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  • 1.
    Abbas, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants of women's labour supply in Bangladesh and Pakistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Determinants of women's labour supply in Bangladesh and Pakistan
  • 2.
    Abbas, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    The European Union’s Technological and Economic Development: A Study on Production of Renewable Energy2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis answer the two main questions, firstly, the role of technological development in the production of RE with special reference to investment subsidy in supporting schemes and research and development (R&D). Investment subsidies in supporting schemes and R&D are widely used to promote RE technology and considered economical, efficient instruments than regulation approach. Secondly, the study investigates the relationship between the production of RE and the economic development. Panel data for twelve European Union (EU) countries are analysed for the period 1990 to 2013. The study uses a Cobb Douglas production function to estimate the EU's rational behaviour of investment subsidy between supporting schemes and R&D. For the estimation techniques, the study uses the unit root test, cointegration test, and dynamic pooling average group (PMG) model. The selection of the PMG model is based on the results of diagnostic tests, i.e. cross-sectional dependence, heteroskedasticity, serial correlation, and Hausman. Furthermore, the cointegration test confirms that in the long-run all the variables move together to achieve equilibrium. The PMG model confirms the effect of the independent variables on the dependent variable. Thus, it is concluded that the investment subsidies in supporting schemes have a positive and significant effect on the production of renewable energy in the long-run. However, the investment subsidy in research and development also has a positive but insignificant effect on the production of renewable energy in the long-run. Based on the long-run result, thus the study suggests that it is more rational to invest subsidy in supporting schemes than in R&D. In order to find the relationship between the production of RE and economic development, the result of the study confirms that economic development has a positive and significant impact on the production of renewable energy both in the short-and long-run. In addition, the test of the causality confirms the bidirectional relationship between production of RE and economic development. The bidirectional relationship states that both energy and economic growth are associated and complement each other.

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    The European Union’s Technological and Economic Development: A Study on Production of Renewable Energy
  • 3.
    Abor, Joshua Yindenaba
    et al.
    Centre for Global Finance, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom; University of Stellenbosch Business School, South Africa.
    Abugre, James Atambilla
    Department of Finance, University of Ghana Business School, Ghana; Ministry of Finance, Ghana.
    Donkor, George Nana Agyekum
    ECOWAS Bank for Investment and Development, Lomé, Togo.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    The future of the oil and gas industry in emerging and developing countries2023In: Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry: Emerging and developing country perspectives / [ed] Joshua Yindenaba Abor; Amin Karimu, Routledge, 2023, p. 280-293Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oil and gas are important natural resources and have propelled economic growth and increased the global competitiveness between producing nations in global trade and resulted in the associated advantages to domestic economies. This chapter examines the future of the oil and gas industry in emerging and developing countries. It discusses the exploration of oil and gas and how the environment is being impacted by the activities. The chapter looks at the role of market players along the value chain of the oil and gas sector. It then examines how the world is being transitioned to renewable energy use through an analysis of demand trends and challenges confronting the oil and gas industry. It makes the case that despite the immeasurable contributions of the oil and gas sector to the development of the global economy, there have been systemic shifts in their demand in recent times. High cost of capital requirements in oil and gas production, climate change effects and global warming, deprivations and community conflicts, and technological advancements account for these shifts in the demand trends of oil and gas.

  • 4.
    Abor, Joshua Yindenaba
    et al.
    Centre for Global Finance, SOAS University of London, United Kingdom; University of Stellenbosch Business School, South Africa.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Environmental Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Cape Town, South Africa.
    Introduction to sustainability management in the oil and gas industry2023In: Sustainability management in the oil and gas industry: emerging and developing country perspectives / [ed] Joshua Yindenaba Abor; Amin Karimu, Routledge, 2023, p. 3-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The world, since the industrial revolution, has relied significantly on oil and gas (O&G) resources to fuel, especially for its industrial and transportation activities. The major consuming block for oil before 2012 was always the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, which are more industrialised relative to countries in the non-OECD block. In most emerging and developing countries (EDCs), when O&G resources are discovered, they are often quick to extract these resources with the aim of rapidly growing the economy, reducing poverty, and gaining some political capital without a careful management plan. Despite the transition to low carbon economy being underway along with the associated increased interest in renewable energy sources globally, especially among policymakers and investors in developed countries, demand for O&G resources will continue to surge due to growing demand from EDCs such as China, India, South Africa, and Brazil.

  • 5. Abord-Hugon Nonet, Guénola
    et al.
    Aggestam Pontoppidan, Caroline
    Dale Ditlev-Simonsen, Caroline
    Hermes, Jan
    Lankoski, Leena
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Maheshwari, Sanchi
    Perrotta Berlin, Maria
    Petro Sebhatu, Samuel
    Solitander, Nikodemus
    Sundemo, Mattias
    PRME Nordic Chapter2021In: Responsible management education: the PRME global movement / [ed] Mette Morsing, London: Routledge, 2021, 1, p. 182-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Gasa eller bromsa?: En studie om bilförarens hastighetsval och effekten av höjda böter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Gasa eller bromsa? -En studie om filförarens hastighetsval och effekten av höjda böter
  • 7.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 8. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 512-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 9.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandra
    Regional labour market effects of immigration on low-skilled workers: the case of Sweden 1990–20032021In: International Journal of Social Economics, ISSN 0306-8293, E-ISSN 1758-6712, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 456-476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of immigration on the labour market outcomes of low-educated natives (i.e. residents without a university diploma). Using the labour market competition theory, which argues that the labour market effects of natives depend on the skill set of immigrants, the paper addresses whether immigrants are complementary to or substitutes for native workers.

    Design/methodology/approach: Longitudinal matched employer–employee data on Sweden are used to estimate how low-educated natives, in regions experiencing the greatest influx of refugees from the Balkan wars, responded to this supply shock with regard to real wages, employment and job mobility between 1990 and 2003.

    Findings: First, the analysis shows that low-educated native workers respond to the arrival of immigrants with an increase in real wages. Second, although employment prospects in general worsened for low-skilled workers in most regions, this is not attributable to the regions experiencing the largest supply shock. Third, there are indications that low-skilled natives in immigration-rich regions are more likely to change workplace, particularly in combination with moving upwards in the wage distribution.

    Originality/value: Rather than seeing an emergence of the commonly perceived displacement mechanism when an economy is subject to a supply shock, the regional findings suggest that high inflows of immigrants tend to induce a mechanism that pulls native workers upwards in the wage distribution. This is important, as the proportion of immigrants is seldom evenly distributed within a nation.

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  • 10.
    Adjei, Evans Korang
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Department of Economics and Centre for Regional Science (CERUM) Umeå University.
    The effects of a large industrial investment on employment in a remote and sparsely populated area using a synthetic control approach2023In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 1553-1576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of establishing a large industrial manufacturing entity on employment and the labor market in a remote, sparsely populated part of Sweden, focusing on how it affects total regional employment because industrial policies aiming to attract investment and reignite employment in stagnating regions have been a central policy tool. The empirical analysis is based on the synthetic control method, which enables the estimation of place-specific causal effects. Using aggregated microdata from 1995 to 2019, the results indicate that employment in the treated region, as compared to synthetic regions, has been negatively affected by the manufacturing establishment. However, the short- and long-term effects differ across different labor market segments (same, related, and unrelated industries) and according to firm size. Overall, the findings suggest that large manufacturing investment does not necessarily have a positive or instantaneous impact on total regional employment. It does, however, provide some potential for long-term diversification because employment in related activities grows in the long run.

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  • 11.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, p. 248-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Alagidede, Paul
    Wits Business School, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Stock return distribution in the BRICS2015In: Review of Development Finance, E-ISSN 1879-9337, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stock returns in emerging market economies exhibit patterns that are distinctively different from developed countries: returns are noted to be highly volatile and autocorrelated, and long horizon returns are predictable. While these stylized facts are well established, the assumption underlying the distribution of returns is less understood. In particular, the empirical literature continues to rely on the normality assumption as a starting point, and most asset pricing models tend to overstretch this point. This paper questions the rationale behind this supposition and proceeds to test more formally for normality using multivariate joint test for skewness and kurtosis. Additionally, the paper extends the literature by examining a number of empirical regularities for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (the BRICS for short). Our main findings are that the distributionof stock returns for the BRICS exhibits peakedness with fatter and longer tails, and this is invariant to both the unit of measurement and the time horizon of returns. Volatility clustering is prevalent in all markets, and this decays exponentially for all but Brazil. The relationship between risk and return is found to be significant and risk premiums are prevalent in our sample.

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  • 13.
    Adugna, Robera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Economic growth and environmental degradation in Ethiopia: An Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesisanalysis approach2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between GDP per capitaand carbon dioxide emission per capita in Ethiopia from 1981 to 2020. All the variables in thispaper are stationary in their difference. Johansen cointegration is chosen over the Engel-Granger approach due to the presence of two cointegration equations. The result from thevector error correction model implies the existence of a short and long-run relationship betweenthe carbon dioxide emission per capita, gross domestic product per capita, and trade openness.In the long run, the Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in this study.

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  • 14.
    af Burén, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does internal migration influence earnings following youth unemployment?: Evidence from the Swedish Labor Market2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of youth unemployment in Sweden has highlighted the need for more research investigating the effects of unemployment on future earnings. Earlier research suggests that youth unemployment will leave labor market scares on a person’s future income. Therefore, in this thesis I investigate the question if migration can increase an individual’s future earnings and hence work as a cure for scared individuals. My theoretical argument is that migration is an investment in human capital which will lead to higher future income and may heal scars. To test my argument, I use Swedish panel data from the ASTRID database, examining unemployed individuals born 1979-1983 after finishing their education in Sweden. A nearest-neighbor propensity score matching method is applied to estimate the casual effects. However, the results show only few significant results over time and age cohorts in the data. Therefore, my conclusion is that migration barley increases income of young unemployed individuals.

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  • 15.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University of Milano, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Global Bifurcations in Duopoly when the Cournot Point is Destabilized through a Subcritical Neimark Bifurcation2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An adaptive oligopoly model, where the demand function is isoelastic and the competitors operate under constant marginal costs, is considered. The Cournot equilibrium point then loses stability through a subcritical Neimark bifurcation. The present paper focuses some global bifurcations, which precede the Neimark bifurcation, and produce other attractors which coexist with the still attractive Cournot fixed point.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Dip. Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Catholic University.
    Gardini, Laura
    Dip. Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino .
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Global bifurcations in duopoly when the Cournot Point is destabilized through a subcritical Neimark bifurcation2006In: International Game Theory Review, ISSN 0219-1989, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Piacenza, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    Dept. Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Some global bifurcations related to the appearance of closed invariant curves2005In: Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, ISSN 0378-4754, E-ISSN 1872-7166, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional map (a duopoly game) in which the fixed point is destabilized via a subcritical Neimark–Hopf (N–H) bifurcation. Our aim is to investigate, via numerical examples, some global bifurcations associated with the appearance of repelling closed invariant curves involved in the Neimark–Hopf bifurcations. We shall see that the mechanism is not unique, and that it may be related to homoclinic connections of a saddle cycle, that is to a closed invariant curve formed by the merging of a branch of the stable set of the saddle with a branch of the unstable set of the same saddle. This will be shown by analyzing the bifurcations arising inside a periodicity tongue, i.e., a region of the parameter space in which an attracting cycle exists.

  • 18.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University in Milan, Italy/University of Parma, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Parma, Italy/Istituto di Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The dynamics of a triopoly Cournot game2000In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, E-ISSN 1873-2887, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 2531-2560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reconsiders the Cournot oligopoly (noncooperative) game with iso-elastic demand and constant marginal costs, one of the rare cases where the reaction functions can be derived in closed form. It focuses the case of three competitors, and so also extends the critical line method for non-invertible maps to the study of critical surfaces in 3D. By this method the various bifurcations of the attractors and their basins are studied. As a special case the restriction of the map to an invariant plane when two of the three firms are identical is focused.

  • 19.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University, Faculty of Economics, Milan, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A Cournot duopoly model with bounded demand2002Book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Univ Sacred Heart, Ist Econometria & Matemat, Milan.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A Cournot duopoly with bounded inverse demand function2002In: OLIGOPOLY DYNAMICS: MODELS AND TOOLS, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2002, p. 171-194Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21. Agrawala, Shardul
    et al.
    Bosello, Francesco
    Carraro, Carlo
    de Bruin, Kelly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    De Cian, Enrica
    Dellink, Rob
    Lanzi, Elisa
    Plan or react? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using integrated assessment models2011In: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, E-ISSN 2010-0086, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 175-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines adaptation and mitigation within an integrated framework. Global and regional costs of adaptation are assessed dynamically and the resulting benefits are quantified. This is accomplished by developing a framework to incorporate adaptation as a policy variable within three Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs); the global Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE), the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE), and the World Induced Technical Change Hybrid (WITCH) model. The framework developed here takes into account investments in reactive adaptation and in adaptation "stocks", as well as investments in building adaptive capacity. This report presents the first inter-model comparison of results on adaptation costs using the emerging category of adaptation-IAMs. Results show that least-cost policy response to climate change will need to involve subsantial amounts of mitigation efforts, investments in adaptation stock, reactive adaptation measures and adaptive capacity to limit the remaining damages.

  • 22.
    Ahlbäck, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Carlsson, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Analys av Swedbanks bankkunders risktagande: En studie om hur Behavioural Finance kan utveckla Swedbanks rådgivningsprocess2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Analys av Swedbanks bankkunders risktagande. En studie om hur Behavioural Finance kan utveckla Swedbanks rådgivningsprocess.
  • 23.
    Ahlfors, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Spelar risktoleransen någon roll?: En studie om svenska studenters investeringsbeslut2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 24.
    Ahlfors, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Är den svenska bostadsmarknaden effektiv?: En studie om bostadsmarknadens effektivitet i åtta svenska regioner2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 25.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    En paneldatastudie av Beveridgekurvan: Fokus på ungdomsarbetslöshet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 26.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hur påverkas hälsan av konjunkturförändringar i Sverige?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser analysera hur hälsan i den svenska befolkningen varierar med konjunkturcykeln. Relationen mellan hälsa och konjunkturcykeln studeras genom att undersöka hur mortalitet och utnyttjandet av sjukvård påverkas av förändringar i arbetslöshet. Relationen mellan mortalitet och arbetslöshet är välstuderad utomlands och i Sverige men denna studie tar analysen ett steg vidare genom att även använda utnyttjandet av sluten respektive öppen vård som mått på hälsa. Den ekonometriska metoden som tillämpats är regression med fixa effekter som estimerats med paneldata som avser Sveriges 21 län. Överlag kan resultaten i denna studie inte visa på ett tydligt samband mellan arbetslöshet och de studerade hälsovariablerna. Med viss försiktighet i tolkningarna kan resultaten visa tecken på att en ökad arbetslöshet leder till lägre mortalitet och högre sjukvårdsutnyttjande momentant. Den dynamiska analysen i studien visar tecken på att arbetslöshet har en större effekt på mortalitet ett och två år senare, liknande resultat finns i relationen mellan arbetslöshet och utnyttjandet av öppen vård. Utnyttjandet av sluten vård ökar momentant men effekten av stigande arbetslöshet minskar efter ett och två år.

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    Hur påverkas hälsan av konjunkturförändringar i Sverige?
  • 27.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kan ekonomiska styrmedel riktade mot livsmedel förbättra folkhälsan?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utvärderar ekonomiska styrmedels effekt på konsumtionen av livsmedel samt ifall skatter och subventioner kan vara en metod som styr matkonsumtionen mot hälsosamma livsmedelsval. Sex livsmedelsgrupper analyseras i studien och dessa är sötsaker och glass, kött, grönsaker, mejerivaror, bröd och spannmålsprodukter samt frukt och bär. Fyra scenarier som representerar olika skatte- och/eller subventionsreformer simuleras för att analysera vilken effekt ekonomiska styrmedel kan ha på matkonsumtion och hälsa. Responsen som de ekonomiska styrmedlen har på matkonsumtionen beräknas med elasticiteter som tagits fram från parameterestimat i AIDS-modellen. Den data som ligger till grund för den ekonometriska modellen är aggregerad konsumtionsdata, konsumentprisindex och livsmedelsförsäljning. Resultatet från studien visar att det går att styra konsumtionen av livsmedel men att substitution mellan varor kan leda till att de hälsomål som reformen är menad att nå inte uppfylls.

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  • 28.
    Ahmed, E
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Elsadany, AA
    Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Ismailia, Suez Canal University, Egypt; Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On Bertrand duopoly game with differentiated goods2015In: Applied Mathematics and Computation, ISSN 0096-3003, E-ISSN 1873-5649, Vol. 251, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates a dynamic Bertrand duopoly with differentiated goods in which boundedly rational firms apply a gradient adjustment mechanism to update their price in each period. The demand functions are derived from an underlying CES utility function. We investigate numerically the dynamical properties of the model. We consider two specific parameterizations for the CES function and study the Nash equilibrium and its local stability in the models. The general finding is that the Nash equilibrium becomes unstable as the speed of adjustment increases. The Nash equilibrium loses stability through a period-doubling bifurcation and the system eventually becomes chaotic either through a series of period-doubling bifurcations or after a Neimark–Sacker bifurcation.

  • 29.
    Ajulo, Ojeawe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    DETERMINANTS OF HOUSING PRICES IN SWEDEN: Study of Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the dynamic relationship between house prices, disposable income, lending rate to households, housing supply and population in the three Swedish metropolitan areas of Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, using a vector error correction model (vecm). The study uses quarterly data for the Swedish economy and applies the vecm methodology in revealing this dynamic relationship from 2000 – 2022. Statistically significant relationships reveal dependencies among these variables; such as the positive relationship between house prices in previous periods and current periods. There are other unprecedented results which would require a deeper-dive to reveal any structural distortions that may exist in the Swedish housing market; such as the negative relationship between past values of housing supply and disposable income in Stockholm. Lending Rate across the 3 metropolitan areas shows the relatively fastest long-run adjustment.

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  • 30.
    Ajulo, Ojeawe
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Still on the Relationship between GDP and Healthcare Expenditure: Study of 21 OECD Countries2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study utilizes a dynamic fixed effects regression to examine the relationship between per capita gross domestic Product (GDP) and per capita healthcare expenditure (HCE) in 21 OECD countries for the period 1983-2022. The model employed, produces income elasticity estimates for the short-run and long-run, that are between 0 and 1; thereby providing an indication of a positive but less than unitary response of HCE to changes in the level of GDP. Robustness checks and an alternative static model are introduced to give a well-rounded analysis.

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  • 31.
    Aljaid, Mohammad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Macroeconomic Announcements and Uncertainty Resolving: Empirical Evidence from the Eurozone2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studying and identifying the impact of the macroeconomic news on the uncertainty, measured by the implied volatility index behavior in the European financial market, is the main goal of this study. The macroeconomic variables are regarded in this study are consumer price index CPI, the gross domestic product GDP, employment reports EMP, monetary policy MP, labor cost LC, and the current account for the Eurozone CA. In this study, I employ various statistical approaches to understand to what extent the uncertainty is resolved due to the macroeconomic news, namely, dummy OLS regression, GARCH (1,1), GARCH-M (1,1), and EGARCH (1,1). The reported findings uncover that only the monetary policy has a significant impact on the implied volatility index, thus, the uncertainty associated with this indicator is resolved during the announcement days. The results confirm also that the investors in the Eurozone financial market consider more than one macroeconomic variable as the viable source for the information, as the joint effect for each of CPI, GDP, LC, and MP is statically different from zero. Further, the uncertainty significantly increases prior to the CPI announcements and resolved during MP announcements.

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  • 32.
    Allaberdyev, Maksat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Den penningpolitiska fällan: En studie på de svenska hushållens ekonomi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få bukt med lågkonjunkturen efter finanskrisen 2008 förde Sverige en expansiv penningpolitik. Även om Sverige tog sig ur krisen relativt smärtfritt följdes det av en period med deflation. Det ledde till att reporäntan 2015 för första gången sänktes under nollgränsen, och därmed tog den svenska penningpolitiken ett historiskt steg för att nå inflationsmålet. De låga räntorna har lett till att priserna på bostadsmarknaden har skenat iväg och de svenska hushållens skulder har ökat avsevärt där den genomsnittliga skuldkvoten är uppe i 343 procent. Från de penningpolitiska protokollen uttrycker Riksbanken en stor oro för denna utveckling och föreslår riktade åtgärder i bostads-, och skattepolitiken. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka effekterna av penningpolitiska åtgärder samt utvecklingen av bostadspriserna har haft på de svenska hushållen skulder.

    Genom en VAR-modell, Granger-orsakssamband, Impulse-response test och stresstester har denna studie kunnat påvisa och kartlägga vad som händer med de svenska hushållens skulder vid en eventuell räntehöjning. Resultaten visar att en räntechock mellan 3–5 procent minskar framtida skuldsättning, och ekonomin anpassar sig till jämvikt efter 5–8 perioder vilket representerar 15–24 månader. Den ger därmed ett starkt stöd för penningpolitikens kausalitet. Resultaten visar dessutom att det finns hushåll med låg disponibel inkomst som lever under existensminimum idag, och vid en räntehöjning överstiger några hushåll sitt existensminimum med nästan 50 procent.

    Studiens teoretiska del ger en förklaring om penningpolitikens jobb och dess flöde till hushåll och företag. Den tar även upp tidigare forskning som har undersökt marknadsbeteende hos hushåll. 

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  • 33.
    Allaberdyev, Maksat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Risky Business: Are economic agents (ir)rational?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests whether if heuristics affect the decisions of an economic agent. Through different sets of lottery games conducted on students, the participants made choices between an uncertain asset and a risk-free asset. Instead of the classical approach, I chose to relate the uncertain asset to a financial asset and the risk-free asset to a cash payment placed in a savings account. The game contained a total of six rounds, where the participants made choices on different level of risk for the first three rounds. In the remaining three rounds the participants made choices on the same level of risk do distinguish if past experience affected their risk preference. The experimental results show that when the risk environment change, participants in the low risk environment became more risk averse, as oppose to participants in the high risk environment. The results also show that when exposed to avolatile environment, participants tend to switch to the safe option earlier compared to when stakes are low. However, when the participants made choices on the same level of risk, the switch from the lottery to the safe option did not differ between the participants. In other words, past experience did not seem to aect the valuation of the asset. In this experiment, women tend to be more risk averse than men. On average, women switched to the safe option earlier than the men.

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    Risky Business
  • 34.
    Allaberdyev, Maksat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Universal Basic Income and Sweden: -A simulation of the Swedish economy2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What if you could separate your salary from work, what would happen? How would individuals in a society react? Would they invest more in human capital, would they work halftime or at all? These are questions that follows if Universal Basic Income (UBI) would be implemented. What is Universal Basic Income? UBI is a suggestion of a welfare system where every month the state gives its citizens a sum of money without conditions. The idea is old but has resurfaced lately due to the fear that automation is destroying jobs in a faster rate than new jobs can be created. But Sweden also faces other challenges. After the crisis in Syria, Germany and Sweden were the two European countries who took in the most refugees which will contribute to the rising gap of unemployment between natives and people who are born outside of the country. Research done by Försäkringskassan, a public institute in Sweden shows that people who end up in long term illness has increased over time, and the prediction is that more people are heading towards that direction. With these challenges, the potential of UBI was interesting to examine.

    With an DSGE-model, the behaviour of the agents in the economy was simulated in a closed economy. The results showed that the UBI grew the sectors size compared to the baseline model without the UBI. Households of various skills increased their purchsing power with UBI compared to households without UBI. The simulations also showed that the price that the firms had to pay to compensate workers for labour increased with UBI, indicating that UBI is possibly inflationary. The simulations were compared with two surveys about the attitudes towards UBI and the labour market. Some of the answers about labour hours were in line with the simulations, while others were not. The majority of the respondents answered that UBI would not affect their labour hours, indicating that the model with rational expectations does a poor job of catching attitudes, because agents don’t always act rational. It could also depend on that most of the respondents are highly educated and have different preferences compared with other individuals who have lower skills. An improvement of the study is firstly to include a central bank as an additional agent to capture the effects of monetary policy and inflation, secondly open up the economy to capture the effects of trade.

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    Universal Basic Income and Sweden: -A simulation of the Swedish economy
  • 35.
    Altsten, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Sociala mediers nyttopåverkan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innevarande studie syftar till att utreda nationalekonomisk nyttoforskning med anknytning till sociala medier. Sociala medier ger upphov till en mängd intressant forskning. Lin & Lu (2011) visar att individer som använder sociala medier känner uppskattning och glädje vid interaktioner på sociala medier. Det är roligt och förnöjsamt att vara medlem i ett socialt digitalt nätverk när bekanta bidrar till en positiv stämning. Ellison & Steinfield (2007) visar hur Facebookanvändare har större socialt kapital än icke-användarna – de har kontakt med fler människor. Användandet av sociala medier verkar bidra till att individer bibehåller kontakt med människor de annars hade tappat kontakten med. Fördelen med ökat socialt kapital kan förklaras med att man får tillgång till mer information. Ökat inflöde av information visar Granovetter (2005) är relevant för individens beslutförfattande, personer med mer socialt kapital tar bättre beslut – de ångrar inte besluten i efterhand. Användandet av sociala medier bidrar till nyttofulla saker men som med mycket annat när saker går till överdrift har dem en tendens till att börja påverka en individ negativt. Fischer (1999) visar hur människor gärna nyttomaximerar under restriktionen av den tid varje dygn erbjuder. Det är alltså ett bra val att göra saker vi tycker är roligt då får vi större nytta i livet. Men i samklang med att individer gärna njuter av fritid där vi exempelvis spenderar tid på sociala medier så kan ett fysiskt beroende utveckla sig. Olds & Milner (1954) förklarar hur hjärnan bildar receptorer för lyckohormonet dopamin som vi får ta del utav vid positiva interaktioner på sociala medier. Detta lägger grund för att individen misslyckas med att nyttomaximera och istället spenderar allt för stor del av sitt dygn på sociala medier.

    Effekterna av det visar Hinsch & Sheldon (2013) - människor som själva uppfattar att de använder för sociala medier för mycket blir mer välmående när de drar ner på användandet. Dessa personer har också lättare för att dra ner på timmarna spenderade framför skärmen. Vittnandes om att det finns en viss nivå av användande som verkar leda till bra saker. Ellison & Steinfield ser exempelvis ingen skillnad på antal kontakter man har band till även om man spenderar 2-4h/dag framför Facebook jämfört med 0-2h. Livet för de flesta har många olika element som alla bidrar med viss nytta – positiv eller negativ. Att arbeta mot mål är bra för den personliga nyttan i livet säger Klug & Maier (2015). Att prokrastinera och välja fritid när man istället bör arbeta emot att slutföra mål är inte nyttofullt menar Fischer (1999). Sammantaget har användandet av sociala medier många bra effekter för individen – med premissen att samma individ kan begränsa sitt användande till en nivå som inte medför att för lite tid disponeras till att arbeta med övergripande mål i livet.

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    Sociala mediers nyttopåverkan
  • 36.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). STATEC Research (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies).
    Environment versus Jobs: An Industry-level Analysis of Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to investigate whether the environment and employment compete with each other in Swedish manufacturing industry. The effect of a marginal increase in environmental expenditure and environmental investment costs on sector-level demand for labor (employment) was studied using a detailed firm-level panel dataset for the period 2001–2008. The results showed that the sign and magnitude of the net employment effects ultimately depend on the aggregate sector-level output demand elasticity. If the output demand is inelastic, these costs induce small net improvements in employment, while a more elastic output demand suggests negative, but in most sectors relatively small, net effects on demand for labor. Hence, the results did not generally indicate a substantial trade-off between jobs and the environment. The general policy recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that, in the absence of empirically estimated output demand elasticities, a careful attitude regarding national environmental initiatives for sectors exposed to world market competition should be adopted.

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  • 37.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. STATEC Research.
    Essays on energy efficiency, environmental regulation and labor demand in Swedish industry2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper [I] Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of the rebound effect for fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden: Pulp and paper, Basic iron and steel, Chemical, and Mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for 2000–2008 and apply a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that neither fuel nor electricity rebound effects fully offset the potential energy and emission savings. Among the determinants, we find the CO2 intensity and the fuel/electricity shares to be useful indicators for identifying firms with higher or lower rebound effects within each sector.

    Paper [II] Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) is generally known to be a cost-effective measure for meeting energy, climate and sustainable growth targets. Unfortunately, behavioral responses to such improvements (called energy rebound effects) may reduce the expected savings in emissions and energy from EEI. Hence, the size of this effect should be considered to help set realistic energy and climate targets. Currently there are significant differences in approaches for measuring rebound effect. Here, we used a two-step procedure to measure both short- and long-term energy rebound effects in the Swedish manufacturing industry. In the first step, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to obtain energy efficiency scores. In the second step, we estimated energy rebound effects using a dynamic panel regression model. This approach was applied to a firm-level panel dataset covering all 14 sectors in the Swedish manufacturing industry over the period 1997–2008. We showed that, in the short run, partial rebound effects exist within most of manufacturing sectors, meaning that the rebound effect decreased, but did not totally offset, the energy and emission savings expected from EEI. The long-term rebound effect was smaller than the short-term effect, implying that within each sector, energy and emission savings due to EEI are larger in the long run compared to the short run.

    Paper [III] Energy inefficiency in production implies that the same level of goods and services could be produced using less energy. The potential energy inefficiency of a firm may be linked to long-term structural rigidities in the production process and/or systematic shortcomings in management (persistent inefficiency), or associated with temporary issues like misallocation of resources (transient inefficiency). Eliminating or mitigating different inefficiencies may require different policy measures. Studies measuring industrial energy inefficiency have mostly focused on overall inefficiencies and have paid little attention to distinctions between the types. The aim of this study was to assess whether energy inefficiency is transient and/or persistent in the Swedish manufacturing industry. I used a firm-level panel dataset covering fourteen industrial sectors from 1997–2008 and estimated a stochastic energy demand frontier model. The model included a four-component error term separating persistent and transient inefficiency from unobserved heterogeneity and random noise. I found that both transient and persistent energy inefficiencies exist in most sectors of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Overall, persistent energy inefficiency was larger than transient, but varied considerably in different manufacturing sectors. The results suggest that, generally, energy inefficiencies in the Swedish manufacturing industry were related to structural rigidities connected to technology and/or management practices.

    Paper [IV] The aim of this paper was to investigate whether the environment and employment compete with each other in Swedish manufacturing industry. The effect of a marginal increase in environmental expenditure and environmental investment costs on sector-level demand for labor (employment) was studied using a detailed firm-level panel dataset for the period 2001–2008. The results showed that the sign and magnitude of the net employment effects ultimately depend on the aggregate sector-level output demand elasticity. If the output demand is inelastic, these costs induce small net improvements in employment, while a more elastic output demand suggests negative, but in most sectors relatively small, net effects on demand for labor. Hence, the results did not generally indicate a substantial trade-off between jobs and the environment. The general policy recommendation that can be drawn from this study is that, in the absence of empirically estimated output demand elasticities, a careful attitude regarding national environmental initiatives for sectors exposed to world market competition should be adopted.

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  • 38.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). STATEC Research (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies), House of Entrepreneurship, 14, rue Erasme, Kirchberg, Luxembourg.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economics, Sweden.
    Is industrial energy inefficiency transient or persistent? Evidence from Swedish manufacturing2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 309, article id 118324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy inefficiency in production implies that the same level of goods and services could be produced using less energy. The potential energy inefficiency of a firm may be linked to long-term structural rigidities in the production process and/or systematic shortcomings in management (persistent inefficiency), or associated with temporary issues like misallocation of resources (transient inefficiency). Eliminating or mitigating different inefficiencies may require different policy measures. Studies measuring industrial energy inefficiency have mostly focused on overall inefficiencies and have paid little attention to distinctions between the types. The aim of this study was to assess whether energy inefficiency is transient and/or persistent in the Swedish manufacturing industry. I used a firm-level panel dataset covering fourteen industrial sectors from 1997 to 2008 and estimated a stochastic energy demand frontier model. The model included a four-component error term separating persistent and transient inefficiency from unobserved heterogeneity and random noise. I found that both transient and persistent energy inefficiencies exist in most sectors of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Overall, persistent energy inefficiency was larger than transient, but varied considerably in different manufacturing sectors. The results suggest that, generally, energy inefficiencies in the Swedish manufacturing industry were related to structural rigidities connected to technology and/or management practices.

  • 39.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The Rebound Effect in Swedish Heavy Industry2018In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 71, p. 140-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of the rebound effect for fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden: pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for 2000–2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that neither fuel nor electricity rebound effects fully offset the potential energy and emission savings. Among the determinants, we find CO2 intensity and fuel/electricity share to be useful indicators for identifying firms with higher or lower rebound effect within each sector.

  • 40.
    Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    The rebound effect in the Swedish heavy industry2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of rebound effect for the two energy types fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden – pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for the period 2000-2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that both fuel and electricity rebound effects do not fully offset the potential for energy and emission savings. Furthermore, we find CO2 intensity and fuel and electricity share as the two main determinants of rebound effect in Swedish heavy industry. Our results seems to imply that it matters both to what extent and where to promote EEI, as the rebound effect varies between sectors as well as between firms within sectors. 

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  • 41.
    Amjadi Torshizi, Golnaz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). STATEC Research.
    Is Industrial Energy Inefficiency Transient or Persistent? Evidence from Swedish Manufacturing2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy inefficiency in production implies that the same level of goods and services could be produced using less energy. The potential energy inefficiency of a firm may be linked to long-term structural rigidities in the production process and/or systematic shortcomings in management (persistent inefficiency), or associated with temporary issues like misallocation of resources (transient inefficiency). Eliminating or mitigating different inefficiencies may require different policy measures. Studies measuring industrial energy inefficiency have mostly focused on overall inefficiencies and have paid little attention to distinctions between the types. The aim of this study was to assess whether energy inefficiency is transient and/or persistent in the Swedish manufacturing industry. I used a firm-level panel dataset covering fourteen industrial sectors from 1997–2008 and estimated a stochastic energy demand frontier model. The model included a four-component error term separating persistent and transient inefficiency from unobserved heterogeneity and random noise. I found that both transient and persistent energy inefficiencies exist in most sectors of the Swedish manufacturing industry. Overall, persistent energy inefficiency was larger than transient, but varied considerably in different manufacturing sectors. The results suggest that, generally, energy inefficiencies in the Swedish manufacturing industry were related to structural rigidities connected to technology and/or management practices.

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    fulltext
  • 42.
    Amjadi Torshizi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). STATEC Research (National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Economic.
    Zhou, Wenchao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    A Dynamic Analysis of Industrial Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) is generally known to be a cost-effective measure for meeting energy, climate and sustainable growth targets. Unfortunately, behavioral responses to such improvements (called energy rebound effects) may reduce the expected savings in energy and emissions from EEI. Hence, the size of this effect should be considered to help set realistic energy and climate targets. Currently there are significant differences in approaches for measuring rebound effect. Here, we used a two-step procedure to measure both short- and long-term energy rebound effects in the Swedish manufacturing industry. In the first step, we used data envelopment analysis (DEA) to obtain energy efficiency scores. In the second step, we estimated energy rebound effects using a dynamic panel regression model. This approach was applied to a firmlevel panel dataset covering all 14 sectors in the Swedish manufacturing industry over the period 1997–2008. We showed that, in the short run, partial rebound effects exist within most of manufacturing sectors, meaning that the rebound effect decreased, but did not totally offset, the energy and emission savings expected from EEI. The long-term rebound effect was smaller than the shortterm effect, implying that within each sector, energy and emission savings due to EEI are larger in the long run compared to the short run.

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  • 43.
    Ancev, Tihomir
    et al.
    The School of Economics, The University of Sydney, Australia.
    Bostian, Moriah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). The Department of Economics, Lewis & Clark College, United States.
    Barnhart, Brad
    The Department of Applied Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, United States.
    Productivity-based indicators for nitrogen use efficiency2023In: Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, ISSN 1068-5502, E-ISSN 2327-8285, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 178-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is often used to evaluate an agricultural system's relative ability to process nitrogen (N) inputs. However, no universal indicator has simultaneously considered both economic and environmental objectives. We develop Luenberger indicators of NUE that incorporate both economic and environmental objectives to examine spatio-temporal changes in NUE, which we apply to the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for the period 2002-2012. We find considerable spatial-temporal variation in NUE, which could be used to inform future agri-environmental policy and conservation targeting decisions in the UMRB. Using this approach could lead to more cost-effective targeting of areas for N reduction in the UMRB.

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  • 44.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Can a social safety net affect farmers crop portfolios? A study of the productive safety net programme in Ethiopia.2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine whether a minimum level of ensured consumption from a social safety net has the potential of breaking the vicious circle of risk avoidance and low return in African agriculture. We study how the implementation of a social safety net programme in Ethiopia has affected the value, risk and composition of farmers’ crop portfolios. The effects of programme participation on the value and risk of the crop portfolio are examined in a Just-Pope production function, and the effects of programme participation on composition of the crop portfolio are tested in a set of acreage response models. The empirical analysis is based on unique household panel data that allow us to control for unobserved heterogeneity. No significant effect on the value and risk of the crop portfolio could be found. However, the programme seems to have brought about some changes in the land allocated to different crops. The greatest effect is towards increased cultivation of perennials, which are high-value, high-risk crops in this part of Ethiopia.

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  • 45.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Changing the risk at the margin: Smallholder farming and public policy in developing countries2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers.

    Paper [I] examines whether the implementation of a social safety net programme in Ethiopia has affected the value, risk and composition of farmers‟ crop portfolios. The empirical analysis suggests that the value and risk of the crop portfolio have not been altered due to the programme. However, the programme seems to have brought about some changes in the land allocated to different crops.

    Paper [II] studies how a social safety net affects farmers‟ (dis)investments in productive assets. More specifically, it studies how the Productive Safety Net Programme in Ethiopia has changed livestock and tree holdings. The results indicate no significant effect on livestock holdings, but a significant increase in tree holdings.

    Paper [III] investigates if there is a problem of adverse selection in formal microlending in rural Bangladesh. The results indicate that farmers who only borrow formally have a shadow price of capital that is substantially higher than the average informal interest rate. This suggests that farmers that only borrow formally are perceived as poor credit risks by informal lenders.

    Paper [IV] explores the economic incentives surrounding the cultivation of opium poppy in Afghanistan. Specifically, it examines the impact of eradication policies when opium is used as a means of obtaining credit, and when the crops are produced in sharecropping arrangements. The results indicate that both these features are likely to affect the outcome of eradication policies.

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  • 46.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Counterproductive counternarcotic strategies? A study of the effects of opium eradication in the presence of imperfect capital markets and sharecropping arrangements.2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we model the economic incentives surrounding opium crop production at farm level in Afghanistan. Specifically, we examine the impact of eradication policies when opium is used as a means of obtaining credit, and when the crops are produced in sharecropping arrangements. The theoretical analysis suggests that when perfect credit markets are available, an increased risk of having the opium poppy eradicated will lead to less land being allocated to opium poppy. Thus, with perfect credit markets, the eradication policy is likely to have the intended effect of lowering opium crop production. However, when opium is sold on futures markets as a means of obtaining credit, the effects of opium eradication are no longer clear-cut: in some cases the outcome may actually increase the land allocated to opium poppy. Finally, the results indicate that when opium is produced in sharecropping arrangements, increased risk of opium eradication will unambiguously make the tenants worse off, while landlords may actually benefit.

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  • 47.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Impacts of the productive safety net program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural households2011In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, E-ISSN 1872-6089, Vol. 94, no 1, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the impacts of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on rural households' holdings of livestock and forest assets/trees. We found no indication that participation in PSNP induces households to disinvest in livestock or trees. In fact, households that participated in the program increased the number of trees planted, but there was no increase in their livestock holdings. We found no strong evidence that the PSNP protects livestock in times of shock. Shocks appear to lead households to disinvest in livestock, but not in trees. Our results suggest that there is increased forestry activity as a result of PSNP, and that improved credit access encourages households to increase their livestock holdings.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stage, Jesper
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development, United Kingdom.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, p. 4203-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders' access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers - both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans - remain credit-constrained; both types overutilize labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders - with their closer ties to the individual farmers - remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kan digitala vårdcentraler bidra till en mer disponibel primärvårdsmarknad?: -En empirisk studie över 12 av Sveriges regioner med tillhörande kommuner perioden 2014–20182020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur etableringen av digitala vårdcentraler påverkar efterfrågan på fysisk primärvård i Sverige, samt vilka faktorer som bidrar till att individer uppsöker digital vård. Detta med syfte att kunna utveckla och anpassa den digitala vården till att fungera som ett hjälpmedel för den fysiska vården. Under studieperioden har KRY och Min Doktor varit de största aktörerna inom digital vård i Sverige och inkluderas således i studien. Sedermera omfattar studien 12 av Sveriges regioner med tillhörande kommuner under perioden 2014–2018, motsvarande 111 kommuner. Med utgångspunkt från ekonomisk teori och tidigare forskning har en modell om efterfrågan på sjukvård utformats och ligger till grund för undersökningen. Studien innefattar paneldata som estimeras med hjälp av en Random effects-modell. Variablerna som används har hämtats från Statistiska Centralbyrån (SCB), Sveriges Kommuner- och Regioner (SKR) samt Region Jönköping.

    Resultatet visar ett negativt samband mellan efterfrågan på fysisk läkarvård och användning av digital vård, sambandet är statistiskt signifikant. Detta indikerar att det finns en form av substituerbarhet och möjligheten finns att digital vård kan underlätta den fysiska primärvården till en viss del. Vidare visas att en högre inkomst, andelen ungdomar i populationen samt andelen kvinnor i populationen är attribut som bidrar till en ökad användning av digital vård. Avslutningsvis tyder resultatet på att användningen av digita lvård minskar vid högre status av ohälsa samt när tillgängligheten i den fysiska primärvården ökar.

    Slutsatsen av studien är att digitalisering i form av digitala vårdcentraler kan hjälpa till att avlasta den fysiska primärvården. Givet att digitala vårdcentraler hanteras och regleras på ett adekvat sätt finns det stora möjligheter att ta fördel av digitalisering inom vårdsektorn och uppnå en mer disponibel primärvårdsmarknad

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    Kan digitala vårdcentraler bidra till en mer disponibel primärvårdsmarknad?
  • 50.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Samma skatt – samma välfärd?: Effektivitet, service och skatter i kommuner och landsting2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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