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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 1, 84-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 2.
    Ahmad, Zubair
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Mumtaz, Jasim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Implementation of Activity Theory in Umeå University Library2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology is playing a vital role in our every field of life. The most common use of information is in the field of education. Use of information technology in libraries is very important. People from differents works of life extract information from these libraries. In this paper, we have tried to identify how can we facilitate the Umeå university library users for better interaction with the information? We have used different methods for collection of data to identify the Umeå university libray problems and then we analysed the whole library system with the help of Engeström Activity theory, to find out which factors are effeting the interaction between users and library and creating main problems. In the end we have given some suggestions for the improvement of interaction between users and Umeå library to facilitate them for accessing information.

  • 3.
    Allan, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Turnnidge, Jennifer
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Vierimaa, Matthew
    Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Côté, Jean
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Development of the Assessment of Coach Emotions systematic observation instrument: A tool to evaluate coaches’ emotions in the youth sport context2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 6, 859-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on emotions in sport focuses heavily on athletes’ intrapersonal emotion regulation; however, interpersonal consequences of emotion regulation are garnering recent attention. As leaders in sport, coaches have the opportunity to regulate not only their own emotions, but also those of athletes, officials, and spectators. As such, the present study set out to develop an observational tool, demonstrating evidence of validity and reliability, for measuring coaches’ overt emotions in the youth sport context. Categories were derived and refined through extensive literature and video review, resulting in 12 categories of behavioural content and eight emotion modifiers (NeutralHappyAffectionateAlertTenseAnxiousAngry and Disappointed). The final coding system is presented herein, complete with supporting evidence for validity and reliability. As a tool for both researchers and practitioners in sport, the Assessment of Coach Emotions (ACE) offers enhanced insight into the contextual qualities underlying coaches’ interactive behaviours.

  • 4.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oxford textbook of psychotherapy: By Glen O.Gabbard, Judith S.Beck and JeremyHolmes . Published by Oxford University Press , Oxford, UK , 2005.2006In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 113, 159- p.Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Social work.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Social work.
    UBÅT: En ny metod för uppföljning och beskrivning av åtgärder i missbruksvård2016In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 4, 14-18 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engström, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Brännström, Jan
    Nyström, Siv
    Brukarna är nöjda med missbruksvården - även om problemen inte förbättrats2014In: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, no 7, 38-53 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Atroshi, Isam
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Gummesson, Christina
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    The 6-item CTS symptoms scale: a brief outcomes measure for carpal tunnel syndrome2009In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 18, no 3, 347-358 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Ballesteros, S
    et al.
    Toril, P
    Mayas, J
    Reales, J.M
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The Role of a New ICT Home Environment in Healthy Ageing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to prevent and/or delay cognitive decline, and help maintain the independence and wellbeing of elders by using a web-based social network platform, enhanced with devices to detect users´ states and collect activity data. The idea is that an active lifestyle rich in social interactions, active engagement and mental training with videogames may mitigate age-related decline and reduce healthcare costs. The innovative applications and the videogame training approach developed in the study could have wide application for a large number of European older adults living alone. The effectiveness of the ICT solution is being assessed throughout the project with user and control groups in Spain, Sweden and Greece. User interviews, extensive psychological testing and on-going cognitive and fMRI experiments are being conducted.. The results have shown so far that the users improved in cognitive performance compared to controls on the MMSE. Well-being assessed with the SPF-IL Scale also showed an improvement in the Status dimension of the users. This dimension assesses the feeling of being independent, self-realization and achievement. Exploring new ways to maintain the cognitive and functional state of older users is today a critical issue, for individuals, for families, and for whole societies. The study has shown the positive potential of new interactive technologies to maintain mental health and independent living in the elderly. Computer technology and cognitive training can increase social integration and provide mental stimulation for older adults living alone.

  • 9.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    The conjunction of non-consciously perceived object identity and spatial position can be retained during a visual short-term memory task2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, 1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although non-consciously perceived information has previously been assumed to be short-lived (<500 ms), recent findings show that non-consciously perceived information can be maintained for at least 15s Such findings can be explained as working memory without a conscious experience of the information to be retained. However, whether or not working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information remains controversial, and little is known about the nature of such non-conscious visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious, to investigate the properties of non-consciously perceived representations in delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. In Experiment I we used variable delays (5 or 15s) and found that performance was significantly better than chance and was unaffected by delay duration, thereby replicating previous findings. In Experiment II the DMS task required participants to combine information of spatial position and object identity on a trial-by-trial basis to successfully solve the task. We found that the conjunction of spatial position and object identity was retained, thereby verifying that non-conscious, trial-specific information can be maintained for prospective use. We conclude that our results are consistent with a working memory interpretation, but that more research is needed to verify this interpretation.

  • 10.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden and Free Univ Berlin, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Åström, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schenstrom, Ola
    Mindfulness Ctr, Bethesda, MD USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Mindfulness Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014In: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, no 2, 241-253 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the trans diagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, post-treatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between) = 0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d = 0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d = 0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments.

  • 11. Botha, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    South African correctional official occupational stress: The role of psychological strengths.2006In: Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 34, no 1, 73-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    et al.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby
    Gil-González, Diana
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Professionals' perceptions of support resources for battered immigrant women: chronicle of an anticipated failure2014In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 29, no 6, 1006-1027 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of service providers in Spain regarding their daily professional encounters with battered immigrant women and their perception of this group's help-seeking process and the eventual abandonment of the same. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 43 professionals involved in providing support to battered immigrant women. We interviewed social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, and public health professionals from Spain. Through qualitative content analysis, four categories emerged: (a) frustration with the victim's decision to abandon the help-seeking process, (b) ambivalent positions regarding differences between immigrant and Spanish women, (c) difficulties in the migratory process that may hinder the help-seeking process, and (d) criticisms regarding the inefficiency of existing resources. The four categories were cross-cut by an overarching theme: helping immigrant women not to abandon the help-seeking process as a chronicle of anticipated failure. The main reasons that emerged for abandoning the help-seeking process involved structural factors such as economic dependence, loss of social support after leaving their country of origin, and limited knowledge about available resources. The professionals perceived their encounters with battered immigrant women to be frustrating and unproductive because they felt that they had few resources to back them up. They felt that despite the existence of public policies targeting intimate partner violence (IPV) and immigration in Spain, the resources dedicated to tackling gender-based violence were insufficient to meet battered immigrant women's needs. Professionals should be trained both in the problem of IPV and in providing support to the immigrant population.

  • 13. Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Socialmedicin.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Richter, Jörg
    The Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)2008In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 24, no 1, 14-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish new norms of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), data from 2,209 Swedish individuals (age between 13 and 80) was analyzed. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the questionnaire scores. The third aim was to investigate whether the TO can be meaningfully applied to adolescents in personality assessment as a basis for further research and clinical studies. Age and gender showed independent effects on personality dimensions, which implies that age and gender specific norms have to be established for the TCI. Furthermore, the results in terms of inconsistencies in the correlational and factorial structure, as well as low internal consistency scores in the younger age groups, suggest that the adult version of the TCI should not be applied below the age of 17; for these age groups we recommend the use of the junior TCI (JTCI). The inventory is under further development and several items are in need of revision in order to create less complicated formulations, enabling an improvement in the psychometrics.

  • 14.
    Brügger, Annina
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Distributing Attention Between Environment and Navigation System to Increase Spatial Knowledge Acquisition During Assisted Wayfinding2018In: Proceedings of Workshops and Posters / [ed] Fogliaroni P., Ballatore A., Clementini E., Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2018, 19-22 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Travelers happily follow the route instructions of their devices when navigating in an unknown environment. Navigation systems focus on route instructions to allow the user to efficiently reach a destination, but their increased use also has negative consequences. We argue that the limitation for spatial knowledge acquisition is grounded in the system’s design, primarily aimed at increasing navigation efficiency. Therefore, we empirically investigate how navigation systems could guide users’ attention to support spatial knowledge acquisition during efficient route following tasks.

  • 15.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Neural correlates of time perspective2015In: Time perspective theory: review, research and application: essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, van Beek, W., Berlin: Springer , 2015, 231-242 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this chapter is to summarize our present knowledge about the neural correlates of time perspective and related constructs. We first briefly introduce functional magnetic resonance functional magnetic resonance imaging as a suitable technique to understand the underlying neural mechanisms when studying various constructs of time. Then, we discuss how the use of brain imaging techniques has improved our knowledge regarding concepts of time perspective. In this section it becomes evident that most studies have focused on mental time traveling. Finally we introduce a novel line of research in which we try to study neural correlates of time within the context of the Zimbardo framework. By such approach we are able to include the personality-like construct from the ZTPI to further understand the neural correlates of temporal processing.

  • 16. Carlbring, P
    et al.
    Hassmen, P
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindner, P
    Andersson, G
    The relative effects of behavioral activation vs. physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2016In: ISRII 8th Scientific Meeting Technologies for a digital world: Improving health across the lifespan, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17. Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindner, Philip
    Martell, Christopher
    Forsberg, L
    Ström, L
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Hassmen, Peter
    Behavioral activation vs physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2015In: The 45th Annual European Association for Behavioural Cognitive Therapies Congress, Jerusalem, Israel, 31 August - 3 September 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Ek, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Lundgren, Mats
    Att bedöma kognitiva psykoterapeuters kompetens, hur göra man?: Jämförelse av två skattningsskalor2008In: Sokraten Medlemstidning, no 1, 11-13 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet kompetens har visat sig vara svårfångat i kognitiv terapi (Kazantizis 2003). Ändå är det något som vi terapeuter försöker utveckla och uppnå. Ett specifikt försök, som författarna till denna artikel har antagit är "den korrekta och skickliga användningen av en empiriskt validerad modell av terapi på ett sådant sätt att de är sannolikt att resultera i en mera klinisk signifikant förändring för patienten" (James, Blackburn, Milne & Reichelt, 2001, förf. översättning). Flera studier tyder på att både erfarenhet, utbildningsnivå och expertskattad kompetens gör skillnad i behandlingsutfall. (DeRubeis, Hollon, Amsterdam mfl., 2005; Frank, Kupfer, Wgner mfl., 1991; Trepka, Rees, Shapiro mfl., 2004).

  • 19. Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang, Sophie
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos
    Hagger, Martin
    Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 6, 666-673 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in asurvey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results ofsport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover studyexamining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomousmotivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletesfrom Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistencytendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-weekinterim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of differentIID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had strongerparameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  • 20.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance2017In: Neurotoxicology, ISSN 0161-813X, E-ISSN 1872-9711, Vol. 60, 92-98 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Methods: Individuals with CI (n = 18) and controls without CI (n = 19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions – one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60 min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Results: Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Conclusions: Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls.

  • 21. Coetzee, A
    et al.
    Linde, B
    Pienaar, Jaco
    The workplace antecedents of the intention to emigrate.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Dahlin, Mats
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Johansson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sjögren, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Kadowaki, Asa
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial2016In: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 77, 86-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  • 23. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom.
    Rothmann Jr, S
    Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider expenditure2013In: SAMJ South African Medical Journal, ISSN 0256-9574, E-ISSN 2078-5135, Vol. 103, no 2, 89-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Healthcare has become a major expense. Burnout and its connection with psychological and physical health is well researched, yet little research has been done on the connection between burnout and financial outcomes, specifically as indicated by the costs incurred by medical aid providers as a result of members' claims. Objective. To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the private sector. Method. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample comprised 3 182 participants. The available objective medical aid expenditure data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general practitioner visits, specialist visits, general practitioner insured benefits, and claims for medicine. A low and a high burnout group were extracted, based on comorbidity of the two core components of burnout. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was then applied to investigate the differences in estimated marginal means of the expenditures on the low and the high burnout contrast groups, while controlling for age and gender. Results. The high burnout group frequented a general practitioner more often, and the medical aid provider expenditure was nearly double that of the low burnout group, on all the variables. Specialist visits did not show a significant result. Conclusion. High burnout is associated with a higher expenditure by a medical aid provider, compared with low burnout, per member. Stakeholders should therefore address burnout to reduce expenditure and promote health.

  • 24. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Rothmann, Jnr., I.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model with a categorical estimator.2012In: Psychological Reports, Vol. 111, no 2, 528-544 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25. De Beer,, L. T.,
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    2013In: Demands, exhaustion and absenteeism: Comparing management, professionals and administrative occupations., 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26. De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann, Jr., S.
    Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory.2013In: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, Vol. 39, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27. De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    Rothmann, I., Jnr.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: A three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process.2015In: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10615806.2015.1061123Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28. De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa2016In: Stress and Health, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, no 1, 36-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

  • 29. De Beer, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann, I., Jnr
    Designated and non-designated employee experiences in post-apartheid South Africa: Examples of informative hypothesis testing.2015In: The International Journal of Human Resource Management.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. De Beer,, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann,, Jnr., I.
    Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study.2014In: South African Journal of Psychology.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. De Waal,, J.J.,
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital.2013In: SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, Vol. 39, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. De Witte, H
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa.
    De Cuyper, N
    Review of 30 Years of Longitudinal Studies on the Association Between Job Insecurity and Health and Well-Being: Is There Causal Evidence?2016In: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, Vol. 51, no 1, 18-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this review article, we present an overview of the results of longitudinal studies on the consequences of job insecurity for healthand well-being. We discuss the evidence for normal causation (“Does job insecurity influence outcomes?”), reversed causation (“Do specificoutcomes predict job insecurity?”), and reciprocal causation. We also review the various theories used to develop the hypotheses and whethertheory has been used at all.

    Method: Scientific and scholarly databases were searched to find all existing articles. We found 57 longitudinal studies published since 1987 ina variety of countries throughout the world. All articles were summarised in an encompassing table.

    Results: The results show strong evidence for normal causation, in which job insecurity influences both psychological well-being and somatichealth over time. The results were somewhat dependent on the type of outcome variable analysed, with clear evidence regarding exhaustion(burnout), general mental/psychological well-being, self-rated health, and a variety of somatic complaints. For aspects such as job satisfaction,work engagement, and psychosomatic complaints, the results suggested normal causation in one half to two thirds of the studies only. Reversedor reciprocal causation was rarely studied, and when studied, rarely found.

    Conclusions: Job insecurity influences health and well-being over time, rather than the other way round. Limitations and suggestions for futureresearch are discussed.

  • 33. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Parker, Andrew M
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017In: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, no 1, 123-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 34.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Learning psychotherapy: An effectiveness study of clients and therapists2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many psychotherapy studies with trainees have been conducted, but few have investigated how effective baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are. Baseline trainee-led psychotherapies are often provided by a professional education, and the therapists are often young, untrained and inexperienced. The present study was conducted at the Clinical Psychology Program at Umeå University, in Sweden. The psychology students were in their fourth or fifth year of, in total, five years, and few had practiced therapy before. Clients, students and education providers are interested in the outcome of trainee-led psychotherapies because clients want an effective treatment, and students and the educators want the best education. In research, there is an interest in knowing more about training, how training influences clients’ benefits of therapy, and how training works in regular activity. In the present thesis, we investigate questions related to outcome and how different training factors affect outcome. The overall purpose of the present thesis was to examine 1) the effectiveness of trainee-led therapies in a psychology education setting and 2) if clients’ self-image patterns would predict the outcome 3) if different training conditions covary with treatment outcome 4) how novices develop in their professional characteristics and work involvement styles.

    Methods and Result The current thesis utilized data from the Swedish naturalistic study Effects of Student Therapies (EUT) at Umeå University. The EUT is a naturalistic psychotherapist research project, which comprises client data from 2003 to 2012. The present study included 235 clients. The mean age of the clients was 31 years (SD = 9.66), and 69% of the clients were women. The clients had mixed psychological symptoms and were well functioning. Psychological symptoms were measured by Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90; Derogatis, Lipman, & Covi, 1973). The patients’ self-image was measured using the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB), the introject questionnaire (Benjamin, 1974). All therapists were students at the psychology program. In Paper III, 76 therapists participated. The therapists’ mean age was 28 years (SD = 5.55), and 71% of the therapists were women. Therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles were measured by Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ; Orlinsky et al., 1999).

    Four specific objectives have been addressed. The first objective was to investigate the overall effectiveness of treatment. In Papers I and II, the effect sizes implicated that the therapy outcome was moderate. Paper I showed that 67% of the clients were in the dysfunctional domain before therapy compared to 34% after completed therapy. Further in Paper I, it was found that 42% of the clients had recovered or improved at the end of the therapy, but most of the clients remained unchanged (55%) and a few percent had deteriorated (3%). This result is in line with a Norwegian training study (Ryum, Stiles & Vogel, 2007) but less effective than effectiveness studies have shown with professional therapists (e.g. Hunsley & Lee, 2007). Paper II, where we used a subsample of Paper I’s clients, showed a similar result.

    The second objective was to investigate if clients’ self-image pattern (attachment group, disrupted attachment group, self-control and self-autonomy) predicted change in psychological symptoms (GSI: global severity index) and personality symptoms (PSI: personality symptom index). The disrupted attachment group or the clients’ negative self-image had the strongest relationship to outcome and explained 8% vs. 10% in outcome (PSI vs. GSI). Self-control explained a further 3% (GSI) and 4% (PSI) of the result, and self-autonomy added 1% in both GSI and PSI. The result indicates that clients with an increased negative self-image, higher self-control, and lower level of self-autonomy before therapy improve more in both psychological symptoms and personality symptoms than clients with a less negative self-image, lower self-control, and higher level of self-autonomy.

    The third objective was to explore if treatment duration (one or two semesters) and training condition (cognitive therapy and psychodynamic therapy) could affect basic psychotherapy outcome. Paper II demonstrated that clients in all training conditions, cognitive therapy two semesters (CT2), psychodynamic therapy one semester (PDT1) and psychodynamic therapy two semesters (PDT2), had significant changes in self-image patterns and symptoms, except for cognitive therapy one semester (CT1). Analyses using clinically significant change demonstrated that fewer clients in CT1 had recovered and reliably improved compared to the other training conditions (in CT1: 20- 23%, in PDT1: 27- 43%, in CT2: 49- 54% and in PDT2: 35- 41%). Two hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that clients’ pre-tests characteristics self-image pattern (affiliation: AFF) and psychological symptoms (global severity index: GSI) explained 34% of the results. Treatment duration and training condition demonstrated an interaction effect between duration and theoretical approach, explaining about 2%. The regression lines for self-image pattern AFF and psychological symptoms GSI showed that clients in CT2 and PDT1 improved more than clients receiving CT1 and PDT2.

    The fourth objective was to examine how novice therapists in psychotherapy training develop in professional characteristics and work involvement styles (healing and stressful work involvement styles). The study was longitudinal and therapists were measured at session 2, 8, 16, 22 and endpoint. Mixed model analyses of the Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ) (when controlled for therapists’ age and gender) showed that the therapists’ professional characteristics and work involvement styles changed positively over time in training, except for in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom. The therapists increased most in technical expertise and less in basic relational skill. The result also indicated that the students changed linearly over time.

    Conclusion The present studies draw attention to the moderate outcome for clients in trainee-led psychotherapy. The novices appear to need time to increase in effectiveness possibly due to the high load of technical training in the beginning of the therapy. However, when exploring different training durations and training conditions, the contexts are shown to influence the outcome. In addition, clients with a more negative self-image pattern, with higher levels of self-control and lower levels of self-autonomy had better outcome, a finding with prognostic value. Finally, the training of students improves both a healing and a stressful involvement style, but in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom are more resistant to change.

  • 35.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Novice psychotherapists’ development in professional characteristics and work involvement styles in trainingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about how psychotherapists develop their professional characteristics and work involvement styles during training is scant; in addition, awareness of the need to find answers to how psychotherapy training can best be organized is increasing. This study investigated novice therapists’ development of healing and stressful work involvement in baseline psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided information longitudinally by responding to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ). The results demonstrated that therapists’ healing and stressful work involvement, current therapeutic skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed positively and linearly. Technical expertise changed the most, having a large effect, and relational skills developed moderately. Surprisingly, in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The process of positive and linear development of in-session feelings is important in psychotherapy education. The question becomes how the training should address trainees’ personal issues or countertransference that might affect in-session feelings.

  • 36. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Life History and Race Differences in Puberty Length: A Test of Differential-K Theory.In: Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Stress och påverkan på de nationella provresultaten för åk 32014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever 9-10 åringar de nationella proven i åk 3? Påverkar upplevelsen prestationen? Påverkas något matematikdelområde mer eller mindre av upplevelsen? Skiljer sig olika uppgifter åt beroende på om de har mer eller mindre text respektive bilder? Vad kan man som lärare tänka på och göra i allmänhet och i synnerhet vid prov/förhörssituationer?

    Läsåret 2012/13 genomfördes en studie med 624 st elever i åk 3 för att bringa klarhet i ovan frågor. Eleverna fick göra olika arbetsminnesövningar och svara på frågor om stress, motivation och attityder, etc. Teoretiskt tror man nämligen att allt för hög nivå av t ex stress (prestationsångest) sänker ens prestation på ett prov/förhör. Resultaten på de olika nationella delproven i matematik kördes därför statistiskt mot nivå av självrapporterad stress/ångest och uppskattad eller egentlig prestationsförmåga hos eleverna.

    Uppskattad eller egentlig förmåga att prestera i matematik för elever kan mätas genom t ex deras arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en kognitiv förmåga som är väl klarlagd för att väsentligen påverka prestation och utveckling inom t ex matematik- och läsförståelse hos både vuxna och barn (Menon, 2010). Det finns dessutom starka kopplingar mellan arbetsminneskapacitet och skolprestation i teoretiska ämnen. Majoriteten av de elever som har inlärningssvårigheter i skolan verkar även ha svag arbetsminnesförmåga (Gathercole et al., 2006).

    Arbetsminnet kan förenklat beskrivas som bestå av tre olika specialiserade komponenter. En huvudcentral som t ex kontrollerar, fördelar, uppmärksammar och processerar information, och hämtar/lagrar information från/i långtidsminnet. Till sin hjälp har denna huvudcentral en visuell-spatial del för hantering av bilder, former och dimension, samt en auditiv del för behandling av lingvistik (Baddeley, 1986). Matematik innefattar olika områden som beror av olika kognitiva förmågor (t ex huvudräkning, problemlösning), vilka i sin tur är relaterade till visuell-spatial och/eller auditiv fakta (Rasmussen & Bisanz, 2005).

    ”Provstress” eller ”provängslan” är en etablerad term för att beskriva elevers påverkan och upplevelse av prov. Termen innefattar ofta för barn observerbara beteenden (t ex gå på toan, vicka på stolen, titta sig omkring), tankar/oro (t ex jag kommer aldrig att klara det här, mina föräldrar kommer att bli arga om jag misslyckas), autonoma/somatiska reaktioner (t ex svettas, ont i magen, varm om kinderna) (Zeidner, 2007). Man tror att provängslan är ett inlärt beteende som väcks tidigt i skolåren (Pekrun, 2000). Det är ett väldigt inskränkande tillstånd (Rothman, 2004) som starkt kan begränsa elevers prestation i alla åldrar (Birenbaum & Gutvirtz, 1993). Även om ett visst mått av provängslan är nödvändigt för att öka fokus, motivation och förberedelse (Gregor, 2005), kan det i allt för höga nivåer negativt påverka en elevs prestation och resultat på ett prov (Zeidner, 2007), särskilt i matematik (e.g. Putwain, 2008). 

    Om och hur stark den kognitiva störningen är av provängslan används alltså i vår studie som ett mått eller symptom på elevers ev. underprestation. Vi undersöker också om eleverna uppvisar mer eller mindre av beteenden, autonoma reaktioner eller tankar relaterat till provängslan. Slutligen summerar vi våra resultat mot undervisning och prov/förhörssituationer. En jämförelse kommer även att göras med Finländska och Kinesiska åk-3 elever.

  • 38.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Factors of importance for mathematics performance in grade 3: working memory capacity, teat anxiety and self-regulation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Eriksson, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The importance of threat, strategy, and resource appraisals for long-term proactive risk management among forest owners in Sweden2016In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461, Vol. 20, no 7, 868-886 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural hazards management, it is important to understand what motivates people to act when they or their property are threatened by natural hazards. Despite the importance of both threat and coping appraisals for responses to threats, less is known about the relations between threat and coping appraisals when risk management is long term. The present study examined appraisals of threat (cognitive and emotional), personal resources (cost and self-efficacy), and strategies (response-efficacy) as predictors of proactive management responses (past behavior and future intention) among forest owners in Sweden by means of a questionnaire (n = 1482). A path analysis revealed that threat appraisals and response-efficacy were direct predictors of past risk management behavior and the intention to respond in the future. Appraisals of resources, including cost and self-efficacy, were indirectly – via forest susceptibility and threat appraisals – related to threat responses. Although the model displayed reasonable fit for both owners more and those less involved in forestry, the cognitive appraisals variable was not a significant predictor of responses among owners less involved in forestry. In the full sample, the examined model explained approximately 50% of the variance in threat appraisals, and 28 and 17% in future intention and past behavior, respectively. Theoretical implications for how threat and coping appraisals are related during long-term risk management, and practical implications for forest risk management, are discussed.

  • 40.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors2016In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, 59-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  • 41.
    Fahlen, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational Medicine.
    Peter, Richard
    Knutsson, Anders
    The effort-reward imbalance model of psychosocial stress at the workplace: a comparison of ERI exposure assessment using two estimation methods2004In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 18, no 1, 81-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual for old data to be used in epidemiological studies. Recently developed instruments for measuring work-related stress did not exist when the data collection was carried out. Therefore, approximate questions are sometimes used. An apparent problem is the lack of validation of proxy questions. The aim of this study was to compare the original questions for measuring Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) with approximate questions. The study population corresponded with a subgroup in the WOLF-n (WOrk, Lipids, Fibrinogen-north) cohort study of cardiovascular risk in a working population in the north of Sweden: 655 men and 178 women. The agreement in exposure between the original and the approximate ERI single questions was relatively low throughout, whereas the correlation between the ERI subscales and the ERI ratios was reasonable. The latter agreement between the original and the approximate ERI ratio indicates that the approximate measures might have been useful in the past. Yet, whenever possible the implementation of the original questionnaire in study protocols is recommended since a complete measurement of ERI might help to further improve the internal consistency and the predictive validity of this exposure to effort-reward imbalance.

  • 42. Fast, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    McLoon, Linda
    Engel, Stephen
    Vergence is limited by adaptation2016In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 45, 99-100 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Defense mechanism test och ungdomar1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Fransson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Influence of gender and age in the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) among adolescents and adults1998Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Fransson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) and Kernberg's theory of personality organization related to adolescents in psychiatric care1994Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Fransson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundbom, Elisabet
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gender differences and the Defense Mechanism Test: A comparative study of adolescents in psychiatric care and healthy controls1998In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 39, no 2, 93-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study gender differences in the percept-genetic method Defense Mechanism Test (DMT) among a group of 60 adolescent subjects. Three subgroups were used: patients with psychotic disorders (Axis 1); borderline personality disorder (Axis 2) according to the DSM-IV classification system, and a non-patient group. The test protocols were scored with respect to 124 DMT variables and analyzed by means of the multivariate projection method Partial Least Squares (PLS) in latent structures. The overall results showed considerable gender differences in the whole group as well as in the subgroups. The most striking finding was that girls compared to boys were characterized by the perceptual defense identification with the opposite sex, which means that they perceived male gestalts instead of females in the stimulus picture. When both gender and diagnostic group membership were considered simultaneously, the influence of diagnostic group membership seemed to be stronger than gender even if there was an interaction between diagnoses and gender. It was concluded that gender must be considered when the DMT is used on adolescent populations.

  • 47.
    Frelijj González, Camila
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakola, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyblivna psykologers psykosociala arbetsmiljö: De tre första åren efter examen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Långvariga sjukskrivningar på grund av maladaptiva stressreaktioner, är i Sverige påtagligt vanligare blandpsykologer än i den yrkesverksamma befolkningen i övrigt. Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägganyutexaminerade psykologers hälsa och psykosociala arbetsmiljö utefter en enkät som skickats ut under 2016.Urvalet består av 602 respondenter, varav 454 är kvinnor, 141 är män och fem vill inte kategorisera sig, medelålder31.6 år (SD = 5.2). Denna tvärsnittsstudie presenterar deskriptiv information, korrelationer, regressioner, envägsANOVA samt kvalitativ data. Resultaten visar att 44% av respondenterna tagit sig till arbetet trots att de bordesjukskrivit sig. Utbildningsdimensionerna psykologiskt arbete och professionell utveckling påverkarrespondenternas skattade egenförmåga. Diskrepansen mellan skalorna nuvarande arbete och idealt arbete visar sigi gruppen vara mindre i grupperna: män, respondenter över 40 år och för de som huvudsakligen arbetar medkonsultation. Av intresse är att närmare en femtedel av nyutexaminerade psykologer har dagliga tankar att lämnayrket. Detta diskuteras utefter empiri från andra yrkesgrupper och utefter både kvantitativ och kvalitativ data sominkommit i enkätundersökningen.

  • 48. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Hill, Andrew
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 10, 1256-1264 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes can be identified that differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernable groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 male and 113 female aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one's best.

  • 49. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    University of St Andrews, UK.
    Podlog, Leslie
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Conceptual Confusion and Potential Advances in Athlete Burnout Research2016In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 123, no 3, 784-791 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 30 years of research on athlete burnout has yielded important insights and questions regarding the onset, nature, and consequences of this detrimental syndrome. Not surprisingly, burnout is considered an important matter, both from a research and practical standpoint. We comment on the work of Ryu, Ali, Kim, Choi, and Radlo, who examined the impact of burnout on cognitive performance among athletes.

  • 50. Hansson, Anita
    et al.
    Hansson, Lina
    Danielsson, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Short- and Long-Term Effects of Child Neuropsychological Assessment With a Collaborative and Therapeutic Approach: A Preliminary Study2016In: Applied neuropsychology. Child, ISSN 2162-2965, Vol. 5, no 2, 97-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study explored if a collaborative and therapeutic approach (CTA) could reduce self-reported psychiatric symptoms (Beck Youth Inventories [BYI]) in children referred for neuropsychological assessment. Participants included 11 children (M-age=12.4 years) receiving CTA, 11 (M-age=12.6 years) receiving parent support, and 9 (M-age=12.3 years) remaining on a waiting list. Contrary to both comparison groups, the CTA group reported fewer psychiatric symptoms on most BYI subscales after intervention, and this decrease was sustained for the Anger and Anxiety subscales at 6-month follow-up. Findings support a potential effectiveness of CTA in the neuropsychological assessment of children in a child psychiatric setting.

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