognitive functions have also been shown to improve academic performance. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate if quick work out sessions can improve certain cognitive functions and whether these functions could act as mediator variables between exercise and academic performance. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to a control group that was shown a music video (n=15) and an experiment group that was asked to use a step up exercise device (n=15). Cognitive shifting, episodic memory and perceptual speed were tested in both groups, before and after the intervention. The result didn’t show a significant effect on any cognitive function. This might be explained by the low amount of participants, considering that similar studies often have small effects.Key words: acute exercise, cognitive shifting, episodic memory, perceptual speed.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Components and Drivers of Long-term Risk Communication: Exploring the Within- Communicator, Relational, and Content Dimensions in the Swedish Forest Context2017In: Organization & environment, ISSN 1086-0266, E-ISSN 1552-7417, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 162-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Risk communication is important for a sustainable management of natural resources. Even though risk management is ideally ongoing, studies of long-term risk communication from the perspective of the communicator are lacking. This case study examined the preparation and implementation of forest risk communication in Sweden. Interviews were conducted with advisors at the Swedish Forest Agency, responsible for providing information to forest owners and professional foresters dealing with risks damaging the forest (e.g., storms and forest management damaging ecological values). The communicator’s perspective was analyzed based on a conceptual framework describing risk communication by means of the components: within communicator, relational, and content. Potential drivers of the preparation and implementation of risk communication in this context, intersecting the three components, included the policy and regulatory framework, the management of the agency, the location of the agency, and the balancing of different interests.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Björkman, Christer
    Klapwijk, Maartje J.
    General Public Acceptance of Forest Risk Management Strategies in Sweden: Comparing Three Approaches to Acceptability2018In: Environment and Behavior, ISSN 0013-9165, E-ISSN 1552-390X, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 159-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change calls for more active approaches to forest risk management. To avoid unforeseen backlashes, it is necessary to examine the general public's acceptance of the risk management strategies. By drawing on different theoretical approaches (threat and prevention, performance evaluations, and forest cognitions), the present study examines predictors of acceptability in the general public in three counties in Sweden (N = 1,026). As expected, appraisals of threat mediated the effect of threat awareness on belief in risk prevention, and when examining performance evaluations, trust in responsible actors influenced acceptability via procedural satisfaction. However, the threat and prevention approach and the performance evaluation approach only explained low levels of the variance in acceptability of the examined strategies. Nevertheless, stronger ecological forest values, and favoring broadleaved forests, were found to be important to the acceptability of proactively implementing a more diverse forest to meet the expected challenges associated with global climate change.

  • 42.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marsh, John Everett
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

  • 43.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

  • 44. Fairbrother, Nichole
    et al.
    Hart, Trevor A.
    Fairbrother, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Open Relationship Prevalence, Characteristics, and Correlates in a Nationally Representative Sample of Canadian Adults2019In: Journal of Sex Research, ISSN 0022-4499, E-ISSN 1559-8519, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 695-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open relationships are those in which individuals agree to participate in sexual and/or emotional and romantic interactions with more than one partner. Accurate estimates of the prevalence of open relationships, based on representative, unbiased samples, are few, and there are none from outside of the United States. We present findings from a nationally representative sample of 2,003 Canadian adults, administered in 2017 via an online questionnaire. Overall, 2.4% of all participants, and 4.0% of those currently in a relationship, reported currently being in an open relationship. One-fifth of participants reported prior engagement in an open relationship, and 12% reported open as their ideal relationship type. Men, compared with women, were more likely to report prior open relationship engagement and to identify open as their ideal relationship type. Younger participants were more likely both to engage in and to prefer open relationships. Relationship satisfaction did not differ significantly between monogamous and open relationships. Having a match between one's actual relationship type and one's preferred relationship type was associated with greater relationship satisfaction. Findings suggest that, while currently only a small proportion of the population is in an open relationship, interest in open relationships is higher, particularly among younger adults, and open appears to be a viable and important relationship type.

  • 45.
    Fjellström Sandberg, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mellström, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    PÅVERKAN AV ORGANISATIONSFÖRÄNDRING, ROLLTYDLIGHET OCH LEDARSTÖD PÅ ÖVERENGAGEMANG2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att den arbetsrelaterade ohälsan ökar i Sverige. För sysselsatta inom äldreomsorgen finns studier som visar att sjukfrånvaro främst är kopplad till sociala och organisatoriska faktorer på arbetsplatsen. Teorin om Effort-Reward-Imbalance beskriver överengagemang (over-commitment) som ett personbundet beteende med överdrivet engagemang som kan utgöra en riskfaktor för arbetsrelaterad ohälsa. Syftet med studien är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning organisationsförändring, rolltydlighet och ledarstöd predicerar överengagemang. Vår studie bygger på ett longitudinellt projekt, där 185 anställda inom äldreomsorgen från norra Sverige ingår. Deltagarna representeras övervägande av kvinnliga undersköterskor och vårdbiträden med i huvudsak tillsvidareanställning eller långtidsvikariat. Materialet analyserades i det statistiska programmet IBM SPSS Statistics Version 25, genom korrelationer och hierarkisk regression. Resultatet visar att upplevelse av organisationsförändringar och brister i rolltydlighet är relaterat till överengagemang. Ledarstöd har ett signifikant samband med överengagemang tillsammans med organisationsförändring. Däremot visar ledarstöd tillsammans med organisationsförändring och rolltydlighet ingen ytterligare förklaring till variansen för graden av överengagemang.

  • 46.
    Flih, Sarah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Exploring the effect of emotionally induced arousal on curiosity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Curiosity can be defined as a drive to engage in exploratory behaviors and has been associated with an increased state of arousal (Berlyne, 1954). Exploratory behaviors, such as feedback requests, are associated with an information gain and the reduction of uncertainty. Although previous research has demonstrated the effects of emotions on the value of information gain (Marvin & Shohamy, 2016), and that the manipulation of arousal affected confidence (Allen et al., 2016) suggesting uncertainty can be affected independent of task difficulty, no previous study independently manipulated arousal to test its effect on curiosity. Given the effects of curiosity on motivation and learning, understanding how arousal influence curiosity would be beneficial for applications in fields such as education. In the present study, we hypothesized that emotionally-induced arousal has an impact on curiosity by influencing uncertainty and the value of information gain. A sample of 17 students were presented with arousing supraliminal emotional cues prior to rating confidence about their answers to trivia questions and deciding on feedback choices. Feedback requests were associated with a time delay, in a way that participants were required to trade off time for information. Results showed that uncertainty levels did not reliably predict feedback choices. Further analyses failed to demonstrate an effect of arousal on feedback choices. Finally, the pupillary response to events suggested that arousal levels did not differ significantly across conditions. Results can be due to the small sample or the test sensitivity. Possible improvements to the experimental paradigm are discussed, and directions for future research are considered.

  • 47.
    Forman, Helen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Events and children's sense of time: a perspective on the origins of everyday time-keeping2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I discuss abstract or pure time versus the content of time, (i.e., events, activities, and other goings-on). Or, more specifically, the utility of these two sorts of time in time-keeping or temporal organization. It is often assumed that abstract, uniform, and objective time is a universal physical entity out there, which humans may perceive of. However, this sort of evenly flowing time was only recently introduced to the human community, together with the mechanical clock. Before the introduction of mechanical clock-time, there were only events available to denote the extent of time. Events defined time, unlike the way time may define events in our present day culture. It is therefore conceivable that our primeval or natural mode of time keeping involves the perception, estimation, and coordination of events. I find it likely that events continues to subserve our sense of time and time-keeping efforts, especially for children who have not yet mastered the use of clock time. Instead of seeing events as a distraction to our perception of time, I suggest that our experience and understanding of time emerges from our perception of events.

  • 48.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Goossen, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox2019In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox (GEPP) is the finding that gender differences in personality are at their largest in the most gender equal countries. Previous known studies have not examined this relationship over time. Examining this linkage is crucial to our understanding of gender differences and personality development. In the present study, we contrast evolutionary perspectives predicting a gender divergence in personality due to progression in gender equality against biosocial perspectives predicting convergence. Using data from all eight rounds of the European Social Survey (n = 235,339) across 32 European countries, we report three findings. First, in accordance with the evolutionary perspective, country-level gender equality is positively associated with gender differences in basic human values. Second, in accordance with the biosocial perspective, we find evidence supporting gender convergence in basic human values. Third, contradicting both evolutionary and biosocial assumptions, we find no evidence that gender equality causes gender differences in values. We argue that there is a need to explore alternative explanations to the observed cross-sectional association between gender equality and personality differences, as well as gender convergence in personality over time.

  • 49.
    Fredrika, Högberg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Retrieval practice in relation to material difficulty and episodicmemory: an examination of the episodic context account2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional retrieval of information from memory (also known as retrieval practice or test-enhanced learning) produces better long-term retention compared to restudy, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. While this effect is robust and has gained strong support in empirical research, the mechanisms are less well understood. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of retrieval practice in relation to material difficulty and individual variations in episodic memory across time. The episodic context account, a theoretical explanation for the testing effect in which episodic memory plays a central role, was point of departure. Forty-three university students were divided into two experimental conditions (study-test and study). The to-be-learned material was 60 word-pairs (30 easy and 30 difficult). Learning was assessed by means of a cued recall test at three occasions (immediately, one week later, and two weeks later) and a measure of episodic memory was collected. Results revealed a significant testing effect across time and its relations to material difficulty and individual variations in episodic memory are analyzed and discussed. The results supported the testing effect paradigm and the episodic context account and indicated that retrieval practice is a useful and effective learning strategy.

  • 50.
    Frimalm, Ronja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Effects Of Interactive Metronome Training On Female Soccer Players Timing Ability2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how timing training by Interactive Metronome ® (IM) affects motor timing and rhythmicity in soccer players. Twenty-four female soccer players (age 19 ± 2.8) participated, and were randomly assigned to either a control or an IM training group. All participants took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session before the start of the training period, to find out what brain areas are activated during different tempos. The fMRI outcomes indicate that some of the active areas are the inferior parietal cortex (BA 40), frontal/SMA and precentral cortex and postcentral (BA 6) and inferior frontal cortex (BA 45). Pre- and post-measurements of motor timing deviation and variability was made. The result shows that after four week of IM training a significant improvement of motor timing was found for the IM group in comparison to the control group. The findings indicate that timing training can improve timing ability in healthy sport perpetrators.

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