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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Attityder till naturvetenskap: Förändringar av flickors och pojkars attityder till biologi, fysik och kemi 1995 till 20072011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the change over time of high-and low-performing girls' and boys' attitudes towards biology, physics and chemistry. Data from the TIMSS studies for grade 8 in Sweden is used to investigate how the attitudes have changed between 1995 and 2007. In order to define high- and low performing pupils the results from the mathematic test in the TIMSS studies are used. The attitude is measured by four questions from the student questionnaire in the TIMSS studies. The results are discussed from various perspectives that can contribute to the understanding of the complex picture of the importance of different factors on students' attitudes towards science.

    The first result, boys are more positive to physics and chemistry and girls to biology, is discussed from the subjects association with gender. On a symbolic level physics and chemistry are more associated with masculinity than biology.

    The second result, high-performing students especially the boys have a less positive attitude toward the three subjects in 2007 than in 1995. That result is discussed from youth identity and identity construction. It seems that young people today do not think that education and work within the field of science and technology will give them opportunities to use their talents, creativity and self-fulfillment. These results are also discussed based on changes in teaching methods that have taken place in the Swedish school where the individual work has increased and teacher-controlled tuition   has been reduced. Is it possible that these changes have affected the high-performing students so they have become less stimulated and have met fewer challenges and therefore have become less positive towards science in school?

    The third result, both high- and low-performing boys think that the three science subjects are more boring 2007 compared to 1995, is discussed from the discourses of "effortless achievment” and "uncool to work". Is it possible that this result indicates that it is more important for boys in 2007 to have an “uncool to work”-attitude and that this attitude also affects the attitudes towards science in school in a negative direction?

    Finally, the result showing that the low-achieving students think that they are performing better in all three subjects 2007 compared to 1995, are discussed in the light of changes in the Swedish school. During this period the teaching methods have changed. More time is spent on individual work perhaps implying that the low-performing pupils choose not to work with more difficult tasks and therefore feel that they are performing better.

    The thesis is concluded with my own reflections on the teaching of science subjects in primary education, on the changes of girls' and boys' attitudes towards science based on the results of this study and on my experience as a teacher in these subjects.

  • 2.
    Ahlberg, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Grönlund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Lekande lätt: att lära matematik utomhus på ett sociokulturellt sätt.2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tanken bakom detta examensarbete var att framställa ett laborativt läromedel i matematik för utomhusmiljö som ska upplevas som motivationshöjande och lustfyllt för eleverna. Läromedlet är upplagt i lektionsplaneringar som är förankrade i läroplanen för det obligatoriska skolväsendet (1994), i kursplanen för matematik samt i de sex aspekterna på lärande ur sociokulturellt perspektiv som Dysthe (2003) skriver om. Vi har arbetat fram ett material som innefattar rumsuppfattning och mätning eftersom dessa passar utmärkt att genomföra i utemiljö. Idéerna till lektionsplaneringarna är utifrån oss själva men inspiration från tidigare kurser, kurslitteratur och VFU-platser går inte att frånse. Upplägget på lektionerna är utifrån Lindström och Pennlerts (2003) modell, där flera didaktiska frågeställningar tas i beaktning. Resultatet på detta examensarbete är de tio lektionsplaneringar som vi arbetat fram samt de kopplingar som vi har sett till de sex aspekterna och utomhusmiljön. Slutsatsen är en bekräftelse för oss och våra teorier om att undervisning utomhus ur ett sociokulturellt perspektiv går att förverkliga i lektionsplaneringar. Vi hoppas att flera lärare kommer att utnyttja vårt material för att få variation i sin undervisning.

  • 3.
    Airey, John
    et al.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Music and physics don't mix!: What the humorous misuse of disciplinary-specific semiotic resources can tell us about disciplinary boundaries2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming part of an academic discipline has been described both in terms of becoming fluent in a disciplinary discourse (Airey 2009; Airey & Linder 2009; Northedge 2002) and achieving disciplinary literacy (Airey 2011, 2013; Geisler 1994). In this paper we investigate disciplinary boundaries by documenting the responses of academics to a semiotic disciplinary hybrid. The hybrid we use is the Physikalisches Lied, a bogus piece of sheet music into which disciplinary-specific semiotic resources from the realm of physics have been incorporated to humorous effect.

    The piece is presented to three distinct disciplinary focus groups: physicists, musicians and a group of academics who have had little contact with either discipline. In order to elicit disciplinary responses that are free from researcher prompts, each focus group is first asked the simple, open-ended question What do you see here? Once discussion of this question is exhausted the focus groups are asked to identify as many puns as they can - essentially all the disciplinary items that they feel have been misappropriated - and to attempt to explain what this means from a disciplinary standpoint. The differences in the responses of the three groups are presented and analysed.

    We argue that the semiotic resources focused on by each of the three groups and the nature of the explanation offered provide evidence of the degree of integration into the disciplines of physics and music. Our findings shed light on the process of becoming a disciplinary insider and the semiotic work involved in this process.

  • 4.
    Allberg, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Kan undervisning i nordiska språk vara mer än ”røvkedelig dansk” och ”þungur hnífur”?: En komparativ studie av nordisk språkpolitik som norm och praktik i Sverige och på Island.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Nordic Councils’ language policy as norm and practice in Sweden and Iceland. The study covers how the policy is represented in governing documents, how teachers  relate to the policy in attitudes and in teaching, and what differences and similarities can be seen in both countries. The study consists of qualitative interviews with Icelandic and Swedish teachers. The material was analysed by a theoretical framework set up by earlier studies done in the relevant field of research. The findings show that the aims of the Nordic language policy are not entirely met for various reasons.  There are discrepancies between teachers’ praxis and school curriculums in Iceland. Nordic languages are peripheral and vague subjects in the Swedish teacher’s praxis. Both countries have similar attitudes towards Nordic languages and the purpose of teaching coincide between the countries and the Nordic Council.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Häggström, Monica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Läroboksbaserad eller lärobokslös matematikundervisning?: En inblick i hur lärare i grundskolans tidigare år resonerar vid val av undervisningssätt2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att få en inblick i hur lärare i grundskolans tidigare år resonerar vid valet att undervisa läroboksbaserat eller lärobokslöst i matematik. Undersökningen riktar sig till lärarstudenter och verksamma lärare som arbetar med matematikämnet. Matematik är ett aktuellt ämne i dagens utbildningsdebatt, framförallt angående lärobokens vara eller icke vara i undervisningen. Frågeställningarna i denna undersökning berör vilka faktorer, och hur dessa faktorer, påverkar lärarnas val att undervisa läroboksbaserat eller lärobokslöst. Hur påverkar nämnda faktorer arbetssättet, samt vilka likheter och skillnader finns det mellan läroboksbaserad och lärobokslös matematikundervisning. Kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med sex olika lärare varav tre arbetar läroboksbaserat och tre lärobokslöst. Resultatet visar att likheterna är större än skillnaderna mellan dessa två arbetssätt då alla sex lärarna använder sig av läroböcker och laborativa material. Den stora skillnaden är användandets utgångspunkt.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Vingsle, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The impact of a teacher professional development program in formative assessment on teachers’ practice2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Likhetstecknet: Hur verksamma lärare introducerar och arbetar med förståelsen för likhetstecknet2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med mitt examensarbete är att utifrån de didaktiska frågorna, vad, hur och varför, undersöka hur verksamma lärare introducerar och arbetar med förståelsen för likhetstecknet i skolår 1. I litteraturgenomgången går jag igenom abstrakta symboler, styrdokument, Malmers inlärningsnivåer, Vygotsky och likhetstecknet. Undersökningen är gjord på två mellanstora skolor med ca 60 elever och en liten skola med endast 10 elever, samtliga skolor ligger i mellersta Sverige.

    Jag har använt mig av en kvalitativ metod för min studie där jag gjort intervjuer med sammanlagt fem lärare. Grundfrågorna för intervjun är hur lärarna introducerar likhetstecknet i matematikundervisningen, vad de använder för material och uppgifter, hur de kontrollerar elevernas förståelse samt hur arbetet förändrats med tiden. Alla de intervjuade lärarna introducerar likhetstecknet i matematikundervisningen i början av höstterminen när eleverna just börjat skolan. De material och uppgifter som lärarna använder vid introduktion av likhetstecknet varierar mellan klossar, counters, pengar och vatten i samband med olika praktiska uppgifter och samtal. Ett material som samtliga lärare använder är balansvågen som visar praktiskt på ett tydligt sätt hur det ska vara lika mycket på båda sidor. Samtliga av de intervjuade lärarna använder matematikbok men det varierar mellan vilken bok som används.

    Flera av lärarna berättar om att de får en känsla av om eleverna fått förståelse för likhetstecknet. 

  • 8.
    Andersson Munter, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Söderström, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    "Jag vet detta men kan inte förklara": En studie av gymnasieelevers förmåga att kommunicera  innebörden av grundläggande matematiska begrepp2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans styrdokument står det tydligt att eleverna ska utveckla sin förmåga att kommunicera matematik samt använda lämpliga och korrekta begrepp. Syftet med examensarbetet är att undersöka om gymnasieskolans elever har förståelse gällande matematiska grundbegrepp med avseende på kommunikativ och funktionell förståelse samt se om det finns några skillnader mellan dessa. Med kommunikativ förståelse menas om eleverna kan förklara begrepp med egna ord och/eller med hjälp av figurer. Med funktionell förståelse menas om eleverna kan lösa uppgifter där olika begrepp står i fokus. För att undersöka detta valdes nio olika klasser ut och de fick vid olika tillfällen genomföra två prov som testade 12 grundläggande begrepp. På det första provet skulle eleverna med egna ord eller figurer förklara de 12 begreppen. På det andra provet skulle eleverna lösa 12 olika uppgifter som var och en innehöll ett specifikt begrepp. Undersökningen tyder på att eleverna har problem med den kommunikativa förståelsen då de endast gav en korrekt förklaring på ungefär hälften av begreppen. Däremot kan elever lösa uppgifter med begreppet i fokus vilket visar att eleverna har en större funktionell förståelse än de har kommunikativ förståelse.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Nina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Åkesson, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    ”Jag räknar lite med huvudet och lite med händerna”: en studie om barns tankar kring fenomenet addition2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vårt examensarbete är att genom barnsamtal samt observationer, studera vilka räknestrategier barn i år ett använder sig av i mötet med fenomenet addition. Det är dock inte endast fenomenet addition som är det intressanta, utan även vägen fram till en bättre förståelse för barnens tankar, detta för att vi ska vara bättre rustade i vår framtida undervisning. Då alla ser världen på skilda sätt, kommer barnen till skolan med olika förförståelse. Av den anledningen är det viktigt att pedagogen besitter verktyg, vilka kan hjälpa det enskilda barnet att utveckla sina kunskaper på bästa sätt. Frågeställningen vi avsett att undersöka är: vilka räknestrategier använder sig elever i år ett av i mötet med additionsuppgifter inom talområdet 1- 10? En viktig slutsats vi kom fram till under vårt arbete är att eleverna använder sig av olika räknestrategier samt att de har olika förkunskaper. Av denna anledning är det betydelsefullt att undervisningen individanpassas. En annan slutsats är att barnsamtal och observationer kan vara bra sätt för pedagogen att uppmärksamma och följa elevernas utveckling. Med hjälp av dessa metoder kan elevernas kunskaper kartläggas och eleven blir medveten om sitt eget lärande.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library, Centre for teaching and learning (UPL).
    Wester, Maria
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library, Centre for teaching and learning (UPL).
    “One day, one problem”: applying SOTL on a course about teaching in higher education2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the Centre for Teaching and Learning at Umeå University, we are responsible for the development of university teachers’ pedagogical competence. One of the main purposes of our courses is to help teachers develop an array of teaching methods – including a sound basis for their decisions about which method to use. We work with teaching methods for student active learning that develop sustainable knowledge (Hattie, 2009), for example Problem Based Learning, PBL. Our problem is that this usually takes a lot of time on our short courses. So we asked ourselves: How can we use SoTL to describe, develop and evaluate a method that gives key transitions in the university teachers’ journey towards pedagogical competence, both theoretically and practically (Dietz-Uhler and Bishop-Clark, 2012)? We wanted a group of teachers on one of our courses to learn more about PBL and to be active while doing this. We also wanted a meta-didactic discussion about it afterwards. We found a method called “One day, one problem” (O’Grady, 2012) that we wanted to try. We had to redesign the method slightly to fit our context, by writing a relevant scenario in line with our expected learning outcomes. Apart from this we followed the suggested process in the article. We carried out formative and summative evaluations, and we as teachers documented the activity. Our preliminary analysis shows that this method gave us what we wanted since the learners were positive towards working this way, and the self- evaluated learning process and product was given high grades. Our preliminary results and conclusion is that this method is a useful way to both teach about the PBL process and to work with course content. We also saw that SoTL, systematically searching, finding, developing and evaluating a new teaching method is a good way to develop both our own and our students’ pedagogical competence. 

  • 11.
    Andersson, Rickard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Litteraturkanons förändring i läromedel: Hur litteraturkanon har förändrats över loppet av 30 år i läromedlen2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The history of western literature has always been centered by a few specific pieces of literature works. This research aims to find which of these canon-listed works that has survived over 30 years in six different textbooks in the Swedish subject. This essay is primarily based on quantative research made on three different curriculums from the upper secondary school and six different textbook that aims to display how the canon of authorships in textbooks has changed over the course of 30 years and how it reflects in the school curriculum and textbooks.

    The study found that over the course of 30 years only 25 authorships have been reoccurring in all of the textbooks. The cause of this shortcoming of authorships is, from a curriculum perspective, because of the discourse of literature in the different curriculums over the years. Technological advances and the purpose of the different textbooks were also shown to affect the outcome of the canon-lists that this essay presents.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikindividualisering: - hur två lärare ser på det2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I mitt examensarbete har jag valt att undersöka matematikindividualisering lite närmare. Mitt syfte var att ta reda på hur två lärare ser på detta och om individualiseringen kommer till uttryck i deras undervisning och i så fall hur. Jag har använt mig av en kvalitativ metod, i det här fallet observationer och intervjuer. Observationerna utfördes i två klasser och intervjuerna gjordes med lärarna för dessa klasser. Genom att använda mig av de här metoderna så hoppades jag få en lite djupare kunskap om hur lärarna i min undersökning tänkte och arbetade. I min bakgrund har jag tagit upp sådan information som jag anser att man bör känna till som läsare, framför allt om man inte känner till så mycket om individualisering sedan tidigare. De slutsatser jag har dragit är att de båda lärarna individualiserar till en viss del, men att de tycker att det är svårt. Vidare har jag kommit fram till att man för att kunna arbeta individualiserat måste ha både ämneskunskaper och didaktiska kunskaper för att få det att fungera tillfredsställande.

  • 13.
    Andreasson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Fairness and Flexibility in Oral Examination2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a descriptive ethnographical study with the purpose of examining teachers’ and students’ experiences of oral examination at a State Pedagogical University in western Russia. The study also focused on finding the characteristics of oral examination and the contextual factors influencing its implementation. The research was done using participatory observations and interviews. The results show that interviewees experience oral assessment in general as positive. Their descriptions are summarised and analysed using a number of key concepts, of which flexibility, subjectivity, individualisation, and fairness are the most important. The study also shows that contextual factors such as culture, traditions, and organisational framework have large impact on how the examination is done. The conclusion is that oral examination has both gins and losses, since the teacher’s active participation creates possibilities for individualisation and deep probing of the students’ knowledge, but is also a source of bias because of its subjectivity.

  • 14.
    Angervall, Petra
    et al.
    Inst. i pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Inst. i pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Policy and governance in academic networks2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Arenander, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Silfverdal, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Formativ Bedömning: Återkoppling: Hur lärarens frågor, uppmaningar och undervisning användsformativt i gymnasieskolans matematikundervisning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Aretorn, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mathematics in the Swedish Upper Secondary School Electricity Program: A study of teacher knowledge2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mathematical knowledge is often a prerequisite for students at Swedish upper secondary vocational programs to be able to study vocational courses, for example electricity courses in the Electricity Program. Electricity Program students study mathematics in their electricity courses as well as in their mathematics course. The mathematics in those two settings has a different character. A goal of this thesis is to investigate what constitutes that character. In this study three mathematics and five electricity teachers have been interviewed about how they would explain three mathematical electricity tasks to students on the Electricity Program. Teacher knowledge in both electricity and mathematics has been used in the analyses and has been compared between the different teacher groups. In addition to providing an overview analysis of all the teachers’ explanations, detailed analyses have been carried out, comparing pairs of teachers’ explanations. The teachers’ choices of explanations and their use of specific and general mathematical knowledge have been studied.

    Mathematics contains a wide range of subject areas but also a wide range of representations and methods that highlight different aspects of mathematics. This study shows that different teachers emphasize different aspects of mathematics in their explanations of the same tasks, even though intended to the same students, both in the their choices of explanation and in their use of mathematics. The electricity teachers drew upon their practical electrical knowledge when they connected their explanations of mathematics to vocational work. The electrical knowledge they used not only grounded the tasks in a, for them, well-known real-world environment. The electrical knowledge actually helped them to solve the tasks, albeit in a more concrete/specific way than the mathematics teachers. The electricity teachers drew upon more specific mathematical knowledge in their explanations of the interview tasks, whereas the mathematics teachers drew upon more general mathematical knowledge in their explanations.  The different explanations of mathematics from the two kinds of teachers are markedly different, depending on whether they have a more practical/vocational or a more general/algebraic approach. The solutions to the interview tasks turned out to be the same but the character of the solutions paths are substantially different. This raises questions regarding the students’ abilities to reconcile the different approaches.

  • 17.
    Aronsson, Berit
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Patterns of Prominence in Swedish Second Language (L2) Speakers and Native (L1) Speakers of Spanish: Spontaneous Dialogue versus Read Text2013In: Studies in Hispanic and Lusophone Linguistics, ISSN 1939-0238, Vol. 6, no 2, 203-246 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe and analyze prosodic differences in prominence realization in both spontaneous and read speech produced by Swedish second language speakers (L2 speakers) in comparison with native speakers (L1 speakers) of Spanish. A further aim of the study is to provide concrete descriptions of the differences between L2 and L1 prominence realization that may serve as tools for language teachers. Phonetic, phonological and to some extent pragmatic aspects will be considered. Results show that the F0 (fundamental frequency) rises in prominent words are steeper and faster in native speech than in L2 speech. Results also show that stressed vowels have longer duration in prominent words in L2 than in L1 Spanish. The number of boundary rises used by both groups differed significantly according to task and group. Pragmatic aspects, such as the use of different intersubjectivity seeking strategies, might explain differences found exclusively in the spontaneous task.

  • 18.
    Axelsson, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Kalkylprogram som hjälpmedel i matematikundervisningen2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har som syfte att undersöka om kalkylprogram kan vara ett användbart hjälpmedel i matematikundervisning på högstadiet. Den frågeställning som legat till grund för undersökningen är: Vilka skillnader finns i elevernas kommunikation kring en matematisk uppgift, då de arbetar med ett kalkylprogram, jämfört med när de löser samma uppgift med papper och penna? 14 elever indelade i sju par deltog i undersökningen. Försöken inleddes med att de fick se en ca fem minuter lång instruktionsvideo om kalkylprogram. Därefter fick de lösa en matematisk uppgift med papper och penna respektive på datorn. Deras samtal och arbete dokumenterades med hjälp av en videokamera samt en programvara som spelade in allt som visades på datorskärmen. Resultaten visade att eleverna kommunicerade och samarbetade mer under arbetet med kalkylprogram, jämfört med när de löste samma uppgift med papper och penna. Tekniska frågor upptog av naturliga skäl en del av kommunikationen, men kommunikationen handlade fortfarande om matematik.

  • 19.
    Axelsson, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    X och Y bland ettor och nollor: En inblick i några gymnasielärares resonemang kring datorstöd i matematikundervisningen2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir allt vanligare att elever som börjar gymnasieskolan erbjuds varsin laptop, men få matematiklärare verkar använda dem i sin undervisning. Syftet med detta examensarbete är därför att undersöka hur lärare resonerar kring datorstöd i matematikundervisningen nu när eleverna har tillgång till varsin dator. De forskningsfrågor som besvaras i undersökningen berör gymnasielärares användning och syn på datorstöd samt vad som krävs för att lärare ska använda datorstöd. I undersökningen har fyra matematiklärare på gymnasiet intervjuats. Resultatet är att när datorstöd används i matematikundervisningen så är det främst läraren som använder datorn, och då till att demonstrera, åskådliggöra svårritade figurer, visa simuleringar samt till att variera koefficienter i olika funktioner och visa på de förändringar som sker. För att lärare ska använda datorstöd behöver de få motiv, inspiration, konkreta tips, teknisk utrustning, relevant utbildning samt slutligen mer tid till att planera datorstöd.

  • 20.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Den flerspråkiga elevens nationella provdeltagande i matematik: diskursiva förutsättningar2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, 95-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingual students’ participation in national tests in mathematics – discursive prerequisites. This article explores discursive prerequisites in test-taking for second language learners with other mother tongues than Swedish. Four students were interviewed in 2016 during their final year of compulsory school. The results imply that multilingual students are positioned as disadvantaged within testing. This phenomenon is mainly situated in a competitive discourse with several subordinated discourses that further position the students: A discourse of justice positioned the students as being sorted or left behind, a discourse of handling the assessment positioned the students as caretakers and a discourse of future challenges positioned the students as struggling while learning, being capable to learn or facing positive challenges. The results imply that national testing is a personal and relational experience and gives rise to issues of legitimacy and equality. These issues should be considered in policy-making, the construction and the carrying out of tests as well as in the conclusions which are based on the results on individual, group and organisational levels.

  • 21.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Quality and equity in the era of national testing: the case of Sweden2017In: World yearbook of education 2017: assessment inequalities / [ed] Julie Allan, Alfredo J. Artiles, Oxon: Routledge, 2017, 68-88 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Roos, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    How Research Conceptualises the Student in Need of Special Education in Mathematics2015In: Development of Mathematics Teaching: Design, Scale, Effects. Proceeding of MADIF 9. The Ninth Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar Umeå February 4-5, 2014 / [ed] O. Helenius, A. Engström, T. Meaney, P. Nilsson, E. Norén, J. Sayers, M. Österholm, Linköping: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2015, 27-36 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is the conceptualisation of students in special educationalneeds in mathematics (SEM students) in the research fields of mathematics andspecial education. A difference between fields regarding the perspectives takenon the SEM student is obvious in the reviewed articles. Those in the specialeducational field were individual oriented in their view of the difficulties, whilstreviewed articles from the field of mathematics education more often discusssocio-cultural settings. The content in the selected 28 articles reveals that theoverall conceptualisation of SEM student has to do with the social construct ofthe SEM student, as well as with students’ experiences, affects, andprerequisites; with the specific training methods or interventions applied; withspecial areas in the subject of mathematics; with special groups of students; andwith teachers’ knowledge about all these factors.

  • 23. Barron, Laura
    et al.
    Finlayson, Odilla
    Dublin city university.
    McCabe, Deirdre
    Fazio, Claudio
    Ottander, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Ekborg, Margareta
    Malmö högskola.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    IPN, Kiel.
    Brady, Sarah
    McLoughlin, Eilish
    Dublin city university.
    Profiling in-service teachers across Europe to determine their attitude to IBSE2013In: Science education Research for evidence-based Teaching and Coherence in Learning / [ed] D. Couso & L. Louca, ESERA , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ESTABLISH FP7-funded project is involved with development and implementation of professional development workshops to support teachers in adopting more inquiry based approaches in their teaching. Identifying teacher views, goals, practices and the challenges they face in implementing inquiry activities, can inform teacher educators of the needs of their participating teachers. This can also inform them to provide the appropriate support in order to help teachers overcome obstacles and develop their own practice in inquiry. This paper outlines the initial results from a profiling instrument used to examine teachers’ beliefs about IBSE, attitudes to teaching science and teaching by inquiry and some ideas about their current practices. The data presented in this paper outlines the profile of the teachers when they came to the first of the ESTABLISH teacher workshops in a number of European countries. This paper outlines a summary of the development of the evaluation tool, how the evaluation data was collected and analysed and highlights the key findings.

  • 24. Behrenfeldt, Lisa
    et al.
    Brömster, Elisabet
    Eadie, Gordon
    Fredman, Annette
    Grantz, Helene
    Gustafsson, Josefine
    Jansson, Birgitta
    Lindblad, Stina
    Lundberg, Charlotte
    Manni, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Tedenljung, Ann-Sofie
    Wohlin, Ammi
    Att lära in ute för hållbar utveckling2015Book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Belancic, Kristina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Westum, Asbjörg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Nordsamiska i och utanför skolan: språkanvändning och attityder2017In: Samisk kamp: kulturförmedling och rättviserörelse / [ed] Marianne Liliequist och Coppélie Cocq, Umeå: Bokförlaget h:ström - Text & Kultur, 2017, 252-279 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Benckert, Sylvia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Enghag, Margareta
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Gustafsson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Johansson, Ove
    Balderskolan, Skellefteå.
    Jonsson, Gunnar
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Norman, Robert
    Grans naturbruksgymnasium.
    Pettersson, Sune
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Diskutera fysik i grupp!: Utgå från kontextrika problem2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna bok berättar vi om våra erfarenheter från undervisning i form av grupp­diskussioner runt kontextrika (verklighetsanknutna) problem, vi ger tips på hur sådana problem kan konstrueras och vi delar med oss av exempel på kontextrika problem. Vi som skrivit denna bok har använt grupp­­diskussioner runt kontext­rika problem under några år i vår egen undervisning och vi tycker oss se att denna undervisning ofta fungerar bra. Vi har också deltagit i ett gemensamt forsknings­projekt med syftet att förstå hur användningen av gruppdiskussioner med kontext­rika problem påverkar studenternas/elevernas förståelse av fysika­liska begrepp. Vi undersökte även hur problemen bör utformas för att intressera gymnasie­eleverna. Resultaten från detta projekt utgör en bakgrund för boken.

  • 27.
    Benckert, Sylvia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Pettersson, Sune
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics.
    Learning Physics in Small-Group Discussions - Three Examples2008In: Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, ISSN E-ISSN 1305-8223, Vol. 4, no 2, 121-134 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports on an investigation of students learning of physics during group discussions around context-rich problems in introductory physics courses at university level. We present the results from video recordings of student groups solving three different problems. We found that group discussions around physics problems can lead to stimulating and learning discussions of physics but we also observed situations when the discussions did not work well. Misunderstandings of physics concepts reported in the literature emerge in the discussions now and then but the students also detect new ‘problems’. In the discussions most misunderstandings and problems are treated and solved either by the students themselves or by the students together with the teacher. Factors that stimulate a good discussion are engaging problems and a teacher at hand to answer questions and to discuss with the students. Factors that prevent a fruitful discussion are too little knowledge of the actual physics among the students and bad functioning of the groups.

  • 28.
    Berg, C. Anders R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Factors related to observed attitude change toward learning chemistry among university students2005In: Chemistry education, ISSN 1109-4028, E-ISSN 1109-4028, Chemistry Education Research and Practice, Vol. 6, no 1, 1-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To gain insight into factors associated with changes in attitude toward learning chemistry, six students who displayed major attitude changes were identified through a pre- and post-course attitude questionnaire administered to sixty-six first-year university chemistry students. Those with largest attitude changes, both positive and negative, were selected to highlight the contrast between students. The six students were interviewed; descriptions of their one-semester chemistry course experiences were analyzed to identify factors associated with their change in attitude. A positive attitude change was associated with evidence of motivated behaviour, while a negative change was linked to less motivated behaviour. Students addressed similar factors in the educational setting, but students with positive attitude changes exhibited fewer negative views of educational factors, while students with negative attitude changes showed an opposite pattern. Since the same factors, students’ perceived level of teacher empathy for their efforts at chemistry learning, affected both groups, this indicates a possibility for changes in educational setting beneficial to all students.

  • 29.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Group work and physics: characteristics, learning possibilities and patterns of interaction2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores group work in physics at university level. The guiding researchinterest is what happens in the students’ interactions during such (instructional)activities, focusing both on the physics content and group dynamics. The four collatedpapers are based on empirical data consisting of video and audio-recordings of sevengroups of students solving physics problems concerning force and friction in Newtonianmechanics. The students belonged to the Engineering Physics and Bioengineeringprogrammes at Chalmers University of Technology.In line with the guiding research interest, different facets of group work data wereanalysed using a multi-theoretic perspective at three levels with focus on the content,the context and the components. The three distinct approaches were based on differenttheoretical frameworks: phenomenography combined with variation theory, positioningtheory, and conversation analysis. The results presented in this thesis relate topedagogical characteristics of the learning situation, learning possibilities and patternsof interaction and all the analytical approaches contribute to all the aspects of theresults. The purpose of this design was to achieve a deeper understanding of a complexempirical situation by offering several accounts that are analytically and theoreticallydifferently grounded. The theoretical frameworks have been interpreted, and sometimesadapted, in order to offer analytical strength in reflecting essential facets of theempirical data with respect to the research interest. Each level of analysis uncoverednew dimensions of the learning situation, potentially enabling a synthesis of differentunderstandings of group work. This synthesis will inform and support instructionaladvice for the learning of physics.The results show that learning physics in small groups is a complex and nonlinearprocess where the students’ learning possibilities differ and have many levels. Theselearning possibilities take place simultaneously in group sessions and areinterconnected, for example, developing through discussion the way of experiencingphysics concepts, becoming and being part of a physics or an engineering communityand interactively producing answers, as well as communicative and representationaltools for learning.

  • 30.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    “The other side” of learning physics: positioning the subject2015In: Researching the dynamics of teaching and learning science: Sociocultural and discursive approaches incorporating positioning theory, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An enduring aim in educational research is to identify factors in teaching and learning, the curriculum, and the learning environment, operating at the classroom and school level, which can directly or indirectly explain variation in what students learn. This paper reports on how positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1999) can be used to consider social dimensions of learning physics from the perspective of the learner or “the other sides” of learning physics. Such a perspective provides insight into the learning process in a way that cannot be captured in pre- and post-tests, such as in traditional conceptual change approaches. The analysis draws on empirical data from two Swedish classrooms where students in upper secondary school prepare themselves for their final physics exam. In total, fifteen students were video-recorded and interviewed before their exam. Data was analysed with an analytical framework based on positioning theory. In this study all students, strong as well as weak, position themselves as dependent upon the book of formulas. Moreover, their collection of formulas (a book) takes a central position in their learning interactions, lending explanatory insight into findings from earlier research that a good performance in physics exams does not necessarily mean good conceptual understanding. In contrast to the Swedish curriculum, which stresses the importance of the student developing conceptual understanding and the capacity for inquiry, the students positioned themselves as successful physics learners based upon their capacity to make use of a specific book. These results foreground important contextual factors which can indirectly affect how and what kind of physics students learn in the classroom.

  • 31.
    Berge, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: a Study of Undergraduate Students2017In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 47, no 2, 427-450 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh about when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students’ laughter during collaborative work in physics has been investigated. In order to do this, a framework inspired by conversation analysis has been used. Empirical data was drawn from two video-recorded sessions in which first-year engineering students solved physics problems together. The analysis revealed that the students’ use of humor was almost exclusively related to physics. Five themes identified summarize the role of humor in the group discussions: Something is obvious, Something is difficult, Something said might be wrong, Something is absurd, and Something said is not within informal norms.

    This study shows that humor may contribute not only to a good working atmosphere and thereby to the students’ learning but also how humor interrelates with both disciplinary culture of physics and its epistemology. The students do not only create and re-create humor that facilitates their social interactions, but through humor they constitute local norms of science and engage with the disciplinary discourse.

  • 32.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Anderhag, Per
    Department of Mathematics and Science Education Department of Mathematics and Science Education Stockholm University.
    Consequences of Humour in Physics Education2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Anna T, Danielsson
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Different stories of group work: exploring problem solving in engineering education2012In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 8, no 1, 3-16 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to further the understanding of group work in higher education, primarily in science. This is done through an empirical investigation of problem solving in small groups. Position theory isused as an analytic tool for describing the complex and dynamic processes of group work, focusing simultaneously on the physics content and the student community and how they constitute each other. We analysed four video-recorded sessions with students from two Master’s programs, Engineering Physics and Bioengineering, respectively. The students addressed two introductory mechanics problems. The analysis resulted in a characterisation in terms of seven ‘storylines’ of two different kinds. These are argued to reflect different aspects of engineering student communities, where one kind of storylines captures ways of approaching the problems and the other kind exemplifies boundary work involved in the constitution of communities.

  • 34.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Anna T, Danielsson
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lidar, Malena
    Uppsala universitet.
    Östman, Leif
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Svensson, Maria
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Constructions of power and knowledge in the technology classroom2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate how knowledge and power are constituted in meaning-making processes in technology classrooms in relation to the teachers’ enactment of a disciplinary discourse. By collecting video data from a Swedish technology classroom in grade 8 we explore interaction on a micro-level. Our examination of the teaching of technology is motivated by the fact that this is a key period for students engagement in technology and that many students are losing interest in the subject during grades 7-9. Our analysis is guided by an analytical framework based on practical epistemology, teachers’ epistemological moves and the theory of didactical contract as completely implicit but highly powerful aspect of the relationship between teacher and student. Our analysis reveals that in the interaction between a teacher and her pupils both knowledge and power are mutually constituted in meaning-making processes, and are not possible to separate. It is therefore fruitful to use an analytical framework that includes both meaning-making and power in further research.

  • 35.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University.
    Characterising learning interactions: a study of university students solving physics problems in groups2013In: Research in science education, ISSN 0157-244X, E-ISSN 1573-1898, Vol. 43, no 3, 1177-1196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to explore how a group of four university physics students addressed mechanics problems, in terms of student direction of attention, problem solving strategies and their establishment of and ways of interacting. Adapted from positioning theory, the concepts ‘positioning’ and ‘storyline’ are used to describe and to analyse student interaction. Focused on how the students position the physics problems, themselves, and each other, the analyses produced five different storylines. The dominant storyline deals with how the students handled the problem solving, whilst two other storylines characterise alternative ways of handling the physics problems, whereas the two remaining storylines are concerned with how students positioned themselves and others—as either funny and/or knowledgeable physics students—and constitute different aspects of the physics community. Finally, the storylines are discussed in relation to the pedagogical situation, with recommendations made for teaching practice and future research.

  • 36.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Ingerman, Åke
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Triple vision in different theoretical spaces: exploring physics jokes in small group discussions in engineering education2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used multiple theoretical spaces as analytical strategy when researching learning possibilities when engineering students discuss physics together. Three different theories were purposefully applied in a series of stratified analyses. Level one employing phenomenography and variation theory, level two using positioning theory and level three making use of the techniques of conversation analysis. Having done this, we wanted to explore to what extent a phenomena in one theoretical space is visible in other theoretical spaces (but not naturally focused on) and what it in that case looks like. The students’ jokes are examples of such which were also important part of the students’ conversation. Our analysis illustrates how one joke is observable through all three analytical lenses. The three analytical lenses are linked to three different theoretical spaces, even when it is linked to the same original event. The lenses have become advantageous in different ways: the lens of conversational analyses assistances to discern the joke, the lens of position theory provides clues about the cultural context and the lens of phenomenography and variation theory informs us the learning possibilities that are related to the jokes. In this paper we propose and illustrate that these three theoretical perspectives are complementary rather than commensurable, because they are not referring to the same data, even though the data they reference is derived from the same event.

  • 37.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lidar, Malena
    Department of Education, Uppsala University.
    Danielsson, Anna T
    Department of Education, Uppsala University.
    The power within the 'didactical contract': An exploration of questions in science and technology classrooms2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to further contribute to the understanding of the role that teachers may have for learning in science. We are interested in how teacher-student interaction can be understood as simultaneously contributing to meaning making and producing power relations. In particular, focus is on how questions are used by the teachers, since this gives an insight into which knowledge that is privileged in the situation (Wertsch 1991), in other words what is included and excluded. The study draws on eleven video recorded lessons of physics and technology teaching, with students aged 13-17. The teachers’ actions were coded in relation to the students’ interactions, following how practical epistemological analysis considers interactions as a language game where people create meaning together (Lidar et al. 2006). In a second stage, the analysis focused on how ‘epistemological moves’ are functional in constituting a ‘didactical contract’, that is ‘the (specific) set of behaviours of the teacher which are expected of the students and the set of behaviours of the student which are expected by the teacher’ (Brousseau & Warfield 1999). The main outcome of the study is the development of a conceptual framework for analysing the simultaneous constitution of knowledge and power in the classroom. The teachers’ actions affect students’ learning opportunities in the sense that the questions govern the didactical contract of a physics or technology lesson. Our analyses foreground relations between teaching practices and students’ learning opportunities within the physics and technology classroom: what is considered as important and relevant for the subject and the lesson, which in turn is seen as foundational in constituting power relations in classrooms.

  • 38.
    Berge, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Weilenmann, Alexandra
    University of Gothenburg.
    Learning about friction: group dynamics in engineering students’ work with free body diagrams2014In: European Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0304-3797, E-ISSN 1469-5898, Vol. 39, no 6, 601-616 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In educational research, it is well-known that collaborative work on core conceptual issues in physics leads to significant improvements in students’ conceptual understanding. In this paper, we explore collaborative learning in action, adding to previous research in engineering education with a specific focus on the students’ use of free body diagrams in interaction. By looking at details in interaction among a group of three engineering students, we illustrate how they collectively construct a free body diagram together when learning introductory mechanics. In doing so, we have focused on both learning possibilities and the dynamic processes that take place in the learning activity. These findings have a number of implications for educational practice.

  • 39.
    Bergendahl, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Development of competence in biochemical experimental work: Assessment of complex learning at university level2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biochemistry is part of life science: a fast developing multidisciplinary area. The overall aims of this thesis and the work underlying it were to find ways in which to develop competence in biochemistry at university level and to assess complex learning. A particular interest was the development of experimental work as a means to promote learning.

    The study focuses on changes made in two educational settings. The aim of the changes was to develop competence, amongst both students and teachers. Therefore, the research in the three first papers has in some aspects, and to different extent, the characteristics of action research. Broadly, the changes can be described as making experiments more open, with multiple formative and authentic assessment methods involving both students and teachers. The empirical studies included questionnaires, interviews, questions asked during experimental work, written material as formulated objectives, examination questions and answers, reports, other products; and grades/judgements made by teachers and students. Collected data were analyzed in several different ways. Statistical methods included the use of mean values, paired T-tests, Spearman rank correlation coefficients and Principal Component Analysis. Interview data as well as some questionnaire data were analyzed using analytical induction techniques. Some categories were based on thematic content analysis, while others were based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Students’ attitude positions were categorized according to Perry’s framework.

    The main results can be summarized as follows;

    The students’ learning was improved by open ended versions of experimental work, according to both their and the researchers’ opinions. Planning, approaching problems from different perspectives and evaluating the results of their own experimental work promote the students’ capacity for higher order cognitive thinking. However, the synthesis level constitutes a threshold and particular support is needed for students with a more dualistic view of teaching, learning and experimental work.

    Introducing formative and authentic assessment is a way to help students to make progress, and to develop competence. The importance was clearly demonstrated of involving both teachers and students in discussions of aims and criteria and of making them explicit. Feedback from teachers’ and students’ own reflective activities about subject content, and their learning as well as affective factors were shown to be central for complex learning. Based on our studies, areas were identified for the critical development of competence and for promoting learning in biochemistry at university level. These areas are; multidisciplinary and complex learning, communication skills of different types, metacognitive perspectives, attitude development, and affective factors.

    The students see experimental work as crucial for their learning and therefore important in terms of assessment. Therefore, experimental work can and ought to be assessed. However, similarities and discrepancies were observed between students’ and teachers’ perspectives for both the aims and assessment of experimental work. Our conclusion is that a combination of assessment methods is needed in order to be able to make a high qualitative assessment.

  • 40.
    Bergendahl, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tibell, Lena
    Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Linköping .
    Boosting complex learning by strategic assessment and course design2005In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 82, no 4, 645-651 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning quality depends on the assessment methods used, as well as other factors. By choosing adequate assessments and involving students in the process of learning, students can gain a deeper understanding of the content and its context while developing related skills. In this study we describe a practical university-level biochemistry course that focuses on understanding protein separation and analysis techniques and especially on their application. The course was designed to examine the effects of a strategic use of differentassessment methods and an analysis of the resulting outcomes. We used quantitative as well as qualitative methods, including a simplified variant of the Bloom taxonomy, statistical methods, principle component analysis, inquires, and interviews. We conclude that astrategic choice of assessments and instructional design can be used to achieve morecomplex learning. We did not find any single teaching or assessment method to be clearly the best for enhancing higher-order thinking or achieving all learning objectives; rather a combination of different methods (i.e., a strategic choice) seems the best approach.

  • 41.
    Berggren, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Teacher Education in Swedish and Social Sciences.
    Så få ord, så mycket dumheter: en kritisk granskning av svenska gymnasieböckers skildringar av marxistisk idétradition2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats innehåller en kvalitativ analys av ett antal läroboksskildringar av den marxistiska idétraditionen i svenska gymnasieläroböcker i historia, samhällskunskap och religion. Undersökningen analyserar hinder för elevens förståelse av den marxistiska idétraditionen utifrån frågeställningarna om i vilken grad texterna på ett upplysande och rättvisande sätt skildrar den idétraditionen förstådd utifrån marxisters självbild. Denna självbild representeras av ett antal utvalda marxistiska auktoriteter. Slutsatser som kan dras utifrån analysen är att påtagliga brister finns i de flesta av de undersökta texterna både i avseende på hur upplysande och rättvisande deras beskrivningar är. Många missvisande framställningar av idéer samt felaktiga förklaringar och brukanden av olika begrepp gör att många texter på flera punkter inte kan sägas ge en rättvisande skildring. När det gäller huruvida skildringarna är upplysande är detta ett större problem än det förra då många författare slarvar med förklaringar av begrepp samt klargöranden av vilka de refererar till när de beskriver olika idéer. Denna brist i att göra skildringarna upplysande är den allvarligaste bristen i de undersökta läroböckerna, en brist som på ett mycket påtagligt sätt riskerar att hindra och missleda elevens förståelse.

  • 42.
    Bergquist, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Varierade arbetssätt i matematikundervisningen på gymnasieskolan2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I gymnasieskolans matematikundervisning används främst en metod. Först gemensam genomgång, sedan enskild räkning i läroboken som är uppbyggd av exempel följt av liknande arbetsuppgifter. Jag läste en uppsats som handlar om hur man kan använda utomhuspedagogik i matematikundervisningen i gymnasieskolan. Alltså finns det lärare som arbetar även med andra metoder. Syftet med min undersökning är att ta reda på hur några lärare som aktivt använder andra arbetssätt än det traditionella i undervisningen arbetar, vad de finner för fördelar med metoderna samt vilka hinder de stött på i planering och genomförande. Hur arbetar dessa lärare med annorlunda arbetssätt i matematikundervisningen? Vilka fördelar finner de som de inte finner i den traditionella undervisningen? Vad är det som kan göras med annorlunda arbetssätt men inte med traditionellt arbetssätt? Vilka hinder mot att arbeta med annorlunda arbetssätt har läraren stött på? Jag har intervjuat lärare som bl a arbetar kommunikativt, laborativt och problemlösande. Jag har funnit många fördelar med arbetssätten. T ex tror lärarna att eleverna mår bättre och att de lär sig sådant de inte lär sig i den traditionella undervisningen. De flesta hinder mot att arbeta med annorlunda arbetssätt kan relateras till att arbetsmetoderna är nya för lärarna.

  • 43.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Mathematics and mathematics education - two sides of the same coin: creative reasoning in university exams in mathematics2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation consists of two different but connected parts. Part A is based on two articles in mathematics and Part B on two articles in mathematics education.

    Part A mainly focus on properties of positive currents in connection to polynomial convexity. Earlier research has shown that a point z0 lies in the polynomial hull of a compact set K if and only if there is a positive current with compact support such that ddcT = μ−δz0. Here μ is a probability measure on K and δz0 denotes the Dirac mass at z0. The main result of Article I is that the current T does not have to be unique. The second paper, Article II, contains two examples of different constructions of this type of currents. The paper is concluded by the proof of a proposition that might be the first step towards generalising the method used in the first example.

    Part B consider the types of reasoning that are required by students taking introductory calculus courses at Swedish universities. Two main concepts are used to describe the students’ reasoning: imitative reasoning and creative reasoning. Imitative reasoning consists basically of remembering facts or recalling algorithms. Creative reasoning includes flexible thinking founded on the relevant mathematical properties of ob jects in the task. Earlier research results show that students often choose imitative reasoning to solve mathematical tasks, even when it is not a successful method. In this context the word choose does not necessarily mean that the students make a conscious and well considered selection between methods, but just as well that they have a subconscious preference for certain types of procedures. The research also show examples of how students that work with algorithms seem to focus solely on remembering the steps, and researchers argue that this weakens the students’ understanding of the underlying mathematics. Article III examine to what extent students at Swedish universities can solve exam tasks in introductory calculus courses using only imitative reasoning. The results show that about 70 % of the tasks were solvable by imitative reasoning and that the students were required to use creative reasoning in only one of 16 exams in order to pass. In Article IV, six of the teachers that constructed the analysed exams in Article III were interviewed. The purpose was to examine their views and opinions on the reasoning required in the exams. The analysis showed that the teachers are quite content with the present situation. The teachers expressed the opinion that tasks demanding creative reasoning are usually more difficult than tasks solvable with imitative reasoning. They therefore use the required reasoning as a tool to regulate the tasks’ degree of difficulty, rather than as a task dimension of its own. The exams demand mostly imitative reasoning since the teachers believe that they otherwise would, under the current circumstances, be too difficult and lead to too low passing rates.

  • 44.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    University mathematics teachers' views on the required reasoning in calculus exams2012In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 9, no 3, 371-408 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students often use imitative reasoning, i.e. copy algorithms or recall facts, when solving mathematical tasks. Research show that this type of imitative reasoning might weaken the students' understanding of the underlying mathematical concepts. In a previous study, the author classified tasks from 16 final exams from introductory calculus courses at Swedish universities. The results showed that it was possible to pass 15 of the exams, and solve most of the tasks, using imitative reasoning. This study examines the teachers' views on the reasoning that students are expected to perform during their own and others mathematics exams. The results indicate that the exams demand mostly imitative reasoning since the teachers think that the exams otherwise would be too difficult and lead to too low passing rates.

  • 45.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The role of the formal written curriculum in standards-based reform2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 2, 149-168 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 15 years after the introduction of a standards-based curriculum reform, the mathematics teachers are positive towards the reform message but have not changed their classroom practice accordingly. To improve the impact of future reforms, it is important to learn from this situation and to better understand the role of the national policy documents. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how the standards-based reform in mathematics in Sweden was conveyed in the formal written curriculum. The research questions focus on to what extent and how clearly the national policy documents convey the message. The results show that the message is present to a large extent in the policy documents, but that it is vague and formulated with complex wording. The study gives concrete examples and shows in detail in what ways the documents are vague and complex.

  • 46.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: grundskolan våren 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: gymnasiet hösten 20092010Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relating vocabulary in mathematical tasks to aspects of reading and solving2012In: Evaluation and comparison of mathematical achievement: Dimensions and perspectives. Proceedings of MADIF 8, The Eighth Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Umeå, January 24-25, 2012 / [ed] Christer Bergsten, Eva Jablonka & Manya Raman, Linköping: SMDF , 2012, 61-70 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on relationships between vocabulary in mathematical tasks and aspects of reading and solving these tasks. The paper contains a framework that highlights a number of different aspects of word difficulty as well as many issues to consider when planning and implementing empirical studies concerning vocabulary in tasks, where the aspect of common/uncommon words is one important part. The paper also presents an empirical method where corpora are used to investigate issues of vocabulary in mathematical tasks. The results from the empirical study show that there are connections between different types of vocabulary and task difficulty, but that they seem to be mainly an effect of the total number of words in a task.

  • 49.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relations between linguistic features and difficulty of PISA tasks in different languages2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, 125-125 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    A theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF 7 / [ed] C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka & T. Wedege, Linköping, Sweden: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, 47-57 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest a theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks. The model takes into consideration different types of previous research about the relationship between reading and solving mathematical tasks, including research about traits of mathematical tasks (a linguistic perspective), about the reading process (a psychological perspective), and about behavior and reasoning when solving tasks (a mathematics education perspective). In contrast to other models, our model is not linear but cyclic, and considers behavior such as re-reading the task.

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