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  • 1.
    Abbas, Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants of women's labour supply in Bangladesh and Pakistan2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Gasa eller bromsa?: En studie om bilförarens hastighetsval och effekten av höjda böter2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 4. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2017In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 5.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, 248-262 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Adu, George
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
    Alagidede, Paul
    Wits Business School, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Stock return distribution in the BRICS2015In: Review of Development Finance, ISSN 1879-9337, E-ISSN 1879-9337, Vol. 5, no 2, 98-109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stock returns in emerging market economies exhibit patterns that are distinctively different from developed countries: returns are noted to be highly volatile and autocorrelated, and long horizon returns are predictable. While these stylized facts are well established, the assumption underlying the distribution of returns is less understood. In particular, the empirical literature continues to rely on the normality assumption as a starting point, and most asset pricing models tend to overstretch this point. This paper questions the rationale behind this supposition and proceeds to test more formally for normality using multivariate joint test for skewness and kurtosis. Additionally, the paper extends the literature by examining a number of empirical regularities for Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (the BRICS for short). Our main findings are that the distributionof stock returns for the BRICS exhibits peakedness with fatter and longer tails, and this is invariant to both the unit of measurement and the time horizon of returns. Volatility clustering is prevalent in all markets, and this decays exponentially for all but Brazil. The relationship between risk and return is found to be significant and risk premiums are prevalent in our sample.

  • 7.
    af Burén, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Does internal migration influence earnings following youth unemployment?: Evidence from the Swedish Labor Market2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of youth unemployment in Sweden has highlighted the need for more research investigating the effects of unemployment on future earnings. Earlier research suggests that youth unemployment will leave labor market scares on a person’s future income. Therefore, in this thesis I investigate the question if migration can increase an individual’s future earnings and hence work as a cure for scared individuals. My theoretical argument is that migration is an investment in human capital which will lead to higher future income and may heal scars. To test my argument, I use Swedish panel data from the ASTRID database, examining unemployed individuals born 1979-1983 after finishing their education in Sweden. A nearest-neighbor propensity score matching method is applied to estimate the casual effects. However, the results show only few significant results over time and age cohorts in the data. Therefore, my conclusion is that migration barley increases income of young unemployed individuals.

  • 8.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University of Milano, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Global Bifurcations in Duopoly when the Cournot Point is Destabilized through a Subcritical Neimark Bifurcation2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An adaptive oligopoly model, where the demand function is isoelastic and the competitors operate under constant marginal costs, is considered. The Cournot equilibrium point then loses stability through a subcritical Neimark bifurcation. The present paper focuses some global bifurcations, which precede the Neimark bifurcation, and produce other attractors which coexist with the still attractive Cournot fixed point.

  • 9.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Dip. Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Catholic University.
    Gardini, Laura
    Dip. Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino .
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Global bifurcations in duopoly when the Cournot Point is destabilized through a subcritical Neimark bifurcation2006In: International Game Theory Review, ISSN 0219-1989, Vol. 8, no 1, 1-20 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali, Piacenza, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    Dept. Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Some global bifurcations related to the appearance of closed invariant curves2005In: Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, ISSN 0378-4754, Vol. 68, no 3, 201-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional map (a duopoly game) in which the fixed point is destabilized via a subcritical Neimark–Hopf (N–H) bifurcation. Our aim is to investigate, via numerical examples, some global bifurcations associated with the appearance of repelling closed invariant curves involved in the Neimark–Hopf bifurcations. We shall see that the mechanism is not unique, and that it may be related to homoclinic connections of a saddle cycle, that is to a closed invariant curve formed by the merging of a branch of the stable set of the saddle with a branch of the unstable set of the same saddle. This will be shown by analyzing the bifurcations arising inside a periodicity tongue, i.e., a region of the parameter space in which an attracting cycle exists.

  • 11.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University in Milan, Italy/University of Parma, Italy.
    Gardini, Laura
    University of Parma, Italy/Istituto di Scienze Economiche, University of Urbino, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The dynamics of a triopoly Cournot game2000In: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, ISSN 0960-0779, Vol. 11, no 15, 2531-2560 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reconsiders the Cournot oligopoly (noncooperative) game with iso-elastic demand and constant marginal costs, one of the rare cases where the reaction functions can be derived in closed form. It focuses the case of three competitors, and so also extends the critical line method for non-invertible maps to the study of critical surfaces in 3D. By this method the various bifurcations of the attractors and their basins are studied. As a special case the restriction of the map to an invariant plane when two of the three firms are identical is focused.

  • 12.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Catholic University, Faculty of Economics, Milan, Italy.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    A Cournot duopoly model with bounded demand2002Book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Agliari, Anna
    et al.
    Univ Sacred Heart, Ist Econometria & Matemat, Milan.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A Cournot duopoly with bounded inverse demand function2002In: OLIGOPOLY DYNAMICS: MODELS AND TOOLS, BERLIN: SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN , 2002, 171-194 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14. Agrawala, Shardul
    et al.
    Bosello, Francesco
    Carraro, Carlo
    de Bruin, Kelly
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    De Cian, Enrica
    Dellink, Rob
    Lanzi, Elisa
    Plan or react? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using integrated assessment models2011In: Climate Change Economics, ISSN 2010-0078, Vol. 2, no 3, 175-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines adaptation and mitigation within an integrated framework. Global and regional costs of adaptation are assessed dynamically and the resulting benefits are quantified. This is accomplished by developing a framework to incorporate adaptation as a policy variable within three Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs); the global Dynamic Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (DICE), the Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE), and the World Induced Technical Change Hybrid (WITCH) model. The framework developed here takes into account investments in reactive adaptation and in adaptation "stocks", as well as investments in building adaptive capacity. This report presents the first inter-model comparison of results on adaptation costs using the emerging category of adaptation-IAMs. Results show that least-cost policy response to climate change will need to involve subsantial amounts of mitigation efforts, investments in adaptation stock, reactive adaptation measures and adaptive capacity to limit the remaining damages.

  • 15.
    Ahlbäck, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Carlsson, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Analys av Swedbanks bankkunders risktagande: En studie om hur Behavioural Finance kan utveckla Swedbanks rådgivningsprocess2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Ahlfors, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Spelar risktoleransen någon roll?: En studie om svenska studenters investeringsbeslut2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Ahlfors, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Är den svenska bostadsmarknaden effektiv?: En studie om bostadsmarknadens effektivitet i åtta svenska regioner2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    En paneldatastudie av Beveridgekurvan: Fokus på ungdomsarbetslöshet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kan ekonomiska styrmedel riktade mot livsmedel förbättra folkhälsan?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utvärderar ekonomiska styrmedels effekt på konsumtionen av livsmedel samt ifall skatter och subventioner kan vara en metod som styr matkonsumtionen mot hälsosamma livsmedelsval. Sex livsmedelsgrupper analyseras i studien och dessa är sötsaker och glass, kött, grönsaker, mejerivaror, bröd och spannmålsprodukter samt frukt och bär. Fyra scenarier som representerar olika skatte- och/eller subventionsreformer simuleras för att analysera vilken effekt ekonomiska styrmedel kan ha på matkonsumtion och hälsa. Responsen som de ekonomiska styrmedlen har på matkonsumtionen beräknas med elasticiteter som tagits fram från parameterestimat i AIDS-modellen. Den data som ligger till grund för den ekonometriska modellen är aggregerad konsumtionsdata, konsumentprisindex och livsmedelsförsäljning. Resultatet från studien visar att det går att styra konsumtionen av livsmedel men att substitution mellan varor kan leda till att de hälsomål som reformen är menad att nå inte uppfylls.

  • 20.
    Ahmed, E
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Egypt.
    Elsadany, AA
    Department of Basic Science, Faculty of Computers and Informatics, Ismailia, Suez Canal University, Egypt; Department of Mathematics, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.
    Puu, Tönu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    On Bertrand duopoly game with differentiated goods2015In: Applied Mathematics and Computation, ISSN 0096-3003, E-ISSN 1873-5649, Vol. 251, 169-179 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates a dynamic Bertrand duopoly with differentiated goods in which boundedly rational firms apply a gradient adjustment mechanism to update their price in each period. The demand functions are derived from an underlying CES utility function. We investigate numerically the dynamical properties of the model. We consider two specific parameterizations for the CES function and study the Nash equilibrium and its local stability in the models. The general finding is that the Nash equilibrium becomes unstable as the speed of adjustment increases. The Nash equilibrium loses stability through a period-doubling bifurcation and the system eventually becomes chaotic either through a series of period-doubling bifurcations or after a Neimark–Sacker bifurcation.

  • 21.
    Allaberdyev, Maksat
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Den penningpolitiska fällan: En studie på de svenska hushållens ekonomi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att få bukt med lågkonjunkturen efter finanskrisen 2008 förde Sverige en expansiv penningpolitik. Även om Sverige tog sig ur krisen relativt smärtfritt följdes det av en period med deflation. Det ledde till att reporäntan 2015 för första gången sänktes under nollgränsen, och därmed tog den svenska penningpolitiken ett historiskt steg för att nå inflationsmålet. De låga räntorna har lett till att priserna på bostadsmarknaden har skenat iväg och de svenska hushållens skulder har ökat avsevärt där den genomsnittliga skuldkvoten är uppe i 343 procent. Från de penningpolitiska protokollen uttrycker Riksbanken en stor oro för denna utveckling och föreslår riktade åtgärder i bostads-, och skattepolitiken. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka effekterna av penningpolitiska åtgärder samt utvecklingen av bostadspriserna har haft på de svenska hushållen skulder.

    Genom en VAR-modell, Granger-orsakssamband, Impulse-response test och stresstester har denna studie kunnat påvisa och kartlägga vad som händer med de svenska hushållens skulder vid en eventuell räntehöjning. Resultaten visar att en räntechock mellan 3–5 procent minskar framtida skuldsättning, och ekonomin anpassar sig till jämvikt efter 5–8 perioder vilket representerar 15–24 månader. Den ger därmed ett starkt stöd för penningpolitikens kausalitet. Resultaten visar dessutom att det finns hushåll med låg disponibel inkomst som lever under existensminimum idag, och vid en räntehöjning överstiger några hushåll sitt existensminimum med nästan 50 procent.

    Studiens teoretiska del ger en förklaring om penningpolitikens jobb och dess flöde till hushåll och företag. Den tar även upp tidigare forskning som har undersökt marknadsbeteende hos hushåll. 

  • 22. Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    The rebound effect in the Swedish heavy industry2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of rebound effect for the two energy types fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden – pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for the period 2000-2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that both fuel and electricity rebound effects do not fully offset the potential for energy and emission savings. Furthermore, we find CO2 intensity and fuel and electricity share as the two main determinants of rebound effect in Swedish heavy industry. Our results seems to imply that it matters both to what extent and where to promote EEI, as the rebound effect varies between sectors as well as between firms within sectors. 

  • 23.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Can a social safety net affect farmers crop portfolios? A study of the productive safety net programme in Ethiopia.2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine whether a minimum level of ensured consumption from a social safety net has the potential of breaking the vicious circle of risk avoidance and low return in African agriculture. We study how the implementation of a social safety net programme in Ethiopia has affected the value, risk and composition of farmers’ crop portfolios. The effects of programme participation on the value and risk of the crop portfolio are examined in a Just-Pope production function, and the effects of programme participation on composition of the crop portfolio are tested in a set of acreage response models. The empirical analysis is based on unique household panel data that allow us to control for unobserved heterogeneity. No significant effect on the value and risk of the crop portfolio could be found. However, the programme seems to have brought about some changes in the land allocated to different crops. The greatest effect is towards increased cultivation of perennials, which are high-value, high-risk crops in this part of Ethiopia.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Changing the risk at the margin: Smallholder farming and public policy in developing countries2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers.

    Paper [I] examines whether the implementation of a social safety net programme in Ethiopia has affected the value, risk and composition of farmers‟ crop portfolios. The empirical analysis suggests that the value and risk of the crop portfolio have not been altered due to the programme. However, the programme seems to have brought about some changes in the land allocated to different crops.

    Paper [II] studies how a social safety net affects farmers‟ (dis)investments in productive assets. More specifically, it studies how the Productive Safety Net Programme in Ethiopia has changed livestock and tree holdings. The results indicate no significant effect on livestock holdings, but a significant increase in tree holdings.

    Paper [III] investigates if there is a problem of adverse selection in formal microlending in rural Bangladesh. The results indicate that farmers who only borrow formally have a shadow price of capital that is substantially higher than the average informal interest rate. This suggests that farmers that only borrow formally are perceived as poor credit risks by informal lenders.

    Paper [IV] explores the economic incentives surrounding the cultivation of opium poppy in Afghanistan. Specifically, it examines the impact of eradication policies when opium is used as a means of obtaining credit, and when the crops are produced in sharecropping arrangements. The results indicate that both these features are likely to affect the outcome of eradication policies.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Counterproductive counternarcotic strategies? A study of the effects of opium eradication in the presence of imperfect capital markets and sharecropping arrangements.2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we model the economic incentives surrounding opium crop production at farm level in Afghanistan. Specifically, we examine the impact of eradication policies when opium is used as a means of obtaining credit, and when the crops are produced in sharecropping arrangements. The theoretical analysis suggests that when perfect credit markets are available, an increased risk of having the opium poppy eradicated will lead to less land being allocated to opium poppy. Thus, with perfect credit markets, the eradication policy is likely to have the intended effect of lowering opium crop production. However, when opium is sold on futures markets as a means of obtaining credit, the effects of opium eradication are no longer clear-cut: in some cases the outcome may actually increase the land allocated to opium poppy. Finally, the results indicate that when opium is produced in sharecropping arrangements, increased risk of opium eradication will unambiguously make the tenants worse off, while landlords may actually benefit.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mekonnen, Alemu
    Department of Economics, Addis Ababa University.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Economics, University of Gothenburg.
    Impacts of the productive safety net program in Ethiopia on livestock and tree holdings of rural households2011In: Journal of Development Economics, ISSN 0304-3878, Vol. 94, no 1, 119-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the impacts of the Ethiopian Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) on rural households' holdings of livestock and forest assets/trees. We found no indication that participation in PSNP induces households to disinvest in livestock or trees. In fact, households that participated in the program increased the number of trees planted, but there was no increase in their livestock holdings. We found no strong evidence that the PSNP protects livestock in times of shock. Shocks appear to lead households to disinvest in livestock, but not in trees. Our results suggest that there is increased forestry activity as a result of PSNP, and that improved credit access encourages households to increase their livestock holdings.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stage, Jesper
    Institutionen för nationalekonomi med statistik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Holmgren, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    MacGregor, James
    International Institute for Environment and Development, United Kingdom.
    Formal microlending and adverse (or non-existent) selection a case study of shrimp farmers in Bangladesh2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 28, 4203-4213 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microcredit schemes have become a popular means of improving smallholders' access to credit and making long term investment possible. However, it remains to be explored whether the current microcredit schemes are more successful than earlier formal small scale lending in identifying successful borrowers. We studied shrimp farming in a rural region in Bangladesh where formal microlending is well established, but where more expensive informal microlending coexists with the formal schemes. Farmers - both those who exclusively use formal loans and those who also use informal loans - remain credit-constrained; both types overutilize labour in order to reduce the need for working capital. However, the credit constraint is actually milder for the informal borrowers: the implicit shadow price of working capital is substantially higher in the group that only takes formal loans than in the group that also uses informal loans. These results suggest that informal lenders - with their closer ties to the individual farmers - remain more successful in identifying those smallholder farmers that are most likely to use the borrowed funds successfully. Informal lenders have an information advantage that formal microlenders lack: the latter need to find routes to access this information in order for formal microcredit schemes to succeed.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Samma skatt – samma välfärd?: Effektivitet, service och skatter i kommuner och landsting2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Andersson, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Regional Risk-Sharing Provided by the Fiscal System: Empirical Evidence from Sweden2004In: Regional Studies, ISSN 00343404, Vol. 38, no 3, 269-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Testing for vertical fiscal externalities2004In: International Tax and Public Finance, Vol. 11, 243-263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bask, Mikael
    RUESG, Department of Economics, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Melkersson, Maria
    Swedish Institute for Growth Policy Studies, Östersund, Sweden.
    Economic man and the consumption of addictive goods: the case of two goods2006In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 41, 453-466 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that cigarette smoking and the use of other addictive goods is harmful to health. Still, some people smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol in their daily lives. The consumption of addictive goods seems, therefore, to be the antithesis of rational behavior. In this article, however, it is demonstrated that a rational individual, in the sense that he or she maximizes his or her well-being while anticipating the future consequences of his or her choices, may in fact choose to consume addictive goods. Specifically, the two-good extension of the rational addiction model is demonstrated and related to relevant policy questions. For instance, should one encourage the use of smokeless tobacco in smoking cessation programs? According to the empirical results, the answer is no. Further, should one discourage smoking by increasing the tax on cigarettes? Again, the answer is no.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Regional Effects of Military Base Closures: The case of Sweden2007In: Defence and Peace Economics, ISSN 1024-2694, Vol. 18, no 1, 87-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate regional effects of military base closures in Sweden during the last decades. Our analysis is based on a regional growth model, where two equations are estimated; one equation describing the average income growth rate and one equation describing the net migration rate. The data set is a panel of 31 Swedish municipalities covering the period 1983-1998. Our main finding is that a closure of a military base has not had any significant impact on the subsequent average income growth rate nor the net migration rate in the affected municipalities. One potential explanation for these results relates to the labour market and the composition of the labour force.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Regional Effects of Military Closures: The case of Sweden2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns the effects of military closures on the local growth pattern in Sweden during the last decades. The main issue is to analyze to what extent the closures have affected the subsequent average income growth and net migration rates at the local level. The analysis is based on a data set covering Swedish municipalities with military bases during the period 1983-1998. Our main finding is that the closures have not had any significant impact on the subsequent income growth rate or the net migration rate in the affected minicipalities compared to other municipilaties. However, in accordance with previous studies based on Swedish data, we find the initial endowment of human capital to have a positive impact on the subsequent growth rate.

  • 34.
    Anderstig, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Applied Methods for Analysis of Economic Structure and Change1988Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis comprises five papers and an introductory overview of applied models and methods. The papers concern interdependences and interrelations in models applied to empirical analyses of various problems related to production, consumption, location and trade. Among different definitions of 'structural analysis' one refers to the study of the properties of economic models on the assumption of invariant structural relations, this definition is close to what is aimed at in lire present case.

    Although the subjects cover widely differing aspects of the economic system, applied models and methods, i.e. entropy maximizing (information minimizing) models and random utility maximizing models, are in many cases closely connected.

    Tlic first paper reports on a regional input-ouput study applied to Norrbotten, Sweden. The paper is mainly concentrated on developing and estimating an econometric model, describing the structural interdependences in the Norrbotten economy. The chapter is composed of three parts. The first part concerns the theoretical basis of the model, the main fields of application and principal problems in connection with the estimation. The core of the estimated model is defined by the intersectoral dependences in the Norrbotten economy. This model can be viewed as a part of a more general model of the regional economy, and such a general model is briefly outlined.

    The second part reports on the collection and arranging of data, and the methods used for the estimation of the model. In the third part the results are presented. A special interest concerns the effects of production changes in the basic industries in the county, as to the expected impact on different industries and occupational groups.

    The second paper concerns some aspects of the problem of predicting trade flows in the forest sector. The model, based on information theory, is predicting current trade flows by adjusting the historical, a priori, trade flows to satisfy current export and import totals.

    In the third paper an entropy model is employed to decompose the interregional and intraregional employment change in Sweden and Stockholm, during the period 1960 - 1980, into effects attributed to regions (zones), industries, occupations and interaction effects.

    The fourth paper presents an empirical analysis of housing choice, based on individual data of households in Stockholm. The consumer choice is regarded as a complex choice from a finite set of discrete alternatives and a probabilistic choice mode! (multinomial logit) is employed, where secondary dwelling is included in the housing choice decision.

    In the final paper spectral analysis is used for identifying the significant components of cycle behaviour in time series of Swedish exports of forest products over a twenty year time period.

  • 35. Andrén, Daniela
    et al.
    Granlund, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. HUI Research, Sweden.
    Introducing waiting times for health care in a labor supply model for sickness absence2015In: Nordic Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1892-9729, E-ISSN 1892-9710, Vol. 3, no 1, 34-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the association between waiting times for different health care services and the duration of sick leave, using a Swedish register database supplemented with information from questionnaires for 3,653 employees. The duration of sick leave is positively associated with waiting two weeks or more for primary care, technical investigations and specialists, compared to waiting one week or less. Except for waiting for a specialist, there is no indication that waiting four weeks or more is associated with longer durations of sick leave than waiting two to three weeks. Long waiting times for surgery is negatively associated with the duration of sick leave, which might be explained by prioritizing where patients with longer waiting times are those with less severe conditions. Including these waiting time variables did not induce substantial changes on the impact of traditional labor supply variables, which suggests that the parameter estimates of traditional variables are relatively robust.

  • 36.
    Aniwaer, Kunduozi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Intergenerational earnings mobility of second-generation immigrants in Sweden: A summary of theoretical and empirical findings2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Ankarhem, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    A dual assessment of the environmental Kuznets curve: The case of Sweden2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we calculate time series of shadow prices for Swedish emissions of CO2, SO2, and VOC for the period 1918 - 1994. Newly constructed historical emission time series enable studying a single country’s emission paths through increasing levels of economic activity. The shadow prices are, in the next step, related to income to explain the environmental Kuznets curves (EKC) previously found in Swedish data for these three emissions. A directional distance function approach is used to estimate the production process for Swedish industry thus enabling the opportunity costs of a reduction in these emissions to be calculated. We attribute the annual changes in the shadow prices to the main causal factors by decomposing them into a technological effect and a substitution effect. We conclude that the time series of the shadow prices show support for EKCs for Swedish industry.

  • 38.
    Ankarhem, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Bioenergy, pollution, and economic growth2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of four papers: two of them deal with the effects on the forest sector of an increase in the demand for forest fuels, and two of them concern the relation between economic growth and pollution.

    Paper [I] is a first, preliminary study of the potential effects on the Swedish forest sector of a continuing rise in the use of forest resources as a fuel in energy generation. Sweden has made a commitment that the energy system should be sustainable, i.e., it should be based on renewable resources. However, an increasing use of the forest resources as an energy input could have effects outside the energy sector. We consider this in a static model by estimating a system of demand and supply equations for the four main actors on the Swedish roundwood market; forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy sector. We then calculate the industries' short run supply and demand elasticities.

    Paper [II], is a development of the former paper. In this paper, we estimate the dynamic effects on the forest sector of an increased demand for forest fuels. This is done by developing a partial adjustment model of the forest sector that enables short, intermediate, and long run price elasticities to be estimated. It is relevant to study the effects of increased demand for forest fuels as the Swedish government has committed to an energy policy that is likely to further increase the use of renewable resources in the Swedish energy system. Four subsectors are included in the model: forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy industry. The results show that the short run elasticities are fairly consistent with earlier studies and that sluggish adjustment in the capital stock is important in determining the intermediate and long run responses. Simulation shows that an increase in the demand for forest fuels has a positive effect on the equilibrium price of all three types of wood, and a negative effect on the equilibrium quantities of sawtimber and pulpwood.

    In paper [III] a Shephard distance function approach is used to estimate time series of shadow prices for Swedish emissions of CO2, SO2, and VOC for the period 1918 - 1994. The shadow prices are in a next step regressed on GDP per capita. The objective of the study is closely linked to hypothesis of environmental Kuznets curves. We conclude that the time series of the shadow prices from this approach can not be used to explain the EKCs found for Swedish emissions.

    In paper [IV], we calculate time series of shadow prices for Swedish emissions of CO2, SO2, and VOC for the period 1918 - 1994. The shadow prices are in a next step related to income, to explain the EKCs previously found for Swedish data on the three emissions. Newly constructed historical emission time series enable studying a single country's emission paths through increasing levels of economic activity. A directional distance function approach is used to estimate the industry's production process in order to calculate the opportunity costs of a reduction in the emissions. The time series of the shadow prices show support for EKCs for the Swedish industry.

  • 39.
    Ankarhem, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Effects of Increased demand for biofuels: A Dynamic Model of the Swedish Forest Sector2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we estimate the dynamic effects on the forest sector of an increased demand for biofuels. This is done by developing a partial adjustment model of the forest sector that enables short, intermediate, and long run price elasticities to be estimated. It is relevant to study the effects of increased demand for biofuels as the Swedish government has committed to an energy policy that is likely to further increase the use of renewable resources in the Swedish energy system. Four subsectors are included in the model: the forest owners, who supply sawtimber, pulpwood and forest fuels; the sawmills which demand sawtimber; the pulp and paper industry which demands pulpwood; and the energy industry which demands forest fuels. The results show that the short run elasticities are fairly consistent with earlier studies and that sluggish adjustment in the capital stock is important in determining the short and intermediate run responses. Simulation shows that an increase in the demand for forest fuels has a positive effect on the equilibrium price of all the three types of wood, and a negative effect on the equilibrium quantities of sawtimber and pulpwood.

  • 40.
    Ankarhem, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Shadow prices for undesirables in Swedish industry: Indication of environmental Kuznets curves?2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this note, we estimate time series of shadow prices for Swedish emissions of CO2, SO2 , and VOC for the period 1918 - 1994. The shadow prices are in the second step related to income to explain the environmental Kuznets curves previously found for Swedish data on the three emissions. A Shephard distance function approach is used to estimate a structural model of the industry’s production process in order to calculate the opportunity costs of a reduction in the emissions. We conclude that the times series of the shadow prices obtained using this approach do not show support for EKCs for Swedish industry.

  • 41.
    Ankarhem, Mattias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Biofuels and the forest sector: An econometric model of the Swedish forest sector2000In: Global concerns for forest resource utilization: Sustainable use and management ; Selected Papers from the International Symposium of the Foresea Miyazaki 1998, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers , 2000, 361- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Arnek, Magnus
    et al.
    Transport och Samhälle (ToS), Högskolan Dalarna.
    Eriksson, Per
    Vägverket Region Norr.
    Hultkrantz, Lars
    Transport och Samhälle (ToS), Högskolan Dalarna.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    Centrum för forskning om drift och underhåll (CDU), Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Österberg, Richard
    Centrum för forskning om drift och underhåll (CDU), Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Upphandling av drift och vägunderhåll i norra Sveriges inland: Om marknadsförutsättningar och regionala effekter1999Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Environmental Policy, Efficient Taxation and Unemployment2005In: International Tax and Public FinanceArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Optimal income taxation and decentralized fiscal federalism2010In: Regional Science and Urban Economics, ISSN 0166-0462, Vol. 40, no 4, 187-195 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns redistribution and public good provision under asymmetric information, which are here ingredients of a policy-problem facing each member state (nation) of an economic federation with decentralized leadership. Each member state is assumed to have its own redistributive policy and pattern of public consumption, whereas the federal level redistributes (ex-post) between the member states. The results show how and why federal ex-post redistribution may modify the use of income taxation and public good provision at the national level, relative to the policy outcome in the absence of a federal government, as well as how the national policy incentives depend on whether or not the federal government uses distortionary taxes.

  • 45.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Social accounting and the Public sector2008In: International Economic Review, ISSN 1468-2354, Vol. 49, no 1, 349-375 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article contributes to the theory of social accounting. As such, it tries to extend earlier literature on the welfare equivalence of the comprehensive net national product in two main directions, both of which refer to the public sector. One is by considering welfare measurement problems associated with public good provision and redistributive policy, respectively, when the public revenues are raised by distortionary taxes. The other is by addressing the consequences of a “federation-like” decision structure, where independent tax and expenditure decisions are made both by the central government and by lower level governments.

  • 46.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Welfare measurement and public goods in a second best economy2010In: Handbook of environmental accounting / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Karl-Gustaf Löfgren, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, 101-126 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Welfare measurement, green accounting and distortionary taxes2011In: Green national accounting and sustainability / [ed] Karl-Gustaf Löfgren och Chuan-Zhong Li, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, 630-652 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns welfare measurement in the presence of distortionary taxes. One purpose is to explain why the traditional green NNP measure fails as a welfare indicator when distortionary taxes are present. Another is to derive a green NNP analogue in a second best environment. In the second best optimum, the efficiency cost of taxation will affect both the form of the national welfare measure and the proper principles of accounting for pollution.

  • 48.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Welfare measurement, involuntary unemployment and heterogeneity2010In: The Review of Income and Wealth, ISSN 0034-6586, E-ISSN 1475-4991, Vol. 56, no 3, 559-571 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns welfare measurement in an economy with union wage setting, where the equilibrium is characterized by unemployment. Contrary to results derived in the first best, the current value Hamiltonian is not an exact welfare measure in an economy with unemployment. Instead, the welfare measure also depends on “employment effect,” which are caused by the discrepancy between supply and demand in the labor market. In addition, since unemployment gives rise to heterogeneity, distributional effects will also characterize the welfare measure.

  • 49.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Friberg, Richard
    Johansson-Stenman, Olof
    Kolm, Ann-Sofi
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Den första nationella konferensen i nationalekonomi i Sverige2011In: Ekonomisk debatt, Vol. 39, no 2, 67-73 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Aronsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Axelsson, RogerUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.Brännlund, RunarUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
1234567 1 - 50 of 1177
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