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  • 1.
    Agnemo, Maja
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Skogen i våra hjärtan: Erfarenheter, emotionella band, värderingar och attityder till skog, natur och allemansrätten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    En betydande del av Sveriges yta är täckt av skog och det finns många olika viljor finns rörande vilka värden skogen ska erbjuda. Syftet med studien var att undersöka människors erfarenheter, emotionella band och värderingar av skog och natur, samt attityder till naturresursutnyttjande och allemansrätt, inklusive samband dem emellan. Syftet var även att diskutera resultatet i förhållande till politiska mål rörande skog och natur. Totalt deltog 663 universitetsstudenter med medelåldern 24 år, varav 254 kvinnor och 401 män, i en enkätundersökning. Resultatet visade genom korrelationsanalys samband mellan samtliga variabler. Attityden att allemansrätten är viktig förklarades främst av starkare emotionella band och att oftare vistas i skogen. Attityden att allemansrätten bör begränsas förklarades av en högre värdering av virkesproduktion. Den var också vanligare hos de vars familj äger skog. Resultatet diskuterades i relation till miljömålsuppfyllelse och allemansrätten: emotionella band, som föds av erfarenheter, är incitament för agerande. För att uppfylla politiska mål bör emotioner beaktas och miljöer som ger förutsättning för erfarenhetsskapande erbjudas. Allemansrätten ger förutsättningar för dessa erfarenheter. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Agritellis, Ioannis
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Social media as the Cosmo Neighborhood2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The world has been transformed through the internet into a "global village",and social media platforms have possibly transformed the world into a larger neighborhood covering many regions of the world. Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter came into people’s lives through the Internet, growing daily at a large rate, and it has been proven that they are very popular. This study examines links between different phenomena through social media platforms (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, blogs, etc.). It is discusses cohesiveness, desire to belong, sense of community, beliefs and opinions about different forms of these phenomena in popular virtual platforms in correlation with trust in social media, criticism of information that is spread by these virtual platforms, and if people are influenced in consumer decision making. A questionnaire has been distributed to a convenient sample of 159 international and Swedish students in Sweden in October-November 2012 in both English and Swedish versions. According to the peoples’ answers, tendencies were observed such as to not trust the platforms, and also the information received, beliefs such that social media are "controlled", negative critique, but also an expression for a need for ‘membership’.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Social media as the Cosmo Neighborhood
  • 3.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Evaluation of Insight Training of Ambulance Drivers in Sweden Using DART: a New E-learning Tool2011Inngår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 621-629Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a new e-learning tool for insight training of ambulance drivers can have an effect on drivers’ driving behaviors, perceived driving competence, competence to assess risks, self-reflection, and safety attitudes.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study design, with participants nonrandomly assigned into a control and intervention group, was used. The intervention group participated in the insight-training course and the control group did not. Both groups completed a self- and peer assessment online questionnaire before and after the training.

    Results: The main finding is that the ambulance drivers assessed themselves through the instruments after the training, with the e-learning tool Driver Access Recording Tool (DART), as safer drivers in the areas of speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In the answers from the group-based evaluation, the ambulance drivers responded that they were more reflective/analytical, had increased their risk awareness, and had changed their driving behaviors.

    Conclusions: After insight training, the ambulance drivers in this study assessed themselves as safer drivers in several important areas, including speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In future training of ambulance drivers there should be more focus on insight training instead of previous training focusing on maneuvering capabilities.

  • 4.
    Alfredsson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    INNOVATIVE TOOL-MODIFICATIONS AND TOOL SELECTIVITY IN NEW CALEDONIAN CROWS (CORVUS MONEDULOIDES)2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tool-use and tool-manufacture are thought to require high cognitive skills and have been considered as an exclusive attribute to primates. Recent observations of New Caledonian crows (NCCs) challenge this assumption. In this study 13 NCCs were tested with two different tool production tasks. The NCC either had to straighten a hook or bend a stick to retrieve food from two different kinds of tree trunks. The result showed that 3/5 birds bent sticks and used them to retrieve food and 1/5 birds straightened hooks to retrieve food. The birds managed to solve both tasks but not the birds in the control group. This indicates that NCC's tool making is a flexible innovative act and not just an innate predisposition to bend flexible material. This finding is interesting given that recent studies on human children show that below 8 years of age children fail in similar innovative tool making tasks.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Al-Mahdawi, Abdullah Mohammad
    et al.
    University of Tabuk, College of Education and Arts, Department of Education and Psychology, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
    Dutton, Edward
    Asbiro University, Poland.
    Osman, Habab Abdelhiy Mohammad
    University of Tabuk, College of Education and Arts, Department of Education and Psychology, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah
    King Saud University, Department of Special Education, College of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mohammad, Najmai Ali
    University of Tabuk, College of Education and Arts, Department of Education and Psychology, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia.
    Khair, Sarah
    Clinical Psychologist, United Arab Emirates.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sex differences in malevolent creativity among Sudanese students2022Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 196, artikkel-id 111724Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Malevolent creativity refers to employing creative processes for one's own selfish gain, often combined with detrimental effects on others. Sex differences in malevolent or negative creativity are to be expected due to the established finding that males are higher in the Dark Triad traits. However, the only previous study of this issue, using a sample of Indian students, did not find a sex difference. Here, we administered the Malevolent Creativity Behaviour Scale (MCBS) to a sample of 1619 Sudanese students, and found a small sex difference in that females rated themselves higher. Reasons for the finding are explored, including possible problems with the MCBS instrument.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bugge-Asperheim, Even
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    I see you, you see me, but I don`t really see you: a baselinestudy of illusive mutual face gaze in social interaction2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Social interaction is a complex field of research mesmerising researchers over the years. A prominent area within this field is mutual eye contact and its importance for interpersonal synchronisation, and creation of a “we”. To measure this in a naturalistic setting has proven difficult. This study investigated the physiological effect and subjective experience of covertly disrupting interpersonal synchronisation, non-verbal communication and mutual face gaze on different levels. An experimental design was employed where 36 neurotypical participants (16 male, 20 female) interacted in a casual conversation with a researcher through a newly developed equipment (NUNA) allowing for complete mutual eye-contact in computerised interactions. During three separate 3-5-minute conversations, the researcher viewed the participant normally, with eyes blocked out, or not at all. The researcher appeared identical to the participant on all conditions, and the NUNA upheld the illusion of mutual eye contact, leading the participant to believe there was mutual eye contact although it was one way only.The results show no differences in participants' skin conductance or subjective rating between the conditions. However, a third of the participants detected “something” in the No Face condition and rated it significantly lower on the subjective scale. It was concluded, as long as the participant perceives and believes there is mutual eye contact, then actual mutual eye contact is obsolete, whereas actual mutual face gaze is of some importance. Why some participants noticed a difference is conjectured to be due to unrecovered breakdowns of interpersonal synchronisation on various levels. Directions of future research are discussed.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Anchoring in inference and preference judgments2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-making is an important part of everyday life and we often need to make trade-offs among different alternatives with desirable traits. Previous studies investigating the anchoring bias suggest that when a question is asked with a reference value, the reference value will affect the answer to that question. This effect seems to occur in a variety of different domains. However, previous studies have mainly focused on anchoring using inference questions. The present study, therefore, aims to investigate if high and low anchors have an effect, not only on inference judgments but also on subjective preferences when making a trade-off decision. A computer-based questionnaire was used to collect data (N = 90) in a between-subject design. The anchor showed to have an effect on the inference questions. For the preference questions, one of the questions were close to the chosen threshold (p < .05). The other question for preference showed not to be significant. The result from this study imply that the anchoring effect was more explicit in inference judgment than in preferences with trade-offs.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sjuk av lukter2014Inngår i: Fagbladet Allergi i praksis, ISSN 0806-5462, Vol. 3, s. 6-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Box 7629, SE-90712 Umeå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effects of Task Demands on Olfactory, Auditory, and Visual Event-Related Potentials Suggest Similar Top-Down Modulation Across Senses2018Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 129-134Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A widely held view is that top-down modulation of sensory information relies on an amodal control network that acts through the thalamus to regulate incoming signals. Olfaction lacks a direct thalamic projection, which suggests that it may differ from other modalities in this regard. We investigated the late positive complex (LPC) amplitudes of event-related potentials (ERP) from 28 participants, elicited by intensity-matched olfactory, auditory and visual stimuli, during a condition of focused attention, a neutral condition, and a condition in which stimuli were to be actively ignored. Amplitudes were largest during the attend condition, lowest during the ignore condition, with the neutral condition in between. A Bayesian analysis resulted in strong evidence for similar effects of task across sensory modalities. We conclude that olfaction, despite its unique neural projections, does not differ from audition and vision in terms of task-dependent neural modulation of the LPC.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandberg, Petra
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lillqvist, Moa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Chemical Intolerance Is Associated With Altered Response Bias, not Greater Sensory Sensitivity2020Inngår i: i-Perception, E-ISSN 2041-6695, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id 2041669520978424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical intolerance is a surprisingly prevalent condition or affliction characterized by adverse reactions to low levels of chemical, often odorous stimulation. Sufferers often assume that their plight is due to an uncommon sensory acuteness, yet studies repeatedly fail to reveal altered detection thresholds. Here, we investigated whether self-reported chemical intolerance is associated with altered sensory sensitivity or response bias. The sensory acuity (sensitivity; A) and sensory decision rule (criterion; B) to n-butanol was assessed using the method of constant stimuli in 82 participants with different degrees of chemical intolerance (low to high). Higher self-reported chemical intolerance was associated with a lower criterion, but not with sensitivity.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Appelblad, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sandzén, Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bilingualism and the Simon effect: A multimodal approach2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has studied the relationship between bilingualism and cognitive abilities. In some of those studies results have shown that bilinguals perform better than monolinguals in visual Simon tasks (i.e. they are less distracted by the incongruent stimuli). The aim of the current study is to see if a similar effect can be found in Simon tasks using the tactile and auditory sensory modalities. In this study bilingual participants (36 university students) with different proficiency in their second language performed a Simon task employing two intensities of vibration and two different sounds as the relevant stimuli. The results indicated no negative correlation between either bilingual proficiency and Simon effect or daily use of the second language and Simon effect when controlling for working memory. Without controlling for working memory a negative correlation for the tactile condition and a positive correlation for the auditory condition between Simon effect and daily use of the second language was found. It’s concluded that the statistical power of this study suffers from a lack of participants and that if the test was reproduced with more participants with a greater spread in their language abilities a stronger effect might be seen. Also concluded is that more cross-modal studies need to be performed before conclusions about general cognitive effects of bilingualism can be drawn.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Uppsats_Appelblad_Sandzen_2015
  • 12. Appelgren, Alva
    et al.
    Osika, Walter
    Theorell, Töres
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Horwitz, Eva
    Tuning in on motivation: Differences between non-musicians, amateurs, and professional musicians2019Inngår i: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 47, nr 6, s. 864-873Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The drive to learn and engage in music varies among individuals. Global motivation to do something can be intrinsic, for example, the joy and satisfaction in an activity. But motivation behind our action can also be extrinsic, such as the desire for fame, status or increased financial resources. The type of motivation probably influences to what degree individuals engage in musical activities. In this study, we examined the associations between the level of musical engagement and self-rated global motivation, factoring in age and sex, in a sample of 5,435 individuals. Musical engagement ranged from no music activity to amateurs and professional musicians. We found that intrinsic motivation increases with level of music activity and that motivation differs depending on sex, with females scoring higher on intrinsic motivation than males. Such differences may be considered in adjusting the forms of support offered to young musicians in music education. The phenomenon of motivation is complex, and we have highlighted areas that require further investigation, but this study has elucidated some differences in motivation types found in men and women, and between non-musicians, amateurs and professional musicians.

  • 13.
    Aronsson, Ingela
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för diagnostik och intervention. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    "Recovery activities are needed every step of the way": exploring the process of long-term recovery in people previously diagnosed with exhaustion disorder2024Inngår i: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 12, nr 1, artikkel-id 248Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sick-leave rates are high due to stress-related illnesses, but little is still known about the process of recovery from these conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the recovery process, 6 to 10 years after treatment in people previously diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED), focusing on facilitators and barriers for the process of recovery from ED, and recovery activities experienced as helpful during the recovery process.

    Method: Thirty-eight participants (average age: 52 years, 32 females) previously diagnosed with ED were interviewed with semi-structured interviews 6–10 years after undergoing treatment. The interviews were analyzed with thematic analysis.

    Results: Three themes resulted from the analysis. The first theme, “A long and rocky road”, summarizes the fluctuating path to feeling better and emphasizes barriers and facilitators that affected the process of recovery, with a focus on external life events and the participants’ own behaviors. Facilitators were changing workplace, receiving support, a reduction in stressors, and changed behaviors. Barriers were a poor work environment, caregiver responsibilities, negative life events and lack of support. The second theme “Recovery activities are needed every step of the way” describes how both the need for recovery activities and the types of activities experienced as helpful changed during the recovery process, from low-effort recovery activities for long periods of time to shorter and more active recovery activities. Recovery activities were described as important for self-care but hard to prioritize in everyday life. The last theme, “Reorienting to a new place”, captures the struggle to cope with the remaining impact of ED, and how internal facilitators in terms of understanding and acceptance were important to reorient and adjust to a new way of functioning.

    Conclusions: Recovering from ED is a long and ongoing process where recovery activities are needed every step of the way. Our results highlight the importance of supporting personal recovery and long-term behavioral change, addressing individual stressors that may perpetuate the condition, and adjusting recovery activities according to where the person is in the recovery process.

    Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0073772. Registered on March 8, 2017. This study was pre-registered on Open Science Framework (osf.io).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Astner Jansson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Söderberg, Tintin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    COPINGSTRATEGIER FÖR SKAM, SJÄLVMEDKÄNSLA OCH LIVSKVALITET: SAMBAND I ETT ICKE-KLINISKT URVAL2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Skam är en känsla som många upplever obehaglig och därför undviker att prata om. Tidigare forskning indikerar att skam är kopplat till psykisk ohälsa och att den kan hindra personer från att söka hjälp. Även i behandling kan skam vara ett hinder. Självmedkänsla har visat sig ha en positiv korrelation med välmående och en negativ korrelation med skam och kan därmed ses som ett möjligt verktyg i terapeutisk behandling. Något som saknas är analys av specifika copingstategier för skam hur de hör samman med självmedkänsla och livskvalitet. Syftet med den här uppsatsen var att undersöka kopplingarna mellan Nathansons fyra olika copingstrategier för skam, mått på självmedkänsla och livskvalitet. Totalt 283 personer deltog i en webbenkät som inkluderande: the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), Brunnsviken Brief Quality of Life Inventory (BBQ) och the Compass of Shame Scale 5 (CoSS-5). Data analyserades med hjälp av en korrelationsanalys och multipla linjära regressionsanalyser. Resultaten visade signifikanta korrelationer mellan var och en av copingstrategierna för skam, självmedkänsla och livskvalitet. Självmedkänsla och skamstrategierna förklarade tillsammans 30% av variansen i livskvalitet och den internaliserande skamstrategin Tillbakadragande var en unik prediktor. Resultaten stärker tidigare forskning med tillägget att de olika copingstrategierna för skam förklarar variansen i livskvalitet i olika grad. Forskning för att stärka och utveckla studiens resultat behövs.

  • 15.
    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Fararh Attallah
    et al.
    King Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Dutton, Edward
    Asbiro University, Lodz, Poland.
    Ali, Hatim Abdelrahman Warrag
    University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Almoghyrah, Homoud Abdullah Saad
    King Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Al-Mutairy, Sultan Howedey Sultan
    King Saud University, College of Education, Department of Educational Technology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    King Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    alruwaitea, Abdulelah Abdullah Saleh
    King Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Aljbr, Abdulrahman Saad Rashd
    King Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Decreases in divergent thinking across age groups from 2005 to 2018 amongst school children in Sudan2022Inngår i: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 231, artikkel-id 103797Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Performances on tests of creativity have been found to be in decline in the USA. Here, we explore scores on divergent thinking tests in private schools in Khartoum State in Sudan by comparing a 2005 and a 2018 administration of the Torrance Standardized Circles test to 8- to 12-year-olds of both sexes. We find a decline across the period in all three dimensions of the test (Fluency, Flexibility and Originality), as well as in the overall index of divergent thinking. In line with much previous research, females consistently outperform males. Examining previous studies that report Negative Flynn Effects on IQ in Arab countries, we conclude that our results most likely reflect highly localized and exclusively environmental causes, and caution against assuming that the same processes that underlie Negative Flynn Effects in the West, whether on IQ or any trait correlated with it, also underlie it in the Arab World.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Bakhiet, Salaheldin Fararh
    et al.
    King Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Saudi Arabia.
    Ziada, Khaled Elsayed
    Faculty of Arts, Menofia University, Egypt.
    Abdelrasheed, Nasser Siad Gomaa
    College of Arts and Applied Sciences, Department of Education, Dhofar University, Oman.
    Dutton, Edward
    Asbiro University, Poland.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Almalki, Nabil Sharaf
    King Saud University, Department of special Education, College of Education, Saudi Arabia.
    Ihsan, Zohra
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, United Kingdom.
    Furnham, Adrian
    Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, 26 Bedford Way, London, United Kingdom; Norwegian Business School (BI), Nydalveien, Oslo, Norway.
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    Arish University, Department of Special Education, College of Education, Egypt.
    Sex and national differences in internet addiction in Egypt and Saudi Arabia2023Inngår i: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 240, artikkel-id 104043Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Understanding individual differences in psychology, and how they relate to specific addictions, may allow society to better identify those at most risk and even enact policies to ameliorate them. Internet addiction is a growing health concern, a research focus of which is to understand individual differences and the psychology of those most susceptible to developing it. Western countries are strongly overrepresented in this regard.

    Method: Here, sex and national differences in internet addiction are measured, using Young's ‘Internet Addiction Test,’ in two non-Western countries, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. >800 students aged 18 and 35 years (M = 20.65, SD = 1.48) completed a multidimensional internet addiction instrument. The instrument measures traits such as Withdrawal and Social Problems, Time Management and Performance and Reality Substitute.

    Results: Analyses revealed that males scored higher than females and Saudis higher than Egyptians on nearly all scales, including the total score. Factor analysis of the 20-item instrument revealed three factors, all exhibiting sex and culture differences.

    Conclusions: These findings add to the body of evidence that males are higher than females in problematic internet use, as they are in addictive behaviors in general. Our findings may also imply that restrictions on male-female interaction, which are more pronounced in Saudi Arabia, may elevate the prevalence of internet addiction. The internet is also easier and cheaper to access in Saudi Arabia than in Egypt.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Bampouni, Elpida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Predictive gaze in action selection within virtual reality2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The human gaze is pivotal in motion planning and control. Gaze is typically directed at visual target sites prior to physical interactions with them. This proactive gaze (PEG) behavior has been observed in a multitude of physical situations. However, PEG has not been examined in virtual reality (VR). Identification of PEG in VR could be helpful for digital human modeling applications and human-robot interactions. In this study we asked 10 participants to perform a pick-and-place (PAP) task in VR while we were tracking gaze behavior. Our results indicate that PEG also occurs in VR. Furthermore, the action to reach directly towards the PAP object or walk to it before reaching, results in different gaze strategies. Relocating before a reach is associated with gaze to additional sites, such as the floor and the table upon which the object was placed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Bampouni_VRgaze
  • 18.
    Bergouignan, Loretxu
    et al.
    BCBL, Basque Center on Cognition, Brain and Language, Donostia, Spain.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Ehrsson, H. Henrik
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Out-of-body memory encoding causes third-person perspective at recall2022Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 160-178Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sigmund Freud famously noted some memories are recalled with a perspective of “an observer from outside the scene”. According to Freud—and most memory researchers today—the third-person perspective occurs due to reconstructive processes at recall. An alternative possibility is that the third-person perspective have been adopted when the actual event is experienced and later recalled in its original form. Here we test this hypothesis using a perceptual out-of-body illusion during the encoding of real events. Participants took part in a social interaction while experiencing an out-of-body illusion where they viewed the event and their own body from a third-person perspective. In recall sessions ∼1 week later, events encoded in the out-of-body compared to the in-body control condition were significantly less recalled from a first-person perspective. An out-of-body experience leads to more third-person perspective during recollection.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Bergqvist, Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ulander, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ledarskapets effekt på prestation och upplevd motivation - en experimentell studie2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledarskapet anses ha stor påverkan på individers motivation inom sin idrott. Ledarskap kan, inom ramarna för Self-Determination Theory (SDT), i stort sorteras i två olika stilar, autonomistödjande respektive kontrollerande ledarskap. I dagsläget finns en brist på experimentella studier som jämför dessa två ledarskapsstilars påverkan på motivation. Denna studie syftade till att i en isolerad miljö undersöka hur ett autonomistödjande respektive ett kontrollerande ledarskap har en påverkan på inre motivation och prestation. I studien ingick 37 deltagare som under 20 minuter fick utföra en bygguppgift med lego under en neutral, autonomistödjande eller kontrollerande ledarskapsstil. Resultatet visade att den kontrollerande ledarskapsstilen hade en viss negativ påverkan på motivation och att gruppen kontroll angav en lägre upplevd kompetens än gruppen autonomi.  Ingen av ledarskapsstilarna hade någon effekt på prestation. Vidare visade sig upplevd motivation ha ett signifikant samband med prestation på bygguppgiften.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20. Berlin, Martin
    et al.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being2019Inngår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 73, s. 34-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affect—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory component of affect, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reports of both variables, including current-mood bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experience sampling survey that we conducted on a population sample of Swedes aged 18–50 (n=252). Our main estimates of the correlation between life satisfaction and long-run affective well-being range between 0.78 and 0.91, indicating a stronger convergence between these variables than many previous studies that do not account for measurement issues.

  • 21.
    Berntsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Koskenniemi, Axel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Impact of Duration of Anxiety and Depression on Risk for Cardiovascular Disease2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 22.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Test-enhanced learning and the effects of individual differences in cognition and personality2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Test-enhanced learning refers to the well-established finding that repeated testing of a material will result in better recall of the material than repeated study will do, i.e. the testing effect. However, an under-researched aspect is how the effect of test-enhanced learning may vary due to individual differences in cognitive abilities and personality characteristics. The overarching purpose of this thesis is two-folded. First to evaluate the effects of test-enhanced learning. Second to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity, Need for Cognition, Grit, and test-enhanced learning. The within-subjects intervention consisted of 60 Swedish-Swahili word pairs. Subjects repeatedly studied 30 items and were repeatedly tested on 30 items. The effect of the intervention was measured immediately after training, 1 week later and 4 weeks later. The results showed that test-enhanced learning led to improved learning compared to restudy at all retention tests, replicating the testing effect. No association was found between either repeated testing or repeated study and WMC, NFC, or Grit.  

  • 23.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The Testing Effect and Its Relation to Working Memory Capacity and Personality Characteristics2017Inngår i: Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, ISSN 1945-8959, E-ISSN 1810-7621, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 241-259Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is known to lead to better retention of a to-be-learned material than restudy (i.e., the testing effect). However, few studies have investigated retrieval practice in relation to working memory capacity (WMC) and personality characteristics such as grittiness (Grit) and need for cognition (NFC). In two experiments, we examined retrieval practice and restudy of Swahili–Swedish word pairs in relation to individual differences in Grit and NFC. In Experiment 1, using a between-subjects design, a significant main effect of retention interval was qualified by a Group × Retention Interval interaction. However, there were no effects of Grit or NFC. In Experiment 2, a within-subjects design was used, and a measure of WMC was included. The analyses revealed a testing effect; but again, WMC, Grit, and NFC were not significantly associated with performance. These results indicate that retrieval practice levels out the playing field regarding WMC, NFC, and Grit.

  • 24.
    Birbas, Nicole
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Terneborg, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Second language proficiency and its effects on cognitive functions:: Relations between bilingualism and tactile and visual versions of the Simon task2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bilinguals have repeatedly shown to have better results than monolinguals in non-verbal cognitive tasks that require inhibition of distracting stimuli. Evidence suggests that this enhanced performance is due to training effects of non domain specific executive functions, and that this gain in cognitive performance can contribute to a cognitive reserve in old age. One of the most frequently used methods when studying the relationship between second language proficiency and cognitive abilities is the Simon task in the visual sensory modality. The present study aimed to determine if the advantage found in the visual Simon task also could apply to a tactile Simon task. The sample consisted of 40 individuals aged 43 to 64 with different levels in their second language. An operational span test (OSPAN) was used to control for working memory capacity. No significant correlation was found between bilingualism and the Simon effect in either modality. Since the study has low statistical power and a small range in second language proficiency, it was concluded that further research investigating whether the bilingual advantage found in the visual Simon task can be found across modalities is necessary before any conclusions regarding a relationship between bilingualism and cognitive control can be made. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Björk, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Could musical mastery affect how attractive a person is rated as a prospective partner?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary psychology explains and predicts human behaviour based on its adaptive value. Some apparently non-adaptive behaviours such as humans’ devotion to music can be explained by sexual selection of costly signals, since it takes time and effort to learn to play an instrument well. Here, participants rated pictures of persons of the opposite sex that were said to play a piece of music that was heard while watching each picture. The music performances were either of low, medium, or high level of skill, and a better performance was predicted to lead to higher ratings of partner attractiveness because it is more costly. No effect of the music was found, except that women rated men as less desirable for a long-term relationships when the skill level was high than when it was medium.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    JohannaBjork
  • 26.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Giota, Joanna
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Beyond academics: Links from teaching practices in Swedish schools to students’ achievements and mental health complaints2024Inngår i: Learning and instruction, ISSN 0959-4752, E-ISSN 1873-3263, Vol. 92, artikkel-id 101937Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite extensive research on the relationship between teaching practices and learning outcomes, limited attention has been given to their potential links with students’ mental health.

    Aims: This study investigates the relationships between three teaching practice types – teacher-centered, student-centered, and student-dominated – and both student mental health complaints and academic achievement. It furthers explores variations in these associations based on students’ socioeconomic status (SES).

    Sample: The analysis includes 4573 grade 9 students (aged 15–16 years) in the Swedish comprehensive school system.

    Methods: Employing structural equation modelling techniques, we analyze a dataset comprising students’cognitive test scores, their perceptions of classroom processes, self-reported mental health complaints, as well as register data on teacher-assigned grades and parental education.

    Results: Teacher-centered practices are positively associated with academic achievements but lack robust linkswith mental health complaints. Conversely, student-centered practices are positively associated with academicachievements and correlate with lower mental health complaint frequencies. However, student-dominated practices demonstrate poor relationships with both mental health and academic achievements. Limited variations based on students’ social background reveal only two differing associations between low and high SES students: teacher-centered teaching shows stronger academic achievement associations for low SES students, while student-dominated teaching is more adversely linked to low SES students’ mental health.

    Conclusions: The results affirm the benefits of both teacher- and student-centered teaching practices for academic achievement while cautioning against excessive self-directed teaching. Importantly, the study highlights the role of instructional approaches in shaping not only academic outcomes but also students’ mental health.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Borén, Sandra
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kvinnor, kriminalitet och psykisk ohälsa: Lider kvinnliga brottslingar vanligen av psykisk ohälsa?2014Student paper other, 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Kvinnor, kriminalitet och psykisk ohälsa
  • 28.
    Boström, Lisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pettersson, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Är delat ledarskap dubbelt ledarskap?: En longitudinell studie om hur delat ledarskap fungerar i en idrottskontext.2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Delat ledarskap definieras som att två eller fler personer samarbetar i en organisation där de delar på arbetsuppgifterna och ansvaret i en chefsposition. Delat ledarskap har under det senaste årtiondet blivit alltmer populärt, både som praktik och forskningsfråga. Tidigare forskning har visat många fördelar med delat ledarskap inom organisationer, dock har det inte tidigare undersökts i en idrottskontext mellan tränare inom en stab. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur ett delat ledarskap fungerar i en idrottskontext ur ett tränarperspektiv. En longitudinell design användes i studien där datainsamlingen skedde genom upprepade enkätsvar vid varje träning och match under säsongen 2023. Deltagarna i studien var 24 tränare för de svenska basketungdomslandslagen U16 till U20. Resultatet visade att upplevt samarbete försämrades under säsongens gång, dock med övergripande höga nivåer. Upplevd prestation under säsongens gång visade sig förbättras, trots försämrat samarbete. Vidare undersöktes predicerande faktorer för samarbete, vilket inkluderade tidigare deltagande i delat ledarskap, tillit, psykologisk trygghet, rollfördelning, syn på delat ledarskap och stabtillhörighet. Vidare diskuteras interventioner som kan tillämpas för att ytterligare förbättra det delade ledarskapet inom organisationen. Dessa insikter erbjuder både praktiska förslag för idrottsföreningar som arbetar för att implementera delat ledarskap, samt teamutveckling som helhet.  

  • 29.
    Broadhall, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Idrottshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Nordström, Amadeus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Idrottshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Vad gör att elever söker sig till och stannar kvar på nationella idrottsutbildningar2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete letar efter vilka faktorer som får elever att söka sig till samt slutföra sinNationella Idrottsutbildningar (Niu) inom sin valda idrott. Detta kan sedan användas inomföreningar för att få spelare att stanna kvar inom både föreningen och i vissa fall idrotten. Idenna differentiella studie användes en tvärsnittsdesign och data samlades in genom en enkätsom eleverna fick fylla i. De som deltog i enkäten var 56 elever i åldrarna 16-19 år (årskurs1-3 i gymnasiet), både kvinnor och män, eleverna spelade antingen handboll eller innebandy.Data analyserades med oberoende T-test och deskriptiv statistik. T-tester visade på att detfanns en statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan årskurserna i hur viktig gemenskapen tillträningsgruppen är. Där skattade årskurs 3 högre än årskurs 1. T-test visade ocksåsignifikanta skillnader mellan könen i två variabler. Variablerna tränarnas inflytande ochvikten av att få utöva sin idrott på skoltid och huruvida dessa påverkade deras vilja att sökasig till Niu. För kvinnor verkade tränaren spela större roll och för män så var det viktigare attfå utöva sin idrott på skoltid.Saker som kan missas av denna studie samt potentiella problem är storleken på grupperna.Storleken på grupperna är inte så stor, de flesta har liknande bakgrund så väl som att det ärskolelever som svarat på enkäterna i slutet av en lektion vilket kan leda till att svaren inte ärde mest genomtänkta så väl som lika varandra.För framtida forskning, att kombinera enkäter med intervjuer kan ge både bättre resultat såväl som en djupare insyn i vad samt hur det kommer sig vad eleverna anser vara viktigt fördem att välja Niu och slutföra sin utbildning.Nyckelord: elitidrottsgymnasium, studieavbrott, Niu, handboll, innebandy. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Brobacke, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    From Walking to Running: Perceptual Differences in Distance Produced2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine individuals’ ability to accurately produce a target distance of 1 km across three conditions comprised of varying treadmill speeds: walk (5 km/h); jog (9 km/h); and run (13 km/h). The study also investigated whether individuals’ running experience (RE) had a significant influence on the distance produced (DP). Twenty-five physically active Umeå University students participated in a within-subject design. Participants aimed to produce a 1 km distance without external distance or time cues. Results showed significant DP differences between the walk and run conditions. Participants more accurately produced the 1 km target while running, correlating with higher physical and perceived exertion. Those with RE were significantly more accurate in DP during jogging and running compared to those without RE. Significant DP differences were observed between walk and run conditions and jog and run conditions for participants with RE, but not for those without RE. These findings indicate that regular exercise experience enhances the subjective accuracy of physical activity concerning objective measures like distance and time. This study suggests that addressing individuals' perceptions of exercise duration and exertion in health promotion can make exercise more appealing and less intimidating. Accurate appraisals of time, distance, and exertion could lead to increased physical activity and promote a sustainable healthy lifestyle despite modern living constraints. 

  • 31.
    Brodén, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundbladh, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The effects of sleep disturbances on memory2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this thesis was to examine the effects of sleep quality and non-restorative sleep on both subjective and objective memory function in an elderly population. Data was drawn from a longitudinal study in Umeå and consisted initially of 956 persons. After excluding people under 65 years of age and controlling for missing values the remaining sample consisted of 389 male (n=185) and female (n=204) persons. Linear multiple regressions were performed to analyze if sleep quality disturbance and non-restorative sleep predicted subjective and objective memory function. The result showed that both high values of sleep quality disturbances and non-restorative sleep were predictive of subjective memory complaints. However, neither of the two sleep dimensions were predictive of objective memory function. Future research should focus on the longitudinal effects of sleep disturbances on objective memory performance as well as the effect of sleep disturbances on episodic memory. 

  • 32.
    Brown, Gavin T. L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Swedish student perceptions of achievement practices: the role of intelligence2018Inngår i: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 69, s. 94-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of intelligence and motivational constructs in school achievement is well attested. Beliefs and attitudes about assessment (including classroom assessment, homework and tests) can be adaptive within a self-regulation of learning framework. However, the role of intelligence upon the student and parent coping with school assessment practices is less well known. This paper examines responses of Swedish Grade 6 (modal age 13) students (N = 4749) participating in the Education Through Follow-up (ETF) project to four cognitive tests and survey items concerning achievement demands. Their responses were integrated with parent perceptions of grading and school pressure. Robust factors for intelligence, student perceptions, and parental perceptions were found and introduced into a structural equation model with intelligence as the predictor. The well-fitting SEM model showed that intelligence had statistically significant predictions on all four student and three parent perceptions factors, of which two predicted student factors. However, only one prediction was substantive; intelligence on coping with school demands (beta = 0.48). Although not allowing for causal inference, the results support the claim that general cognitive abilities act as a predictor of self-regulating capability of coping with school demands.

  • 33. Burström, Åsa
    et al.
    Mora, Mariela Acuna
    Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    Sparud-Lundin, Carina
    Rydberg, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Hanseus, Katarina
    Frenckner, Björn
    Nisell, Margret
    Moons, Philip
    Bratt, Ewa-Lena
    Ready for Transfer to Adult Care?: A Triadic Evaluation of Transition Readiness in Adolescents With Congenital Heart Disease and Their Parents2019Inngår i: Journal of Family Nursing, ISSN 1074-8407, E-ISSN 1552-549X, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 447-468, artikkel-id 1074840719864255Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer to adult care for adolescents with chronic conditions ought to be determined by transition readiness. The aims of this study were (a) to describe the level of readiness for transition in adolescents with congenital heart disease, (b) to compare adolescents' assessment of transition readiness with their parents' assessments, and (c) to study potential correlates of transition readiness. A total of 157 triads of adolescents aged 14 to 18 years and their parents completed the Readiness for Transition Questionnaire. Adolescents scored higher on overall readiness than their parents. Multivariable analyses revealed that higher levels of adolescents' overall readiness were associated with a less threatening view of the illness, a higher level of empowerment, and with higher mothers' and fathers' overall readiness scores. Adolescents' responsibility scores were positively associated with age and parental adolescent responsibility scores. Parental involvement scores were negatively associated with adolescents' age and positively with the mothers' parental involvement scores. By using a triadic evaluation, the results of the present study significantly extend what is currently known about this population.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Byskata, Emil
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Modelluppdatering som följd av prediktionsfel hos personer med ASD2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Autismspektrumtillstånd (ASD) är en neurotypisk funktionsnedsättning eller -variation som bland annat karaktäriseras av svårigheter att föreställa sig scenarion utanför den befintliga kognitiva modellen. Prediktiv kodning beskriver en process av informationsbearbetning som utgår ifrån befintliga erfarenheter och förväntade resultat, men även inkorporerar nya erfarenheter. Tidigare forskning har indikerat tendenser hos personer med ASD att vara mer rigida i denna process i komplexa situationer, medan en tendens till utjämning av skillnader observerats i mindre komplexa uppgifter. Denna studie syftar till att pröva hypoteser kring ASD som faktor i uppdaterande av ontologiska modeller, kunskap om vilka faktorer som existerar i en världsmodell och hur de påverkar varandra. Testningar gjordes på fyra personer med högfungerande ASD och två neurotypiska personer, studien använde även tidigare data från 13 tidigare deltagare. Deltagarna spelade ett datorspel där deras resultat och beteenden loggades. Statistiska sammanställningar fann inga signifikanta skillnader i prestation på gruppnivå. En deskriptiv individuell analys av deltagare med ASD gjordes i syfte att undersöka mer specifika beteendemönster under testning. Resultaten indikerar liknande förmåga mellan personer med högfungerande ASD och neurotypiska personer i fråga om inlärning av poängmässigt optimala modeller, vilket indikerar liknande förmåga att uppdatera modeller för att passa spelet. Resultat från Cox proportional hazards indikerade tendenser till fortsatt utforskande även efter att en optimal spelmodell uppnåtts bland personer med högre resultat på AQ-10. Resultaten indikerar liknande förmåga mellan grupperna att anpassa strategi efter skiftande omständigheter, utöver detta observerades en högre tendens hos personer med ASD att ta reda på information kring bakomliggande faktorer som påverkar utfall.

  • 35.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Elbe, Pia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, Sweden.
    Gaming motivations and gaming disorder symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 667-688Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the available literature on the relationship between gaming motivations and gaming disorder symptoms. Specifically, to (1) explore what gaming motivation questionnaires and classifications are used in studies on gaming disorder symptoms and (2) investigate the relationship between motivational factors and symptoms of gaming disorder.

    Method: An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCO (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and the Web of Science Core Collection. All studies using validated measurements on gaming disorder symptoms and gaming motivations and available correlation coefficients of the relationship between gaming disorder and gaming motivations were included. The meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model.

    Results: In total, 49 studies (k = 58 independent sub-samples), including 51,440 participants, out of which 46 studies (k = 55 sub-samples, n = 49,192 participants) provided data for the meta-analysis. The synthesis identified fourteen different gaming motivation instruments, seven unique motivation models, and 26 motivational factors. The meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations between gaming disorder symptoms and 23 out of 26 motivational factors, with the majority of the pooled mean effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. Moreover, large heterogeneity was observed, and the calculated prediction intervals indicated substantial variation in effects across populations and settings. Motivations related to emotional escape were robustly associated with gaming disorder symptoms.

    Discussion and conclusions: The present meta-analysis reinforces the importance of motivational factors in understanding problematic gaming behavior. The analysis showed significant heterogeneity in most outcomes, warranting further investigation.

    Registration detail: PROSPERO (CRD42020220050).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Király, Orsolya
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Demetrovics, Zsolt
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Comparing psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits between the WHO and APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms: a psychometric investigation2024Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 65, nr 4, s. 665-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association and Gaming Disorder in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization requires consistent psychological measures for reliable estimates. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10), and the Five-Item Gaming Disorder Test (GDT-5) and to compare the WHO and the APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms in terms of psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits.

    Methods: A sample of 723 Swedish gamers was recruited (29.8% women, 68.3% men, 1.9% other, Mage = 29.50 years, SD = 8.91).

    Results: The results indicated notable differences regarding the estimated possible risk groups between the two frameworks. However, the association between gaming disorder symptoms and personality traits, life satisfaction, and psychopathological symptoms appeared consistent across the two frameworks. The results showed excellent psychometric properties in support of the one-factor model of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, including good reliability estimates (McDonald's omega) and evidence of construct validity. Additionally, the results demonstrated full gender and age measurement invariance of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, indicating that gaming disorder symptoms are measured equally across the subgroups.

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the IGDT-10, GDT-5, and GDT are appropriate measures for assessing gaming disorder symptoms and facilitating future research in Sweden.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Bäckman, Lars
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Farde, Lars
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dopamine and cognitive aging: a strong relationship2006Inngår i: Progress in psychological science around the world. Volume 1 neural, cognitive and developmental issues: Proceedings of the 28th international congress of psychology / [ed] Qicheng Jing; Mark R. Rosenzweig; Gery d'Ydewalle; Houcan Zhang; Hsuan-Chih Chen; Kan Zhang, Psychology Press, 2006, s. 455-469Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Börjesson, Josefine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Psychometric studies of the Swedish version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) instrument2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes studies into the psychometric properties of a Swedish language version of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) instrument. The psychometric properties of this instrument have been examined in two previous studies: an American study was conducted by the developers of the interview, Friedman and Utada (1989), and a Swiss study was undertaken by Bolognini et al. (2001). The American and the French (as used in the Swiss study) versions of ADAD exhibit good validity and reliability, in the form of both interrater reliability and the internal consistency of the composite scores. Study I evaluated the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the ADAD interview in normal adolescents and adolescents with antisocial problems. It was found that the instrument has good interrater reliability, that the composite scores exhibit moderate internal consistency, and that the concept validity was acceptable and similar to that of the American and Swiss versions. The results also showed that the problem areas of ADAD produced meaningful correlations. The interviewer ratings, the adolescent’s ratings and the composite scores were compared and discussed. Some problems concerning the composite scores were discovered and will need to be analyzed in future studies. Study II investigated the utility and problems associated with the composite scores in the ADAD within and between normal adolescents and adolescents with antisocial problems. When comparing interviewer severity ratings and composite scores within the two groups, the composite scores were found to behave differently to the interviewer ratings. For normal adolescents, the composite scores are generally higher than the interviewer ratings, but for the adolescents with antisocial problems the reverse is true. The interviewer severity ratings seem to be the most appropriate outcome when the objective is to separate antisocial and normal groups of adolescents from each other. The difference between the two groups is smaller as measured by composite scores. The composite scores appear to function as viable indicators of current problems in all areas except for Medical and Alcohol problem area. The critical items within the Medical and Alcohol composite scores are explored and discussed.  Study III investigated the concurrent and predictive validity of the ADAD Psychological status and problem area. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between the ADAD, Youth Self Report (YSR) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. The predictive validity of this problem area of the ADAD was tested by exploring its correlations with the YSR, BDI, and DICA problem ratings; moderate correlations were observed, suggesting that in clinical practice, the ADAD Psychological status and problem area may be a useful tool for the assessment and measurement of current psychological problems. The utility obtained by making decisions using the test is substantial. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the Swedish version of ADAD appears to be a psychometrically good instrument for assessing the severity of adolescents’ problems and their need for treatment, but there are some problems with the Medical and Alcohol composite scores.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Kappa
  • 39.
    Börjesson, Josefine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Concurrent and predictive validity of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD)2012Inngår i: Open Psychology Journal, E-ISSN 1874-3501, Vol. 5, s. 20-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The concurrent and predictive validity of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) in the Psychological status and problem area was examined for two adolescent groups: a non-clinical population of 121 Swedish adolescents (62 girls and 59 boys) aged 15 to17 years and a clinical population of 31 adolescents (14 girls and 17 boys) aged 12 to 19 years detained in special youth homes. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between the ADAD, Youth Self Report (YSR) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. Findings regarding the predictive validity of ADAD show moderate associations with YSR, BDI and DICA problem ratings. The findings suggest that for clinical practice the ADAD Psychological status and problem area may be an appropriate assessment tool for measurement of current psychological problems. The utility obtained by making decisions using the test is substantial.

  • 40. Calverley, Hannah
    et al.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Harvey, Jack
    Mesagno, Christopher
    Examining Group Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies and the State and Trait Anxiety of Lifeguards and Non-Lifeguards in a Real-World Precompetitive Situation2020Inngår i: International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, ISSN 1932-9997, E-ISSN 1932-9253, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikkel-id 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences, between swimmer-lifeguards and swimmer-non-lifeguards, in trait and state anxiety and emotion regulation techniques in a real-life precompetitive situation with a secondary focus on gender differences. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale – 2 and the Mental Readiness Form – 3 were distributed to 100 participants at university swimming competitions in the United Kingdom. Swimmer-lifeguards displayed significantly lower cognitive (p=.03) and somatic state (p=.05) anxiety and cognitive trait anxiety (p=.02) than swimmer-non-lifeguards. Males reported significantly lower levels of cognitive and somatic trait anxiety (p<.01) than females. There was also a gender-group interaction, with male swimmer-lifeguards showing significantly lower somatic trait anxiety than the other groups (p<.03). Males indicated significantly greater use of reappraisal than females (p=.01); no other effects were observed. These results support previous research regarding lifeguard characteristics, however the nature of these qualities and how they originate require further exploration.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Carlberg, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Are normative probabilty judgments a "system two"-operation?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on human judgment and decision making has demonstrated systematic and predictable biases of judgment in experimental settings. One example of this is the tendency to intuitively violate the conjunction rule - a simple rule of probability. This was well illustrated in the famous Linda-problem. (Tversky & Kahneman, 1983). According to the dual-process theory of reasoning, (Kahneman, 2011) reasoning fallacies such as the conjunction fallacy occurs when people fail to use analytic reasoning and instead overly rely on their intuition. The dual process theory proposes that cognitive processes underlying our intuitive impulses and our conscious reasoning constitutes two different modes in the mind –system 1 and system 2- and that the intuitive system 1 are not able to compute probabilities. Furthermore, it is assumed that processes that are labeled system 1 are fast whereas system 2 are thought to be slow. We tested these time course assumptions of dual process theory in a within-subject design by comparing response time latencies between conjunction fallacy judgments and accurate probability judgments. The results showed that inducing accurate responding did not result in delayed response latency. This indicates that making accurate probability judgments does not require more processing time which goes against what would be expected by the dual-process framework.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Carlehed, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Katz, Jakob
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression: a population-based study2017Inngår i: Mental Health & Prevention, ISSN 2212-6570, Vol. 6, s. 57-62Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Carnelius, Filippa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatri.
    The association between gender, sexual harassment, and self-compassion on depressive symptoms in adolescents2023Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 77, nr 3, s. 256-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The study aims to identify the prevalence of bullying and sexual harassment as well as possible risk and protective factors for depression among adolescents. We focus on the association of different types of sexual harassment, gender, bullying, and self-compassion to depression criteria according to DSM 4.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study included 318 adolescents aged 15–20 years, from Sweden. Participants answered the self-assessment scales Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, Second Edition, and Compassionate Engagement and Action Scales for Youth, as well as questions about sexual harassment and bullying. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between bullying, sexual harassment, self-compassion, and gender with depressive symptoms.

    Results: Few students had been subjected to bullying, whereas sexual harassment was more common. About 32.7% of students had been subjected to verbal harassment and girls were more frequently exposed. Both bullying and sexual harassment were associated with depressive symptoms, and gender patterns were observed. For boys, verbal harassment and bullying correlated with negative self-evaluation and somatic complaints. For girls, bullying correlated with all depressive symptoms. Higher levels of self-compassion were associated with less depression, and the correlation was especially strong among boys.

    Conclusion: Boys and girls express different types of depressive symptoms when subjected to bullying and sexual harassment. Not asking boys about negative self-evaluation or somatic complaints could lead to missing depression. However, for girls, all four symptoms are equally important to inquire about. Self-compassion is a possible protective factor against depression and future studies will show if teaching this to adolescents could lead to less depression.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Caserta, Fabiana
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The opaque window: an investigation into the phenomenology of depersonalization and derealization2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DDD) is a dissociative syndrome characterized by a sense of disconnectedness from one’s own self and the world around. People suffering from the condition report feeling like external observers, cut off from their own bodies, emotions and thoughts; their surroundings are perceived as unreal. The present thesis analyses DDD by sustaining the view that its phenomenology can be understood through Metzinger’s notion of phenomenal transparency. This idea is not entirely new: recent contributions (Ciaunica et al., 2020; Ciaunica et al., 2021; Seth et al., 2012) have framed the dramatic experiences of depersonalization and derealization as instances of highly opaque mental states. However, more detailed discussions of phenomenal transparency are sparse. My contribution wishes to partially fill in this gap. To elucidate the concept of transparency, I will first highlight the distinction between the classical representationalist notion of transparency and the metzingerian, phenomenal account of it. I will then argue that phenomenal transparency adequately describes the associated depersonalized phenomenology. Finally, I will attempt to present and dissipate ambiguities contained in the concept and address potential criticism regarding the redundancy of transparency as an explanatory tool for dissociative phenomena. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Thesis Master’s Programme (one year) in Cognitive Science, 60 ECTS - Fabiana Caserta
  • 45.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Palmquist, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Attribution to trigger factors in sick building syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity: "The Västerbotten environmental health study"2011Inngår i: 12th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality and Climate 2011, 2011, s. 1566-1567Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Coelho Mollo, Dimitri
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    AI-as-exploration: Navigating intelligence spaceManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Intelligence is a field that lives many lives, and the term has come to encompass a motley collection of scientific and commercial endeavours. In this paper, I articulate the contours of a rather neglected but central scientific role that AI has to play, which I dub `AI-as-exploration'.The basic thrust of AI-as-exploration is that of creating and studying systems that can reveal candidate building blocks of intelligence that may differ from the forms of human and animal intelligence we are familiar with. In other words, I suggest that AI is one of the best tools we have for exploring intelligence space, namely the space of possible intelligent systems. I illustrate the value of AI-as-exploration by focusing on a specific case study, i.e., recent work on the capacity to combine novel and invented concepts in humans and Large Language Models. I show that the latter, despite showing human-level accuracy in such a task, most probably solve it in ways radically different, but no less relevant to intelligence research, to those hypothesised for humans.

  • 47.
    Colledge, Alexander
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hypertension, Infection and Inflammation and their Effects on Memory and Visuospatial Skills in Ageing2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Blood pressure has previously been associated with decline in memory over time, though the exact mechanism behind this effect is uncertain. Infections, which can lead to systemic inflammation have also been linked to some cardiovascular damage to the brain, known as microbleeds, which have themselves been linked to greater declines in cognition in old age. The present study investigates whether blood pressure, a self-reported history of infection, and an indirect measure of inflammation known as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate have any association with on episodic and semantic memory and visuospatial skills in the Betula study, a Swedish longitudinal population study. The effect of elevated blood pressure (over 140 mm Hg systolic and/or 90 mm Hg diastolic), high blood sedimentation (top 33% against bottom 33% of participants), and self-reported infection were all found to not have any significant effect on episodic memory, semantic memory or visuospatial skills. Some of the possible explanations are elaborated in the discussion.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    HypertensionInfectionInflammation
  • 48.
    Colombo, Simone
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nyström, Markus
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Mining players' experience in computer games: immersion affects flow but not presence2023Inngår i: Computers in Human Behavior Reports, ISSN 2451-9588, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 100334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether different levels of immersion while playing a computer game affect the participant's experiences of flow and presence. Understanding how different levels of immersion influence the experiences of flow and presence can shed light on the intricate interplay between these constructs and provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to engaging and immersive gameplay. The independent variable, immersion, was manipulated in three conditions (high, moderate, and low) in a between-subject design within the video game Minecraft. Participants were asked to complete 15 minutes of gameplay and then fill out the questionnaires concerning flow and presence. The experiment was conducted remotely on a video-sharing platform. Bayesian analysis revealed an effect of immersion level on flow, while no evidence of an effect was found for the experience of presence. This study provides evidence in favor of a relation between flow and immersion while supporting a presumed double dissociation of immersion from presence. Future research using a Bayesian approach is encouraged to build further knowledge on this research topic.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Coyle, Thomas R.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Texas at San Antonio, TX, United States.
    Woodley of Menie, Michael A.
    Independent Researcher, London, United Kingdom.
    Peñaherrera-Aguirre, Mateo
    Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, AZ, Tucson, United States.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sarraf, Matthew A.
    Independent Researcher, MA, Boston, United States.
    The heritability of ability tilts2023Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 213, artikkel-id 112187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tilts arise from within-subject differences in performance between two distinct cognitive ability measures (e.g., verbal minus quantitative). These are independent of general cognitive ability (GCA) and are likely a function of differential investment of time and other resources into the cultivation of one ability, at the expense of another. There is some debate about the meaning and measurement of tilts among psychometricians, but a body of research is emerging demonstrating that these are predictive of real-world outcomes independent of GCA. An open question concerns the heritability of tilts. Since nearly all phenotypic individual differences are heritable, tilts, if substantive, should not be an exception. It was found that tilts are modestly heritable (after controlling for participant age and residual correlations with GCA) in three samples (US children, Georgia Twin Study; Swedish adults, Swedish Twin Registry; US adults, MIDUS II). AE models better fit the tilt data in all but one case (Verbal - Reasoning, in the GTS, where an ACE model better fit the data). Comparatively large (non-shared) environmentalities were noted in all cases, potentially consistent with models predicting a role for niche-picking and experience-producing-drive dynamics in generating tilts. A Wilson-like effect was observed when the tilt heritabilities in the GTS were compared with their equivalent parameters in the other two (older) samples. The finding that tilts exhibit non-zero heritability in different age ranges and in two countries strengthens their external validity, and weakens claims that they are measurement artifacts, as predisposing genetic and environmental factors are part of their nomological network.

  • 50.
    Dahlin, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Train your brain: updating, transfer, and neural changes2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An initial aim of this thesis was to determine whether training of a specific executive function (updating) produces improvements in performance on trained and transfer tasks, and whether the effects are maintained over time. Neural systems underlying training and transfer effects were also investigated and one question considered is whether transfer depends on general or specific neural overlap between training and transfer tasks. An additional aim was to identify how individual differences in executive functioning are mapped to functional brain changes. In Study I, significant training-related changes in performance on the letter memory criterion task were found in both young and older adults after 5 weeks of updating training. Transfer to a 3-back test of updating was also demonstrated in the young adults. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) revealed overlapping activity in letter memory and 3-back tasks in fronto-parietal areas and striatum pre-training, and a joint training-related activity increase for the tasks in a striatal region. No transfer was observed to a task (Stroop) that engaged fronto-parietal areas, but not the striatal region and updating per se. Moreover, age-related striatal changes imposed constraints on transfer. In Study II, additional transfer tasks and a test of long-term maintenance were included. Results revealed that training-related gains in performance were maintained 18 months post-training in both young and older adults, whereas transfer effects were limited to tasks requiring updating and restricted to young participants. In Study III, analyses of brain activity and performance during n-back (1/2/3-back) were executed. This task enables manipulation of executive demand, which permits examination of how individual differences in executive functioning can be mapped to functional brain changes. Relative to a young high-

    performing group, capacity constraints in executive functioning were apparent between 1–2-back for the elderly participants and between 2–3-back for a young low-performing group. Capacity constraints in neural activity followed this pattern by showing a monotonically increasing response in the parietal cortex and the thalamus for young high performers, whereas activity levelled off at 1-back for elderly performers and at 2-back for young low performers. The response in the dorsal frontal cortex followed a similar pattern. Together, these findings indicate that fronto-parietal as well as sub-cortical areas are important for individual differences in executive functioning, training of updating and transfer effects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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