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  • 1. Aazh, Hashir
    et al.
    Knipper, Marlies
    Danesh, Ali A.
    Cavanna, Andrea E.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Schecklmann, Martin
    Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment2018Ingår i: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, nr 95, s. 162-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hyperacusis is intolerance of certain everyday sounds that causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, recreational, and other day-to-day activities. Objective: The aim of this report is to summarize the key findings and conclusions from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis. Topics covered: The main topics discussed comprise (1) diagnosis of hyperacusis and audiological evaluations, (2) neurobiological aspect of hyperacusis, (3) misophonia, (4) hyperacusis in autism spectrum disorder, (5) noise sensitivity, (6) hyperacusis-related distress and comorbid psychiatric illness, and (7) audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for hyperacusis. Conclusions: Implications for research and clinical practice are summarised.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 84-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Zubair
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Mumtaz, Jasim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Implementation of Activity Theory in Umeå University Library2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology is playing a vital role in our every field of life. The most common use of information is in the field of education. Use of information technology in libraries is very important. People from differents works of life extract information from these libraries. In this paper, we have tried to identify how can we facilitate the Umeå university library users for better interaction with the information? We have used different methods for collection of data to identify the Umeå university libray problems and then we analysed the whole library system with the help of Engeström Activity theory, to find out which factors are effeting the interaction between users and library and creating main problems. In the end we have given some suggestions for the improvement of interaction between users and Umeå library to facilitate them for accessing information.

  • 4.
    Allan, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Turnnidge, Jennifer
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Vierimaa, Matthew
    Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Côté, Jean
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Development of the Assessment of Coach Emotions systematic observation instrument: A tool to evaluate coaches’ emotions in the youth sport context2016Ingår i: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, nr 6, s. 859-871Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on emotions in sport focuses heavily on athletes’ intrapersonal emotion regulation; however, interpersonal consequences of emotion regulation are garnering recent attention. As leaders in sport, coaches have the opportunity to regulate not only their own emotions, but also those of athletes, officials, and spectators. As such, the present study set out to develop an observational tool, demonstrating evidence of validity and reliability, for measuring coaches’ overt emotions in the youth sport context. Categories were derived and refined through extensive literature and video review, resulting in 12 categories of behavioural content and eight emotion modifiers (NeutralHappyAffectionateAlertTenseAnxiousAngry and Disappointed). The final coding system is presented herein, complete with supporting evidence for validity and reliability. As a tool for both researchers and practitioners in sport, the Assessment of Coach Emotions (ACE) offers enhanced insight into the contextual qualities underlying coaches’ interactive behaviours.

  • 5.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Oxford textbook of psychotherapy2006Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 113, s. 159-Artikel, recension (Refereegranskat)
  • 6.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Social work.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Social work.
    UBÅT: En ny metod för uppföljning och beskrivning av åtgärder i missbruksvård2016Ingår i: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, nr 4, s. 14-18Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Engström, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Brännström, Jan
    Nyström, Siv
    Brukarna är nöjda med missbruksvården - även om problemen inte förbättrats2014Ingår i: Socionomen, ISSN 0283-1929, nr 7, s. 38-53Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Atroshi, Isam
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar.
    Gummesson, Christina
    Department of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy, Lund University, 22100 Lund, Sweden.
    The 6-item CTS symptoms scale: a brief outcomes measure for carpal tunnel syndrome2009Ingår i: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 347-358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9. Bakhiet, Salaheldin Farah Attallah
    et al.
    Dutton, Edward
    Ashaer, Khalil Yousif Ali
    Essa, Yossry Ahmed Sayed
    Blahmar, Tahani Abdulrahman Muhammad
    Hakami, Sultan Mohammed
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Understanding the Simber Effect: why is the age-dependent increase in children's cognitive ability smaller in Arab countries than in Britain?2018Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 122, s. 38-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that the typical increase in IQ during childhood is greater in European countries than in Arab countries. A systematic literature review of age-dependent IQ in Arab countries is conducted, yielding relevant studies for 12 countries that fulfil the inclusion criteria. In almost all of these studies, Arab children exhibit an age-dependent IQ decline relative to Caucasian children, from 5 to about 12 years of age in particular. We term this phenomenon the Simber Effect. We propose two non-exclusive explanations. (1) The Flynn Effect is less intense in Arab countries because of localised differences, including poorer education quality and greater religiosity. (2) Those from Arab countries follow a faster Life History Strategy than Europeans, for environmental and possibly genetic reasons. Either way, the Simber Effect may amount to a Wilson Effect, meaning that the impact of genetic IQ increases with age.

  • 10. Ballesteros, S
    et al.
    Toril, P
    Mayas, J
    Reales, J.M
    Waterworth, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    The Role of a New ICT Home Environment in Healthy Ageing2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to prevent and/or delay cognitive decline, and help maintain the independence and wellbeing of elders by using a web-based social network platform, enhanced with devices to detect users´ states and collect activity data. The idea is that an active lifestyle rich in social interactions, active engagement and mental training with videogames may mitigate age-related decline and reduce healthcare costs. The innovative applications and the videogame training approach developed in the study could have wide application for a large number of European older adults living alone. The effectiveness of the ICT solution is being assessed throughout the project with user and control groups in Spain, Sweden and Greece. User interviews, extensive psychological testing and on-going cognitive and fMRI experiments are being conducted.. The results have shown so far that the users improved in cognitive performance compared to controls on the MMSE. Well-being assessed with the SPF-IL Scale also showed an improvement in the Status dimension of the users. This dimension assesses the feeling of being independent, self-realization and achievement. Exploring new ways to maintain the cognitive and functional state of older users is today a critical issue, for individuals, for families, and for whole societies. The study has shown the positive potential of new interactive technologies to maintain mental health and independent living in the elderly. Computer technology and cognitive training can increase social integration and provide mental stimulation for older adults living alone.

  • 11.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    The conjunction of non-consciously perceived object identity and spatial position can be retained during a visual short-term memory task2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, artikel-id 1470Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although non-consciously perceived information has previously been assumed to be short-lived (<500 ms), recent findings show that non-consciously perceived information can be maintained for at least 15s Such findings can be explained as working memory without a conscious experience of the information to be retained. However, whether or not working memory can operate on non-consciously perceived information remains controversial, and little is known about the nature of such non-conscious visual short-term memory (VSTM). Here we used continuous flash suppression to render stimuli non-conscious, to investigate the properties of non-consciously perceived representations in delayed match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. In Experiment I we used variable delays (5 or 15s) and found that performance was significantly better than chance and was unaffected by delay duration, thereby replicating previous findings. In Experiment II the DMS task required participants to combine information of spatial position and object identity on a trial-by-trial basis to successfully solve the task. We found that the conjunction of spatial position and object identity was retained, thereby verifying that non-conscious, trial-specific information can be maintained for prospective use. We conclude that our results are consistent with a working memory interpretation, but that more research is needed to verify this interpretation.

  • 12.
    Boettcher, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden and Free Univ Berlin, D-14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Åström, Viktor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Påhlsson, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Schenstrom, Ola
    Mindfulness Ctr, Bethesda, MD USA.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Internet-Based Mindfulness Treatment for Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014Ingår i: Behavior Therapy, ISSN 0005-7894, E-ISSN 1878-1888, Vol. 45, nr 2, s. 241-253Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mindfulness-based interventions have proven effective for the trans diagnostic treatment of heterogeneous anxiety disorders. So far, no study has investigated the potential of mindfulness-based treatments when delivered remotely via the Internet. The current trial aims at evaluating the efficacy of a stand-alone, unguided, Internet-based mindfulness treatment program for anxiety. Ninety-one participants diagnosed with social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, or anxiety disorder not otherwise specified were randomly assigned to a mindfulness treatment group (MTG) or to an online discussion forum control group (CG). Mindfulness treatment consisted of 96 audio files with instructions for various mindfulness meditation exercises. Primary and secondary outcome measures were assessed at pre-, post-treatment, and at 6-months follow-up. Participants of the MTG showed a larger decrease of symptoms of anxiety, depression, and insomnia from pre- to postassessment than participants of the CG (Cohen's d(between) = 0.36-0.99). Within effect sizes were large in the MTG (d = 0.82-1.58) and small to moderate in the CG (d = 0.45-0.76). In contrast to participants of the CG, participants of the MTG also achieved a moderate improvement in their quality of life. The study provided encouraging results for an Internet-based mindfulness protocol in the treatment of primary anxiety disorders. Future replications of these results will show whether Web-based mindfulness meditation can constitute a valid alternative to existing, evidence-based cognitive-behavioural Internet treatments.

  • 13. Botha, C
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    South African correctional official occupational stress: The role of psychological strengths.2006Ingår i: Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 73-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14. Briones-Vozmediano, Erica
    et al.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Ortiz-Barreda, Gaby
    Gil-González, Diana
    Vives-Cases, Carmen
    Professionals' perceptions of support resources for battered immigrant women: chronicle of an anticipated failure2014Ingår i: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 1006-1027Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore the experience of service providers in Spain regarding their daily professional encounters with battered immigrant women and their perception of this group's help-seeking process and the eventual abandonment of the same. Twenty-nine in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 43 professionals involved in providing support to battered immigrant women. We interviewed social workers, psychologists, intercultural mediators, judges, lawyers, and public health professionals from Spain. Through qualitative content analysis, four categories emerged: (a) frustration with the victim's decision to abandon the help-seeking process, (b) ambivalent positions regarding differences between immigrant and Spanish women, (c) difficulties in the migratory process that may hinder the help-seeking process, and (d) criticisms regarding the inefficiency of existing resources. The four categories were cross-cut by an overarching theme: helping immigrant women not to abandon the help-seeking process as a chronicle of anticipated failure. The main reasons that emerged for abandoning the help-seeking process involved structural factors such as economic dependence, loss of social support after leaving their country of origin, and limited knowledge about available resources. The professionals perceived their encounters with battered immigrant women to be frustrating and unproductive because they felt that they had few resources to back them up. They felt that despite the existence of public policies targeting intimate partner violence (IPV) and immigration in Spain, the resources dedicated to tackling gender-based violence were insufficient to meet battered immigrant women's needs. Professionals should be trained both in the problem of IPV and in providing support to the immigrant population.

  • 15. Brändström, Sven
    et al.
    Sigvardsson, Sören
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Socialmedicin.
    Nylander, Per-Olof
    Richter, Jörg
    The Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI)2008Ingår i: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 14-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to establish new norms of the Swedish version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), data from 2,209 Swedish individuals (age between 13 and 80) was analyzed. The second aim was to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the questionnaire scores. The third aim was to investigate whether the TO can be meaningfully applied to adolescents in personality assessment as a basis for further research and clinical studies. Age and gender showed independent effects on personality dimensions, which implies that age and gender specific norms have to be established for the TCI. Furthermore, the results in terms of inconsistencies in the correlational and factorial structure, as well as low internal consistency scores in the younger age groups, suggest that the adult version of the TCI should not be applied below the age of 17; for these age groups we recommend the use of the junior TCI (JTCI). The inventory is under further development and several items are in need of revision in order to create less complicated formulations, enabling an improvement in the psychometrics.

  • 16.
    Brügger, Annina
    et al.
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Distributing Attention Between Environment and Navigation System to Increase Spatial Knowledge Acquisition During Assisted Wayfinding2018Ingår i: Proceedings of Workshops and Posters at the 13th International Conference on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017) / [ed] Fogliaroni P., Ballatore A., Clementini E., Springer, 2018, s. 19-22Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Travelers happily follow the route instructions of their devices when navigating in an unknown environment. Navigation systems focus on route instructions to allow the user to efficiently reach a destination, but their increased use also has negative consequences. We argue that the limitation for spatial knowledge acquisition is grounded in the system’s design, primarily aimed at increasing navigation efficiency. Therefore, we empirically investigate how navigation systems could guide users’ attention to support spatial knowledge acquisition during efficient route following tasks.

  • 17.
    Brügger, Annina
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Fabrikant, Sara Irina
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    How does navigation system behavior influence human behavior?2019Ingår i: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, E-ISSN 2365-7464, Vol. 4, nr 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation systems are ubiquitous tools to assist wayfinders of the mobile information society with various navigational tasks. Whenever such systems assist with self-localization and path planning, they reduce human effort for navigating. Automated navigation assistance benefits navigation performance, but research seems to show that it negatively affects attention to environment properties, spatial knowledge acquisition, and retention of spatial information. Very little is known about how to design navigation systems for pedestrian navigation that increase both navigation performance and spatial knowledge acquisition. To this end, we empirically tested participants (N = 64) using four different navigation system behaviors (between-subject design). Two cognitive processes with varying levels of automation, self-localization and allocation of attention, define navigation system behaviors: either the system automatically executes one of the processes (high level of automation), or the system leaves the decision of when and where to execute the process to the navigator (low level of automation). In two experimental phases, we applied a novel empirical framework for evaluating spatial knowledge acquisition in a real-world outdoor urban environment. First, participants followed a route assisted by a navigation system and, simultaneously, incidentally acquired spatial knowledge. Second, participants reversed the route using the spatial knowledge acquired during the assisted phase, this time without the aid of the navigation system. Results of the route-following phase did not reveal differences in navigation performance across groups using different navigation system behaviors. However, participants using systems with higher levels of automation seemed not to acquire enough spatial knowledge to reverse the route without navigation errors. Furthermore, employing novel methods to analyze mobile eye tracking data revealed distinct patterns of human gaze behavior over time and space. We thus can demonstrate how to increase spatial knowledge acquisition without harming navigation performance when using navigation systems, and how to influence human navigation behavior with varying navigation system behavior. Thus, we provide key findings for the design of intelligent automated navigation systems in real-world scenarios.

  • 18. Bååth, R
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Thesubjective difficulty of tapping to a slow beat2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 19.
    Bååth, Rasmus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Strandberg, T
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Measuring the rhythmic properties of eye movements2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 20. Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance2018Ingår i: Journal of clinical sport psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 333-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

  • 21.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Olsson, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Neural correlates of time perspective2015Ingår i: Time perspective theory: review, research and application: essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo / [ed] M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, van Beek, W., Berlin: Springer , 2015, s. 231-242Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this chapter is to summarize our present knowledge about the neural correlates of time perspective and related constructs. We first briefly introduce functional magnetic resonance functional magnetic resonance imaging as a suitable technique to understand the underlying neural mechanisms when studying various constructs of time. Then, we discuss how the use of brain imaging techniques has improved our knowledge regarding concepts of time perspective. In this section it becomes evident that most studies have focused on mental time traveling. Finally we introduce a novel line of research in which we try to study neural correlates of time within the context of the Zimbardo framework. By such approach we are able to include the personality-like construct from the ZTPI to further understand the neural correlates of temporal processing.

  • 22. Carlbring, P.
    et al.
    Hassmen, P.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindner, P.
    Andersson, G.
    The relative effects of behavioral activation vs. physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2016Ingår i: ISRII 8th Scientific Meeting Technologies for a digital world: Improving health across the lifespan, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23. Carlbring, Per
    et al.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lindner, Philip
    Martell, Christopher
    Forsberg, L
    Ström, L
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Hassmen, Peter
    Behavioral activation vs physical exercise in the treatment of mild to moderate depression2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24. Carlsson, Jan
    et al.
    Ek, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Lundgren, Mats
    Att bedöma kognitiva psykoterapeuters kompetens, hur göra man?: Jämförelse av två skattningsskalor2008Ingår i: Sokraten Medlemstidning, nr 1, s. 11-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet kompetens har visat sig vara svårfångat i kognitiv terapi (Kazantizis 2003). Ändå är det något som vi terapeuter försöker utveckla och uppnå. Ett specifikt försök, som författarna till denna artikel har antagit är "den korrekta och skickliga användningen av en empiriskt validerad modell av terapi på ett sådant sätt att de är sannolikt att resultera i en mera klinisk signifikant förändring för patienten" (James, Blackburn, Milne & Reichelt, 2001, förf. översättning). Flera studier tyder på att både erfarenhet, utbildningsnivå och expertskattad kompetens gör skillnad i behandlingsutfall. (DeRubeis, Hollon, Amsterdam mfl., 2005; Frank, Kupfer, Wgner mfl., 1991; Trepka, Rees, Shapiro mfl., 2004).

  • 25. Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Yang, Sophie
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos
    Hagger, Martin
    Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention2015Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, nr 6, s. 666-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in asurvey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results ofsport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover studyexamining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomousmotivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletesfrom Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistencytendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-weekinterim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of differentIID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had strongerparameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  • 26.
    Claeson, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Symptoms from masked acrolein exposure suggest altered trigeminal reactivity in chemical intolerance2017Ingår i: Neurotoxicology, ISSN 0161-813X, E-ISSN 1872-9711, Vol. 60, s. 92-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chemical intolerance (CI) is a widespread occupational and public health problem characterized by symptoms that reportedly result from low-levels of chemical exposure. The mechanisms behind CI are unknown, however modifications of the chemical senses (rather than toxic processes) have been suggested as key components. The aim of this study was to investigate whether individuals with self-reported CI report more sensory irritation during masked acrolein exposure compared to controls without CI. Methods: Individuals with CI (n = 18) and controls without CI (n = 19) were exposed in an exposure chamber. Each participant took part in two exposure conditions – one with heptane (the masking compound), and one with heptane and acrolein at a dose below previously reported sensory irritation thresholds. The exposures lasted for 60 min. Symptoms and confidence ratings were measured continuously throughout the exposure as were measurements of electrodermal activity and self-reported tear-film break-up time. Participants were blind to exposure condition. Results: Individuals with CI, compared with controls reported greater sensory irritation in the eyes, nose and throat when exposed to acrolein masked with heptane. There was no difference during exposure to heptane. Conclusions: Masked exposure to acrolein at a concentration below the previously reported detection threshold is perceived as more irritating by individuals with CI compared with controls. The results indicate that there is altered trigeminal reactivity in those with CI compared to controls.

  • 27. Coetzee, A
    et al.
    Linde, B
    Pienaar, Jaco
    The workplace antecedents of the intention to emigrate.2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 28. Dahl, Sofia
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Keeping the tempo and perceiving the beat2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 29. Dahlin, Mats
    et al.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Magnusson, Kristoffer
    Johansson, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sjögren, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Pettersson, Magnus
    Kadowaki, Asa
    Cuijpers, Pim
    Carlbring, Per
    Internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy for generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial2016Ingår i: Behaviour Research and Therapy, ISSN 0005-7967, E-ISSN 1873-622X, Vol. 77, s. 86-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disabling condition which can be treated with cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT). The present study tested the effects of therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy on symptoms of GAD and quality of life. An audio CD with acceptance and mindfulness exercises and a separate workbook were also included in the treatment. Participants diagnosed with GAD (N = 103) were randomly allocated to immediate therapist-guided internet-delivered acceptance-based behaviour therapy or to a waiting-list control condition. A six month follow-up was also included. Results using hierarchical linear modelling showed moderate to large effects on symptoms of GAD (Cohen's d = 0.70 to 0.98), moderate effects on depressive symptoms (Cohen's d = 0.51 to 0.56), and no effect on quality of life. Follow-up data showed maintained effects. While there was a 20% dropout rate, sensitivity analyses showed that dropouts did not differ in their degree of change during treatment. To conclude, our study suggests that internet-delivered acceptance based behaviour therapy can be effective in reducing the symptoms of GAD.

  • 30.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Wills, Samuel
    Appleby, Ralph
    Nieuwenhuys, Arnie
    Exploring "Sledging" and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket2018Ingår i: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 136-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines cricketers’ perceptions of emotional interactions between competitors. Semistructured interviews with 12 male professional cricketers explored experiences (i.e., emotions, cognitions, behaviors) relating to incidents during competition where they or an opponent attempted to evoke an emotional reaction (e.g., sledging). Cricketers described their use of sledging as aggressive actions and verbal interactions with the aim of disrupting concentration and altering the emotional states of opponents. They described experiencing a variety of emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger) in response to opponents’ attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation; linguistic analyses indicated that both positive than negative emotions were experienced. A range of strategies in response to competitors’ deliberate attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation were outlined. The present study extends previous research investigating interpersonal emotion regulation within teams by indicating that professional cricketers are aware of the impact of cognitions and emotions on performance and attempt to negatively influence these factors in competitors

  • 31.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

  • 32.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Examining associations between affective states and physiological responses before, during, and after competitive cycling time trials2018Ingår i: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, s. S86-S86Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom.
    Rothmann Jr, S
    Linking employee burnout to medical aid provider expenditure2013Ingår i: SAMJ South African Medical Journal, ISSN 0256-9574, E-ISSN 2078-5135, Vol. 103, nr 2, s. 89-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Healthcare has become a major expense. Burnout and its connection with psychological and physical health is well researched, yet little research has been done on the connection between burnout and financial outcomes, specifically as indicated by the costs incurred by medical aid providers as a result of members' claims. Objective. To investigate the connection between employee burnout and medical aid claims and expenditure data in a sample from the private sector. Method. A cross-sectional design was used. The sample comprised 3 182 participants. The available objective medical aid expenditure data connected with each participant were: total insured benefits, general practitioner visits, specialist visits, general practitioner insured benefits, and claims for medicine. A low and a high burnout group were extracted, based on comorbidity of the two core components of burnout. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was then applied to investigate the differences in estimated marginal means of the expenditures on the low and the high burnout contrast groups, while controlling for age and gender. Results. The high burnout group frequented a general practitioner more often, and the medical aid provider expenditure was nearly double that of the low burnout group, on all the variables. Specialist visits did not show a significant result. Conclusion. High burnout is associated with a higher expenditure by a medical aid provider, compared with low burnout, per member. Stakeholders should therefore address burnout to reduce expenditure and promote health.

  • 34. De Beer, L
    et al.
    Rothmann, Jnr., I.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    A confirmatory investigation of a job demands-resources model with a categorical estimator.2012Ingår i: Psychological Reports, Vol. 111, nr 2, s. 528-544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 35. De Beer,, L. T.,
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    2013Ingår i: Demands, exhaustion and absenteeism: Comparing management, professionals and administrative occupations., 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    De Beer, L. T.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Jr., S.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Investigating the reversed causality of engagement and burnout in job demands-resources theory2013Ingår i: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, nr 1, artikel-id a1055Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: Reversed causality is an area that has not commanded major attention within the South African context, specifically pertaining to engagement, burnout and job demands resources. Therefore, this necessitated an investigation to elucidate the potential effects.

    Research purpose: To investigate the reversed causal hypotheses of burnout and engagement in job demands-resources theory over time.

    Motivation for the study: Organisations and researchers should be made aware of the effects that burnout and engagement could have over time on resources and demands.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal design was employed. The availability sample (n = 593) included participants from different demographic backgrounds. A survey was used to measure all constructs at both points in time. Structural equation modelling techniques were implemented with a categorical estimator to investigate the proposed hypotheses.

    Main findings: Burnout was found to have a significant negative longitudinal relationship with colleague support and supervisor support, whilst the negative relationship with supervisor support over time was more prominent. Engagement showed only one significant but small, negative relationship with supervisor support over time. All other relationships were statistically non-significant.

    Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between burnout and relationships at work over time. Proactive measures to promote relationships at work, specifically supervisor support, should be considered in addition to combatting burnout itself and promoting engagement.

    Contribution/value-add: This study provides insights and information on reversed causality, namely, the effects that engagement and burnout can have over time.

  • 37. De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    Job Burnout, Work Engagement and Self-reported Treatment for Health Conditions in South Africa2016Ingår i: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 36-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study being reported here was to investigate the relationship of job burnout and work engagement with self-reported received treatment for health conditions (cardiovascular condition, high cholesterol, depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome), while controlling for age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. The sample comprised 7895 employees from a broad range of economic sectors in the South African working population. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Structural equation modelling methods were implemented with a weighted least squares approach. The results showed that job burnout had a positive relationship with self-reported received treatment for depression, diabetes, hypertension and irritable bowel syndrome. Work engagement did not have any significant negative or positive relationships with the treatment for these health conditions. The results of this study make stakeholders aware of the relationship between job burnout, work engagement and self-reported treatment for health conditions. Evidence for increased reporting of treatment for ill-health conditions due to burnout was found. Therefore, attempts should be made to manage job burnout to prevent ill-health outcomes.

  • 38.
    De Beer, Leon T.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Rothmann, Sebastiaan Jr.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Hoffman Street, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.
    Work overload, burnout, and psychological ill-health symptoms: a three-wave mediation model of the employee health impairment process2016Ingår i: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, ISSN 1061-5806, E-ISSN 1477-2205, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 387-399Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objectives: The study reported here investigated the causal relationships in the health impairment process of employee well-being, and the mediating role of burnout in the relationship between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms, over time. The research is deemed important due to the need for longitudinal evidence of the health impairment process of employee well-being over three waves of data. Design: A quantitative survey design was followed. Participants constituted a longitudinal sample of 370 participants, at three time points, after attrition. Methods: Descriptive statistics and structural equation modeling methods were implemented. Results: Work overload at time one predicted burnout at time two, and burnout at time two predicted psychological ill-health symptoms at time three. Indirect effects were found between work overload time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three via burnout time two, and also between burnout time one and psychological ill-health symptoms time three, via burnout time two. Conclusions: The results provided supportive evidence for an “indirect-only” mediation effect, for burnout's causal mediation mechanism in the health impairment process between work overload and psychological ill-health symptoms.

  • 39. De Beer, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann, I., Jnr
    Designated and non-designated employee experiences in post-apartheid South Africa: Examples of informative hypothesis testing.2015Ingår i: The International Journal of Human Resource Management.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40. De Beer,, L.T
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    Rothmann,, Jnr., I.
    Job burnout’s relationship with sleep difficulties in the presence of control variables: A self-report study.2014Ingår i: South African Journal of Psychology.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 41. De Manzano, Ö
    et al.
    Madison, G
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ullén, F
    Associationsbetween creative achievement in scientific and artistic domains, intelligence,personality, and sex.2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 42.
    De Waal,, J.J.
    et al.
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, South Africa.
    Towards understanding causality between work engagement and psychological capital2013Ingår i: South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, ISSN 0258-5200, E-ISSN 2071-0763, Vol. 39, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Orientation: It is of theoretical and practical interest to establish the sequential relationship between work engagement and positive organisational behaviour, as represented by the psychological capital (PsyCap) construct.

    Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to conceptualise and investigate the causal relationship and temporal order in the relationship between PsyCap and engagement by means of longitudinal data.

    Motivation for the study: The rationale for establishing the sequence of engagement and psychological capital lies in the fact that training interventions to enhance the organisational well-being of employees may need to be focused on either one or the other.

    Research design, approach and method: A longitudinal study with a cross-lagged panel design was conducted; data was gathered by means of a survey that was constructed for the purpose of the study. The survey contained the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and a measure of PsyCap. All employees within a chemical factory (N = 1003) were approached to provide data; 163 employees participated.

    Main findings: Results revealed that PsyCap at Time 1 (T1) did not significantly predict engagement at Time 2 (T2). Evidence does however exist that initial levels of employee engagement predict subsequent PsyCap.

    Practical/managerial implications: Results suggest that employee interventions aimed at protecting and fostering employee engagement may have implications for subsequent employee psychological capital.

    Contribution/value-add: As an empirical, longitudinal study to address the temporal order between PsyCap and work engagement, this study makes a contribution especially to theory, but also with practical implications by indicating that engagement precedes employee psychological capital.

  • 43. De Witte, H
    et al.
    Pienaar, Jaco
    WorkWell Research Unit, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, South Africa.
    De Cuyper, N
    Review of 30 Years of Longitudinal Studies on the Association Between Job Insecurity and Health and Well-Being: Is There Causal Evidence?2016Ingår i: Australian psychologist, ISSN 0005-0067, E-ISSN 1742-9544, Vol. 51, nr 1, s. 18-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In this review article, we present an overview of the results of longitudinal studies on the consequences of job insecurity for healthand well-being. We discuss the evidence for normal causation (“Does job insecurity influence outcomes?”), reversed causation (“Do specificoutcomes predict job insecurity?”), and reciprocal causation. We also review the various theories used to develop the hypotheses and whethertheory has been used at all.

    Method: Scientific and scholarly databases were searched to find all existing articles. We found 57 longitudinal studies published since 1987 ina variety of countries throughout the world. All articles were summarised in an encompassing table.

    Results: The results show strong evidence for normal causation, in which job insecurity influences both psychological well-being and somatichealth over time. The results were somewhat dependent on the type of outcome variable analysed, with clear evidence regarding exhaustion(burnout), general mental/psychological well-being, self-rated health, and a variety of somatic complaints. For aspects such as job satisfaction,work engagement, and psychosomatic complaints, the results suggested normal causation in one half to two thirds of the studies only. Reversedor reciprocal causation was rarely studied, and when studied, rarely found.

    Conclusions: Job insecurity influences health and well-being over time, rather than the other way round. Limitations and suggestions for futureresearch are discussed.

  • 44. Del Missier, Fabio
    et al.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Parker, Andrew M
    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Unraveling the Aging Skein : Disentangling Sensory and Cognitive Predictors of Age-related Differences in Decision Making2017Ingår i: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, ISSN 0894-3257, E-ISSN 1099-0771, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 123-139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Age-related differences in sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory have been identified as three significant predictors of the age-related performance decline observed in complex cognitive tasks. Yet, the assessment of their relative predictive capacity and interrelations is still an open issue in decision making and cognitive aging research. Indeed, no previous investigation has examined the relationships of all these three predictors with decision making. In an individual-differences study, we therefore disentangled the relative contribution of sensory functioning, processing speed, and working memory to the prediction of the age-related decline in cognitively demanding judgment and decision-making tasks. Structural equation modeling showed that the age-related decline in working memory plays an important predictive role, even when controlling for sensory functioning, processing speed, and education. Implications for research on decision making and cognitive aging are discussed.

  • 45.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Learning psychotherapy: An effectiveness study of clients and therapists2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Det finns en hel del forskning om psykoterapiträning men få studier har undersökt effekterna av träning på en grundläggande psykoterapi-utbildningsnivå och i reguljär verksamhet på ett psykologprogram. Terapeuterna karaktäriseras här ofta av att vara unga, oerfarna och otränade. Studenterna i denna studie går på ett femårigt psykologprogram vid Umeå Universitet, i Sverige, och övar psykoterapi under fjärde och femte året. Ett fåtal av dem har praktiserat psykoterapi före utbildningen. Resultatet av studien kan intressera klienter, studenter och utbildningsanordnare. Klienter vill kunna välja en beprövad och effektiv metod och studenter och utbildningsanordnare vill få en så bra utbildning som möjligt. Inom forskningen finns det ett intresse av att få veta mer om resultat av träningsterapier i reguljär verksamhet och om hur olika faktorer bidrar till resultatet som t.ex. träningsförhållanden och klientvariabler. Det finns även ett behov av att veta mer om hur terapeuter utvecklas i sina professionella karaktäristika och hur denna utveckling sker. Mer kunskap kan leda till en större förståelse för hur man på bästa sätt organiserar en psykoterapiutbildning.

    Syften Huvudfrågan i denna avhandling är huruvida klienter som träffar en psykoterapeut på grundläggande psykoterapiutbildning förbättras och vilka träningsfaktorer som samvarierar med klienteffekterna. Den här avhandlingen undersöker frågor som: Hur effektiva är studenterna på psykologprogrammet? Kan klientens självbild påverka klienternas symtomminskning? Kan träningstid och terapimetod påverka terapiresultatet? Hur utvecklas terapeuterna i deras professionella karaktäristika och arbetsstil?

    Metoder Den här studien har använt data från forskningsprojektet Effekter av utbildningsterapier (EUT), vid Umeå Universitet, i Sverige. Effekter av utbildningsterapier är ett naturalistiskt forskningsprojekt som har samlat in data från 2003 till 2012. Den här studien omfattar data från 2003 till 2010 och vi har inkluderat totalt 235 klienter i två studier. Medelåldern på

    klienterna var 31 år (SD = 9.66) och 69% var kvinnor. Klienterna hade en differentierad problematik men i huvudsak ångest-, depressions- och relationsproblem. Klienterna hade milda till moderata psykologiska symtom och de var välfungerande, ofta studenter. Psykologiska symptom mättes med självskattnings formuläret Symptom Check List 90 (SCL-90; Derogatis et al., 1973). Klienternas självbild undersöktes med formuläret Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) introject formulär (Benjamin, 1974). Terapeuterna i Studie III (N = 76) hade en medelålder på 28 år (SD = 5.55) och 71% var kvinnor. Terapeuternas karaktäristika studerades med hjälp av instrumentet Development of Psychotherapists’ Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ; Orlinsky et al., 1999).

    Resultat Fyra huvudfrågeställningar undersöktes i den här avhandlingen. Den första frågeställningen om outcome besvarades i studie I och II, och resultatet visade att klienterna i träningsterapierna hade en moderat symtomminskning och en moderat förbättring av den affektiva självbilden. I studie I beräknades att före behandlingen befann sig 67% av klienterna i en dysfunktionell domän och efter behandlingen, var det endast 34% av klienterna som uppskattades befinna sig i den dysfunktionella domänen. Klinisk signifikant förändring beräknat i studie I, visade att 42% av klienterna blev friska eller reliabelt bättre, de flesta klienterna förblev oförändrade (55%) och några få procent blev försämrade (3%). Detta är ett moderat resultat och ett något sämre resultat än vad fältstudier med professionella psykoterapeuter har erhållit.

    Den andra frågeställningen undersökte om klienternas självbildsmönster (positiv och negativ självbild, själv-kontroll och själv-autonomi) kunde predicera förändring i psykologiska symtom (GSI: global severity index) och relationssymtom (PSI: personality symptom index). Klienter med en mer negativ självbild fick det bästa utfallet och förklarade 8% i PSI och 10% i GSI. Klientvariabeln själv-kontroll förklarade ytterligare 3% i GSI och 4% i PSI, samt själv-autonomi predicerade 1% i både GSI och PSI. Resultatet indikerade att klienter med en mer negativ självbild, med högre nivåer av själv-kontroll, och med lägre nivåer av själv-autonomi före terapin förbättrades mer i både psykologiska symtom och personlighetssymtom, än klienter med en mindre negativ självbild, lägre själv-kontroll och en högre grad av själv-autonomi.

    Den tredje frågeställningen undersökte om behandlingslängd (en eller två terminer) och behandlingsmetod (kognitiv eller psykodynamisk terapi) kunde påverka resultatet i träningsterapierna. Studie II visade att det fanns skillnader mellan träningsförhållanden när man tog hänsyn till längd och metod i behandlingen. Det framkom att alla träningsförhållandena, kognitiv terapi två terminer (CT2), psykodynamisk terapi en (PDT1) och två terminer (PDT2), fick signifikanta resultat av träningsterapier, men inte kognitiv terapi en termin (CT1). Klinisk signifikant förändring beräknades för de olika grupperna och färre klienter i CT1 gruppen var friska och reliabelt förbättrade efter behandling än i de andra grupperna CT1: 20- 23%, i PDT1: 27- 43%, i CT2: 49- 54% och i PDT2: 35- 41%. Två hierarkiska regressions-analyser användes för att utforska om behandlingslängd och behandlingsmetoder kunde påverka resultatet. Båda regressionsanalyserna visade att klienternas initiala självbildsmönster och initiala symtom förklarade 34% av symtomen efter behandlingen. Detta stämmer med andra psykoterapistudier (t.ex. Lambert & Ogles, 2004) som visar att klientfaktorer spelar en stor roll för psykoterapiresultat. Behandlingslängd och behandlingsmetoder förklarade inte i sig själva något resultat men interaktionen mellan dem förklarade 2% av resultatet. Regressions-analyserna visade att klienterna som behandlades i PDT1 och CT2 fick en mer positiv självbild och minskade mer i symtom än vad klienterna i CT1 och PDT2 gjorde. Genom en Ancova beräknades att klienterna i CT2 hade signifikant bättre resultat i den affektiva självbilden än klienterna i alla de andra träningsförhållandena. När det gäller psykologiska symtom beräknades att CT2 klienter hade färre symtom efter behandlingen än vad klienter i CT1 hade, men det var ingen signifikant skillnad mot PDT1 eller PDT2.

    Den fjärde frågeställningen tog reda på hur studenter på den grundläggande psykoterapiutbildningen utvecklades i sin professionella karaktäristika och arbetsstil (läkande eller stressande arbetsstil). Detta undersöktes i studie III. Data från terapeuter samlades in vid session 2, 8, 16, 22 och vid avslut av terapin. Multilevel analys modeller användes för att räkna ut hur och om terapeuterna utvecklades. Resultaten från DPCCQ visade att terapeuterna ökar sin läkande arbetsstil och minskar sin stressande arbetsstil under träningen. De utvecklades dock inte i ångest och uttråkningskänslor som de kände under terapisessionerna. Ett delresultat var att terapeuterna förbättrades mest i sin tekniska skicklighet och mindre i relationssförmågor. Resultatet indikerar också att terapeuterna utvecklas linjärt men ändå något mer under första delen av träningen om man jämför med den andra delen, dock är denna skillnad inte signifikant.

    Slutsatser Det verkar som klienterna på psykologprogrammet i Umeå, Sverige, får moderata resultat i terapin och detta ligger i linje med en norsk liknande studie på psykologprogrammet i Norge (Ryum et al., 2007). Resultatet är dock något lägre än vad som framkommit i större effectiveness studier med professionella terapeuter (t.ex. Hunsley & Lee, 2007). Detta kan ändå ses som relativt goda resultat då klienterna inte var så sjuka innan terapin och därmed inte hade potential att förändras så mycket. En styrka med studien är att vi mätte både symtom och självbild eftersom olika perspektiv på förändring är viktigt. Självbildsförändringar kan ses som en viktig intern förändring som bidrar till att klienten känner mening och ökar sitt positiva handlande gentemot sig själv och andra. Självbildsförändringar och symtomförändringarna verkar i stort sett efterlikna varandra i förändringsmönster och forskning har visat att en mer negativ självbild också är relaterad till mer psykopatologi.

    Studie I visade att klienter med en mer negativ självbild, högre nivåer av själv-kontroll och mindre nivåer av själv-autonomi är relaterad till ett bättre resultat i utbildningsterapier. En mer negativ självbild är relaterad till psykologiskt lidande och kan motivera klienten att göra något åt sina problem. En mer kontrollerande självbild kan hjälpa klienten att slutföra terapin, göra hemuppgifter och vara noggrann med hur terapin implementeras. Våra klienter hade milda till moderata symtom och var relativt välfungerande, det är inte säkert att vi skulle få dessa resultat om klienterna hade haft mer psykologiska symtom.

    När vi undersökte effekten av behandlingslängd och träningsmetod visade det sig att CT2 och PDT1 fick större effekter än CT1 och PDT2. Dessa effekter kan tolkas på många sätt och en förklaring kan vara att teknikträning är ett viktigt inslag i kognitiva terapier t.ex. agenda, hemarbete, konceptualisering och övningar. Terapeuterna i CT1 var kanske alltför upptagna av teknikträning och fick därmed ett sämre resultat än i CT2 där det fanns mer tid till både teknikträning och fokus på klienten. Det är svårare att förklara varför PDT1 klienterna fick ett likartat resultat som klienterna i PDT2, men en förklaring kan vara att det beror på att terapeuterna i PDT1 bedriver en terapi där "common factors" t.ex. den terapeutiska relationen får stort utrymme och att klienterna där kände sig förstådda och därmed utvecklades positivt. Detta förhållningssätt tror vi inte räckte till i PDT2 då längre terapier ofta kräver mer av terapeuten, och möjligtvis fattades det mer specifik träning på specifika metoder, vilket traditionellt sett inte har praktiserats så ofta på grundläggande psykoterapiutbildningar. En annan förklaring kan vara att vi mäter en terapeuteffekt, terapeuterna i PDT1 kommer sen att tränas i CT2, så dessa terapeuter är kanske mer skickliga och/eller mer motiverade än terapeuterna i CT1 och PDT2. En motivationsfaktor skulle kunna varit att kognitiv beteende terapi, för tiden vid studien, var en eftertraktad terapiform pga. att det då efterfrågades evidensbaserade metoder i samhället och kognitiv terapi var mer förknippad med detta än vad psykodynamisk terapi var.

    I studie III kom vi fram till att studentterapeuterna utvecklar sig positivt i både sitt läkande och i sitt stressande arbetssätt, men inte i ångest och uttråkningskänslor under terapin. De upplever sig mer stödjande och effektiva och använder mer konstruktiva coping strategier efter terapiträningen. Dessutom känner de ett större självförtroende att de gör någon nytta för klienten. Det kan vara bekymmersamt att de få studenter som känner ångest och uttråkning, inte utvecklas i träningen. Negativa känslor från terapeuten har visat sig vara relaterade till en sämre allians mellan terapeut och klient och kan i förlängningen leda till ett sämre terapi- resultat. Här föreslår vi att utbildningar ska bli bättre på att ta upp dessa känslor tidigt i handledningen så att studenterna när det sen behövs, kan bearbeta och förhoppningsvis förändra dessa känslor. Resultatet visade också att terapeuterna utvecklades mest i sin tekniska skicklighet och lite mindre i sina relationsförmågor. Troligtvis var det lättare att utvecklas i tekniker än i relationsförmågor därför att studenterna upplevde sig ha lägre metodkunskaper före träningen, medan de skattade sig högre på relationsförmågor. I resultatet framkom även att terapeuterna utvecklades linjärt över tid, vilket motstrider de få teorier som beskriver en terapeuts utveckling i stadier eller faser. Dock kan utvecklingsfaser ha ett annat tidsintervall än vad som uppmätts i denna studie och mer forskning behövs på området.

  • 46.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Novice psychotherapists’ development in professional characteristics and work involvement styles in trainingManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about how psychotherapists develop their professional characteristics and work involvement styles during training is scant; in addition, awareness of the need to find answers to how psychotherapy training can best be organized is increasing. This study investigated novice therapists’ development of healing and stressful work involvement in baseline psychotherapy education in Sweden. Undergraduate students (n = 76) provided information longitudinally by responding to the Development of Psychotherapists Common Core Questionnaire (DPCCQ). The results demonstrated that therapists’ healing and stressful work involvement, current therapeutic skills, perceived difficulties, and constructive coping strategies changed positively and linearly. Technical expertise changed the most, having a large effect, and relational skills developed moderately. Surprisingly, in-session feelings of anxiety and boredom did not change. The process of positive and linear development of in-session feelings is important in psychotherapy education. The question becomes how the training should address trainees’ personal issues or countertransference that might affect in-session feelings.

  • 47. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Execution, violent punishment and selection for religiousness in medieval England2018Ingår i: Evolutionary Psychological Science, E-ISSN 2198-9885, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 83-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Frost and Harpending, Evolutionary Psychology, 13 (2015), have argued that the increasing use of capital punishment across the Middle Ages in Europe altered the genotype, helping to create a less violent and generally more law-abiding population. Developing this insight, we hypothesise that the same system of violent punishments would also have helped to genotypically create a more religious society by indirectly selecting for religiousness, through the execution of men who had not yet sired any offspring. We estimate the selection differential for religiousness based on genetic correlation data for conceivably related traits, and compare that to the actual increase in religiosity across the Middle Ages. We further explore other mechanisms by which religiousness was being selected for in Medieval England, and conclude that executions most likely contributed substantially to the increase in religiosity, but that other selection pressures also played a role.

  • 48. Dutton, Edward
    et al.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Life History and Race Differences in Puberty Length: A Test of Differential-K Theory.Ingår i: Mankind Quarterly, Vol. 56Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Beteendevetenskapliga mätningar (BVM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Stress och påverkan på de nationella provresultaten för åk 32014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur upplever 9-10 åringar de nationella proven i åk 3? Påverkar upplevelsen prestationen? Påverkas något matematikdelområde mer eller mindre av upplevelsen? Skiljer sig olika uppgifter åt beroende på om de har mer eller mindre text respektive bilder? Vad kan man som lärare tänka på och göra i allmänhet och i synnerhet vid prov/förhörssituationer?

    Läsåret 2012/13 genomfördes en studie med 624 st elever i åk 3 för att bringa klarhet i ovan frågor. Eleverna fick göra olika arbetsminnesövningar och svara på frågor om stress, motivation och attityder, etc. Teoretiskt tror man nämligen att allt för hög nivå av t ex stress (prestationsångest) sänker ens prestation på ett prov/förhör. Resultaten på de olika nationella delproven i matematik kördes därför statistiskt mot nivå av självrapporterad stress/ångest och uppskattad eller egentlig prestationsförmåga hos eleverna.

    Uppskattad eller egentlig förmåga att prestera i matematik för elever kan mätas genom t ex deras arbetsminneskapacitet. Arbetsminne är en kognitiv förmåga som är väl klarlagd för att väsentligen påverka prestation och utveckling inom t ex matematik- och läsförståelse hos både vuxna och barn (Menon, 2010). Det finns dessutom starka kopplingar mellan arbetsminneskapacitet och skolprestation i teoretiska ämnen. Majoriteten av de elever som har inlärningssvårigheter i skolan verkar även ha svag arbetsminnesförmåga (Gathercole et al., 2006).

    Arbetsminnet kan förenklat beskrivas som bestå av tre olika specialiserade komponenter. En huvudcentral som t ex kontrollerar, fördelar, uppmärksammar och processerar information, och hämtar/lagrar information från/i långtidsminnet. Till sin hjälp har denna huvudcentral en visuell-spatial del för hantering av bilder, former och dimension, samt en auditiv del för behandling av lingvistik (Baddeley, 1986). Matematik innefattar olika områden som beror av olika kognitiva förmågor (t ex huvudräkning, problemlösning), vilka i sin tur är relaterade till visuell-spatial och/eller auditiv fakta (Rasmussen & Bisanz, 2005).

    ”Provstress” eller ”provängslan” är en etablerad term för att beskriva elevers påverkan och upplevelse av prov. Termen innefattar ofta för barn observerbara beteenden (t ex gå på toan, vicka på stolen, titta sig omkring), tankar/oro (t ex jag kommer aldrig att klara det här, mina föräldrar kommer att bli arga om jag misslyckas), autonoma/somatiska reaktioner (t ex svettas, ont i magen, varm om kinderna) (Zeidner, 2007). Man tror att provängslan är ett inlärt beteende som väcks tidigt i skolåren (Pekrun, 2000). Det är ett väldigt inskränkande tillstånd (Rothman, 2004) som starkt kan begränsa elevers prestation i alla åldrar (Birenbaum & Gutvirtz, 1993). Även om ett visst mått av provängslan är nödvändigt för att öka fokus, motivation och förberedelse (Gregor, 2005), kan det i allt för höga nivåer negativt påverka en elevs prestation och resultat på ett prov (Zeidner, 2007), särskilt i matematik (e.g. Putwain, 2008). 

    Om och hur stark den kognitiva störningen är av provängslan används alltså i vår studie som ett mått eller symptom på elevers ev. underprestation. Vi undersöker också om eleverna uppvisar mer eller mindre av beteenden, autonoma reaktioner eller tankar relaterat till provängslan. Slutligen summerar vi våra resultat mot undervisning och prov/förhörssituationer. En jämförelse kommer även att göras med Finländska och Kinesiska åk-3 elever.

  • 50.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Korhonen, Johan
    Åbo Akademi, Vaasa.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Factors of importance for mathematics performance in grade 3: working memory capacity, teat anxiety and self-regulation2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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