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  • 1.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, no 2, 268-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 2.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Convergence of CO2 emissions and economic growth in the OECD countries: did the type of fuel matter?2017In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 12, no 7, 618-627 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes convergence in CO2 emissions in the OECD countries with respect to the source of emissions (oil versus coal). The investigated period 1973-2010 is divided into two sub-periods, 1973-1991 and 1992-2010. The first period covers the OPEC oil price shocks, where the OECD oil policy was to a high extent governed by energy security concerns and cold war strategic considerations. The second period corresponds to the end of the cold war and the rise of climate policy in several OECD countries. Due to such contextual differences, oil and coal behave differently in the two sub-periods. The generally stronger convergence with respect to oil-related emissions until 1991 conditional on GDP per capita is compatible with a situation where the rising oil prices led to a strong transformation in the countries of interest. Besides, we evidence decoupling of economic growth from oil-related emissions in the post-cold war period.

  • 3. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012In: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, no 4, 990-1014 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 4.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009In: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, no 1, 21-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 5. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 7, 1074-1091 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Beatrice
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Välfärdens framtida utmaningar och möjligheter: En jämförande studie mellan långtidsutredningarna från 1999/2000 och 20152017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Mot framtiden på gamla spår?: Regionala intressegrupper och beslutsprocesser kring kustjärnvägarna i Norrland under 1900-talet2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation the construction of two coastal railways, the East Coast Line and the Bothnia Line, in the Norrland region of northern Sweden is used as a case study of how regionally based interest groups are formed, and how they gain access to decision-making processes on a national level. In periods when a number of preconditions were in place, a window of opportunity opened for the coastal railway that the regional elites could exploit. Among these was the ability to form a coherent regional interest group, through institutions that created platforms and power-bases that enable regional elites to co-operate and act on regional and national levels.The existence of an institutional framework that was adapitve towards regional railway promotion was also important. The study shows that the coastal railway had a very flexible role on the agenda, as it provided a fixed solution against which actors could pin a multitude of different problems. An important factor for explaining the development of the coastal railway question in Norrland was the ideological notion of the region itself. Being a vast, resource-rich and sparsely populated region, Norrland had almost always received special consideration in both public opinion and national policy making. It also created a remarkable stubbornness among the regional actors in working for the coastal railway. Regional interest groups had also learnt that linking their claims to Norrland's peripheral position had high legitimacy on the national arena, by claiming the need for regional fairness and/or the national importance of the regional export-intensive industries. This was instrumental in justifying the repeated exemptions from the national railway policy regimes that ultimately were decissive in making the regional elites successful.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Between private interests and the state. Corporatist strategies in the Swedish railway council, 1902-1967.2015In: Journal of Transport History, ISSN 0022-5266, E-ISSN 1759-3999, Vol. 36, no 2, 151-169 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the strategies employed by the Swedish RailwayCouncil to influence national railway policy from 1902 to 1967. TheCouncil was a corporatist arrangement and functioned as a broker betweenindustrial and regional interests and the public railways. The resultsshow that though the Council's policy influence in many cases wasmarginal, there were occasions when the members could use the Council asa tool to influence railway policy, most notably the division of thenetwork into profitable and unprofitable lines, with different forms ofgovernment subsidies. The Council's influence gained from a shift inarguments from that tariffs should be high enough to deliver a return onthe invested capital, to an emphasis on having tariffs that could supportnational and regional economic development, even if it created commerciallosses. When Swedish transport policy shifted in the 1960s, the Railway Council gradually lost its importance and eventually dissolved.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The vision thing: Actors, decision-making and lock-in effects in Swedish road safety policy since the 1990s2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the introduction of and consequences of the “Vision Zero” (Nollvisionen) that was part of a law passed in 1997 and called for a radical reduction of deaths caused by road traffic. We try to answer the question why the Vision Zero has failed to reach its goals for the last ten years. The introduction of the Vision Zero can be explained with a combination of changes in traffic policy and welfare policy, together with a reorganization of the transport sector that created new opportunities for old interest groups. Our main conclusion is that the strong idealistic and visionary political goals in the Vision Zero are in line with a Swedish tradition of over-arching visionary national goals for the transport sector in general. Idealistic goals suppressed critical objections, but at the same time there were insufficient resources for investments and lack of approval for the policy from actors within the sector, which can create lock-in effects and actually prevent effective policies from being implemented. This might explain the relative ineffectiveness of the policy, and the slim chances of the Vision Zero to ever being achieved.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Journal via nätet: "Den ökade digitaliseringen av vården"2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bilateral shipping and trade: Swedish-Finnish experiences in the post-war period2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the bilateral shipping and trade between Finland and Sweden during the post-war period. It comprises five articles and one introductory chapter for which the common point of departure is the growth and transformation of bilateral trade and shipping. The first two articles analyse the structural change of bilateral trade from a national and regional perspective. The three following articles provide an overview and analysis of the ferry shipping. By integrating the perspective in these articles in the introductory chapter and by providing a long historical record, the change of economic relations between Finland and Sweden in the post-war period is discerned. This thesis applies an economic historical approach and is founded on various fields of social science. The issue of trade is analysed within the framework of conventional and new trade theory, and the analysis of ferry shipping is governed by economic and geographic theories. The studies on trade shows that the transformation of production seen in Finland and Sweden meant that the trade increasingly became dependent on an exchange of products arising from matching industries. In turn the foreign trade arising from the Northern part of Finland and Sweden was still dominated by so called inter-industry trade. In addition to these results, the studies of ferry services shows that the growth of vehicles and passengers conveyance, together with the expanded onboard services, also intensified the commercial exchange. Due of the multi-output structure, the ferry service efficiently met the growing demand of travel and trade. The main conclusion of this thesis is that the convergence of incomes and economic structure had a significant impact on bilateral trade and ferry shipping. In addition the process of economic integration, technological advances together with specific policies issued on shipping also contributed to strengthen the economic ties between Finland and Sweden.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Företagsdynamik och tillväxt: En kartläggning och analys av företagsdynamikoch arbetsproduktivitetstillväxt i Sverige2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book examines the dynamic relation between firm demography and aggregate productivity growth in Sweden during the period 1997-2003. By using enterprise demography data, the interaction between micro dynamics and aggregate productivity growth is discerned. The result shows that the contribution of entry and exit of firms on aggregate productivity growth is small but still positive for the total economy, suggesting that entering firms are more productive than exiting firms. The book shows that the productivity growth within the continuing firms is the key factor of the aggregated productivity growth.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Näringslivets tillstånd 2007: Företagsstrukturen och dess betydelse för produktivitet och tillväxt2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ITPS kartläggning och analys visar att det från den ökning av andelen småföretag som skett sedan 1970-talet kommit ett ganska blygsamt bidrag till tillväxten. Det är i stället de stora företagen som fortsatt står för det största bidraget till tillväxten i BNP och den största andelen av sysselsättningen. En kategori företag som under perioden 2002–2004 haft stor betydelse för tillväxt i både förädlingsvärde och sysselsättning är de snabbväxande företagen. De mest snabbväxande företagen har mellan 2002 och 2004 bidragit med en ökning av förädlingsvärdet på cirka 160 miljarder kronor och en sysselsättningsökning på mer än 120 000 personer samtidigt som övriga företags bidrag varit negativt. En studie av huruvida en del av förklaringen till de små företagens låga bidrag till produktivitetstillväxten beror på att det i stället är de stora företagen som exploaterar de små företagens idéer och innovationer ger inte stöd för denna hypotes. Denna studie pekar liksom tidigare studier på att det oavsett företagsstorlek, är det ambitiösa entreprenörskapet som är av avgörande betydelse för den långsiktiga tillväxten.

  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier, Östersund.
    Näringslivets tillstånd 2008: Tjänsteparadox skapar tillväxt2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    ITPS identifierar en tjänsteparadox som innebär att samhället utifrån ett arbetsmarknadsperspektiv förvisso är ett tjänstesamhälle, men utifrån  ett konsumtionsperspektiv fortfarande är ett prylsamhälle, det vill säga ett samhälle som i allt högre grad präglas av materiell konsumtion. Analysen visar på de underliggande drivkrafterna bakom denna ekonomiska utveckling och att det som vid en första anblick kan tyckas vara paradoxalt är konsistent och logiskt. Huvudförklaringen är grundläggande skillnader mellan olika typer av tjänster och snabbt fallande priser på varor. De personliga tjänsterna är en knapp och dyr resurs, vilket korrekt återspeglas på marknaden. De icke personliga tjänsterna däremot har stor ekonomisk potential och det är också dessa som växer. ITPS analys visar att ”tjänstesamhället”, rätt hanterat, inte är ett hot mot tillväxten. Tvärtom visar analysen att de som förutspådde att den ökade sysselsättningen inom tjänstesektorn skulle leda till avtagande tillväxt har haft fel.

  • 15.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinats of ferry traffic flows: A gravity equation approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carina, Keskitalo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Insurance models and climate risk assessments in a historical context2016In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 23, no 2, 219-243 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to the consequences of climate change has developed as a growing field of concern in the insurance business. However, climate related risks is not entirely a new field in insurance. Historically, a large number of insurance organizational choices and strategies have been used to mitigate the financial impacts of extreme events and uncertainties associated with climate change. Taking the case of forest in Sweden, this paper reviews the ways in which climate related risks such as storm/wind and fire risks have been assured. The study shows that climate related risks generally has increased over time and that major hazard events have been decisive for the strategy and organization choices. The 20th century development shows that corporate insurance coverage increased by higher anticipated risk, while self-insurance and public insurance was reduced. However, in more recent time the expansion of corporate insurance has stagnated. Raised premiums and tighten terms following historically extreme weather events has led government and forest owners to assume more climate risks.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Insurance and income growth: The case of Sweden 1830-1950Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate supply and demand factors that have been put forward to explain the growth of insurance markets during the financial revolution. We conclude that income growth, urbanisation, changes in risk and price are not sufficient to explain Swedish insurance market growth prior to 1900. Instead, we argue that cultural factors, i.e. the dismantling of ideas and business cultures based on the estates of the realms was essential for explaining the growth of insurance markets foremost between 1855 and 1900.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, no 3, 203-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Is Structural Change Speeding Up? The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002008In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 1750-2837 (electronic) 0358-5522 (paper), Vol. 56, no 3, 192-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the importance of structural change on productivity growth and conditions in the labour market. From a productivity perspective, a positive relation is found between structural change and productivity growth from the industrial breakthrough until the first oil crisis. From the early 1970s, this positive relation weakened and eventually became negative as labour moved from high to low productive industries. From a labour market perspective, it is found that extent of sectoral reallocation of labour has become more intense over the twentieth century. The extent of job gains and losses seems to have been more intense during the postwar period than during the industrialization phase.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Unintentional climate policy: Swedish experiences of carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth 1950-20052010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development of carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden, especially with a focus on the absolute reductions during the post-war period, during the 1970s and 1980s. The paper shows that the largest reductions were achieved before the introduction of an active climate policy in 1991. This was in turn the result of significant improvements in energy efficiency and energy conversion, while structural changes were considerably less important. One reason behind this decoupling process may be that the active energy policy put pressure on households and industries to conserve energy and to substitute from oil to electricity and biofuels. The process was substantially reinforced by the development of world oil prices in combination with the development of domestic electricity prices, where nuclear power seems to have played an important role.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mike B., Adams
    Jonas, Andersson
    The Historical Relation between Banking, Insurance and Economic Growth in Sweden: 1830 to 19982005Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Sickness absence in compulsory and voluntary health insurance: the case of Sweden at the turn of the twentieth century2017In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 65, no 1, 6-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the turn of the twentieth century, Swedish health insurance was organised according to the Western European models of both voluntary, `fraternal´ principles and compulsory, `factory scheme´ principles. In this paper, we trace the characteristics of both organisational forms, and compare the sickness absence by considering the role of risk selection and mitigation across a large panel of voluntary and compulsory health insurance societies operating in Sweden between 1900 and 1910. We find that voluntary societies used a wide set of rules and practices in order to select and monitor members in order to keep down the number of sick cases. Compulsory societies applied shorter waiting periods and offered more medical treatment, leading to more frequent but shorter sickness absences.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-31 01:21
  • 23.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, no 3, 278-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    The compulsory public pension and the demand for life insurance: the case of Sweden, 1884–191412015In: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 68, no 1, 244-263 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ cost-of-living surveys, business archives, and firm data to examine the impact of the compulsory pension on the demand for life insurance in Sweden from 1884 to 1914—a period that covers the implementation of the first public compulsory old-age pension reform and the take-off of industry life insurance. As predicted on the basis of the contemporary literature on crowding-out effects, we find that the compulsory pension reduced the demand for life insurance. Our panel-data analysis of lapse rates on insurance policies shows a significant crowding-out effect of pension payments. We conclude that the introduction of the general compulsory pension had a crowding-out effect on households’ holdings of insurance policies.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Adams, Mike
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    Upreti, Vineet
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    The determinants of investment returns in the fire insurance industry: the case of Sweden, 1903-19392013In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 20, no 1, 73-89 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weemploy a panel data research design to examine the determinants of investmentreturns in the Swedish property fire insurance industry from 1903 to 1939 – aperiod of great economic and political uncertainty. Contrary to expectations,we find that mutual fire insurers generated systematically higher investmentreturns than stock fire insurers. Investment returns are inversely related toleverage but positively related to liquidity, showing that firms adopting amore precautionary investment strategy attain higher returns.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Journal på nätet: Utifrån vårdadministratörens synvinkel2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Andersson Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Gunnarsson, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Forum for Studies on Law and Society.
    Between Family and Market – A Feminist Story about Individual versus Joint Taxation in Relation to Swedish Business Taxation 1928-19772016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A general bias in most welfare states has been to use public revenues to deal with inequality in social and economic programmes. However, tax policies and regulatory tax reforms very seldom consider that gender norms and practices have had profound effects in shaping tax systems, which has become hindrance for achieving economic gender equality.

    By applying a gender perspective on family and business taxation we want to show that breadwinning and support of the family are common dominators for how the modern income taxation was constructed. A common understanding is that the consequence of this transformation from family economy to market economy also lead to a permanent and clear cut between these two spheres of economy. We will show that this idea of separation is more of a fiction than the reality.

  • 28.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Belysning av relationen mellan entreprenörskap och varumärke: recension av "Entreprenörskap och varumärken" Karin Winroth (red.) & Mats Larsson & Mikael Lönnborg2014In: Respons, no 4Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Compensating the periphery?: regional interest groups and railways in Northern Sweden 1880-19992001In: The state, regulation, and the economy: an historical perspective / [ed] Magnusson, L. & Ottosson, J., Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2001, 126-147 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    De okända telefonföreningarnas uppgång och fall1999In: Mellan stat och marknad: kooperation under ett sekel / [ed] Alex, Peder, Ottosson, Jan, & Wikström, Berith, Stockholm: Fören. Kooperativa studier , 1999, 169-188 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    De osynliga användarna: telefonen och vardagslivet 1880-19951998In: Den konstruerade världen: tekniska system i historiskt perspektiv / [ed] Kaijser, Arne & Blomqvist, Pär, Eslöv: B. Östlings bokförl. Symposion , 1998, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    From state railway housekeeping to railway economics: Swedish railway policy and economic transformation after 1920 in an institutional perspective1996In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 44, no 1, 23-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the development of Swedish railway policy in the twentieth century is interpreted as a process of institutional change where the effects of real economic development are filtered through the railway's established institutional framework. The change in railway policy is seen as a result of an economic historical process where the industrialisation era's conception of the role of railways in society survives in institutional arrangements, and marks the railways adjustment to present-day economic and soical conditons.

  • 33.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Från hieroglyfer till @: harold A. Innis i informationssamhällets skugga2001In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 121, no 2, 193-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Från normalspår till bredband: Svensk kommunikationspolitik i framtidens tjänst 1850-20002002In: Omvandlingens sekel: perspektiv på ekonomi och samhälle i 1900-talets Sverige / [ed] Andersson-Skog, Lena & Krantz, Olle, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2002, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Från ren energi till farligt avfall – kärnavfallsfrågans reglering i det svenska välfärdsbyggandet. En ekonomisk historisk översikt.2005In: Kärnavfallets politiska utmaningar, Hedemora ; Möklinta : Gidlund , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    ikea markandsför det svenska folkhemmet2015In: Respons, no 1Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    In the shadow of the Swedish welfare state: women and the service sector2007In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 81, 451-470 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The twentieth-century history of the Swedish welfare state and public-service sector is critical to understanding the changing role of women in Sweden, as the expansion of the country's service production, beginning in the 1960s, has been mainly the result of welfare-state policies. Yet women's self-employment and wage work in the service industry has been neglected as an economic factor in both traditional economic and business-history accounts and in historical studies of gender. Some suggestions are made for future explorations of the Swedish service sector as it operates in the shadow of the welfare state.

  • 38.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Kommunikationer i ekonomisk-historisk belysning2006In: Sverige - en social och ekonomisk historia, Lund : Studentlitteratur , 2006, 345-370 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Kriser, motståndskraft och förändringsförmåga2017Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Kvinnors företagande i ett historiskt perspektiv: mellan familj, stat och marknad2008In: Sesam öppna dig!: Forskarperspektiv på kvinnors företagande / [ed] Larsson, Pär, Göransson, Ulla & Lagerhielm, Magnus, Stockholm: VINNOVA , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Med jämställdhet mot en uthållig framtid?: policyförändringar i svensk transportpolitik under 1990-talet2004In: Strukturernas dynamik : kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia : festskrift till Olle Krantz, Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia, 2004 (Umeå : Print & Media, Umeå universitet) , 2004, 143-158 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Political economy and institutional diffusion: the case of Swedish railways and telecommunications up to 19501999In: Institutions in the transport and communciations industries: State and Private ACtors in the Making of Institutional Patterns, 1850-1990. / [ed] Anersson-Skog, Lena & Krantz, Olle, Cambridge, England: Science History Publications Ltd , 1999, 245-166 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Problematisering med förhinder2004In: Historisk tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 124, no 4, 656-661 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Revisiting railway history: the cse of institutional change and path dependence2009In: The evolution of path dependence / [ed] Magnusson, Lars & Ottosson, Jan, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing , 2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    "Såsom allmänna inrättningar till gagnet, men affärsföretag till namnet": SJ, järnvägspolitiken och den ekonomiska omvandlingen efter 19201993Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the extent and nature of the interaction between the political, institutional andeconomical development in the Swedish railway sector 1920-1980. The work deals with two main issuse,which may be summarized in the following question: has the Swedish railway policy contributed to orcounterbalanced the stagnation of the railways, especially in the post-war period? The basic premise has beenthat the institutional framework from the 19th century, was well adjusted to the requirements in thecontemporary industrialization process. The adaption of the regulations, obligations and economic principlesfrom the inter-war years and henceforth was more problematic. A growing discrepancy between economicconditions and policy goals emerged. Ulis affected the function of the Sate Railways (SJ).The interesting issue is to explain the process of renewal and abandonment of the original institutionalarrangements. There are two distinctive driving forces in this process. Firstly the demand for transport in theeconomy of the society changed. This interacted with the expansion of motorvehicles. Motor vehicles, and lateron civil aviation, have taken over parts of traditional railway transports. Of greater significance though, is thefact that railways have not been able to compete with motorvehicles on a number of growing markets in theeconomy of society. This has been of major importance to the diminishing economic returns and the decliningcompany profitability in the railway sector. The second driving force is to be found in the institutional setting inthe railway sector. The institutional principles and the railway policy gave social and economic responsibilitypriority over business profitability as the managerial strategy for SJ. SJ was used to fulfil regional and generaleconomic policy goals. As a consequence the unprofitable private railways were nationalized to save theregional transport system. To succeed on the competitive transport market in the post-war period it becamenecessary for SJ to act as a profit-seeking company. This created a long period of political struggle inParliament concerning the institutional principles. In order to keep the social economic principles, the monetaryclaims were reduced. Subsidies were given to try to save SJ s profitability as a business company. The mixtureof social and monetary principles from 1960 and onwards, could neither solve the railway's market problems,nor could they keep the regional railway system intact. This failure led to the abandonment of the originalinstitutional framework. In the late 1980 s it was totally replaced. Hie guiding rules for the State Railways arenow concentrated on competition and company profitability.

  • 46.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The making of national telephone networks in Scandinavia: the state and the emergence of national regulatory patterns1997In: Evolutonary economics and path dependence / [ed] Magnusson, Lars & Ottosson, Jan, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited , 1997, 138-154 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    The telephone-net wars : the telephone market between state and private business in Stockholm, 1890-19022004In: Markets and embeddedness: essays in honour of Ulf Olsson, Göteborg : Department of Economic History, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, 2004 (Kungälv : Livréna) , 2004, 13-26 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Krantz, OlleUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Institutions in the transport and communications industries: State and private actors in the making of institutional patterns, 1850-19901999Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Krantz, OlleUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Omvandlingens sekel: perspektiv på ekonomi och samhälle i 1900-talets Sverige2002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Swedish economic history writing: self-suffiency or recognition of the international context?2003In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 51, no 1, 75-87 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 448
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