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  • 1. Aartsen, Marja
    et al.
    Beland, Daniel
    Edmondson, Ricca
    Ginn, Jay
    Komp, Kathrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nilsson, Magnus
    Perek-Bialas, Jolanta
    Sorensen, Penny
    Weicht, Bernhard
    Ageing in the light of crises: Economic crisis, demographic change, and the search for meaning2012Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aartsen, Marja
    et al.
    Social Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Komp, Kathrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The future of greying Europe: Conclusion2013In: Old age in Europe: A textbook of gerontology / [ed] Komp, K., & Aartsen, M., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 131-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Europe’s population is greying, the future of Europe does not look grey. What can be learned from this book is that old age is not necessarily characterized by frailty and decline, but instead can be a time of self-fulfillment, activity, and social participation. Moreover, we now know that population ageing does not need to threaten extant social and welfare state-related institutions, but instead opens up potentials for restructuring and reinvention. Life expectancy is longer than ever before and living conditions that enhance healthy ageing have very much improved. New technologies and Information and Communication Technologies may assist older people to stay in their homes longer. The growing possibilities to reach a good old age may have given rise to what is sometimes called ‘a silver economy’: an economy with all kinds of new products and services, particularly aimed at the growing share of healthy and wealthy senior citizens. The greying of Europe might, thus, ultimately lead us into a bright and colourful future.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Mobbning i svensk forskning2014In: Framgångsriks skolor: mer om struktur, kultur, ledarskap / [ed] Jonas Höög & Olof Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 217-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Rektorers syn på mobbning: eller "Vi är som alla andra"2014In: Framgångsrika skolor: mer om struktur, kultur, ledarskap / [ed] Jonas Höög & Olof Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 197-216Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Rektors ansvar: Att ta ställning?2014In: Skolledare i mötet mellan nationella mål och lokal policy / [ed] Elisabet Nihlfors & Olof Johansson, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, p. 179-191Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Alalehto, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Reglering som policyfråga: En diskussion om regleringens effekter vid ekonomisk brottslighet2012In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 99, no 3, p. 316-335Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Alalehto, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The logic of agency or the logic of structure in the concept of white collar crime: a review2018In: Crime, law and social change, ISSN 0925-4994, E-ISSN 1573-0751, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 385-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 60s the white collar crime concept is divided in occupational crime versus corporate crime, exposing two different causal primacy: an agency logic and a structural logic. The logic of agency argues that corporate crime concept and the logic of structure is more or less useless for white collar crime research. The logic of structure argues that corporate crime has a validity in its own and describe a dimension of white collar criminality that the logic of agency doesn’t reach. The validity of this two positions is discussed by four crucial issues: The status of juristic persona, explanatory value, mens rea and suffering by punishment. It ends up in a Soritie paradox to which a three valued formal logic by the Stoicists Chrysippus is applied. The conclusion is that the logic of agency has the primacy, and the concept of occupational crime should be the prime concept for white collar crime.

  • 8.
    Alalehto, Tage
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The rate of white collar crime: The hot spot of white collar crime in Sweden during the 2000 decade2012In: Crime rates, types and hot spots / [ed] Alexander D. Morina, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 145-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Avslutning2011In: Vinddriven kriminalitet på en vinddriven marknad: Ekonomisk och organiserad brottslighet, Borås: Recito förlag , 2011, 1, p. 206-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Introduktion2011In: Vinddriven kriminalitet på en vinddriven marknad: Ekonomisk och organiserad brottslighet / [ed] Tage Alalehto, Daniel Larsson, Borås: Recito förlag , 2011, 1, p. 9-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Measuring trust in the police by contextual and individual factors2016In: International Journal of Law Crime and Justice, ISSN 1756-0616, E-ISSN 1876-763X, Vol. 46, p. 31-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigate if procedural justice and police competence affects trust in the police independent on the level of perception of corruption, and whether the impact of procedural justice and police competence varies due to perception of corruption. The data used is European Social Survey round 5 (2010), containing 24 countries. To separate individual effects from aggregate effects we used multilevel analyses. The results show that procedural justice and police efficiency are of importance for trust in the police independent of the perception of corruption. But the results also show that the impact of both procedural justice and police competence varies due to the level of perception of corruption. The conclusion is therefore that the fight against corruption must be prioritized to increase trust in the police.

  • 12.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Varför ekobrottsforskningen gått i stå och hur vi skall få den att expandera!: ekobrottslingens demografi, riskfaktorer och kriminella karriär2011In: Vinddriven kriminalitet på en vinddriven marknad: Ekonomisk och organiserad brottslighet, Borås: Recito förlag , 2011, 1, p. 24-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Vem är den ekonomiske brottslingen?: En jämförelse mellan länder och brottstyper2012In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 25-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Who is the economic criminal? A comparison between countries and types of crime In white collar crime research two particularly competing definitions (Sutherland versus the Revisionists) have dominated the field during the last two decades. Sutherland's definition states that the sociodemographic profile is homogeneous (entrepreneur with high education and high or regular income), despite type of white collar crime or context. The definition given by the Revisionists states that white collar criminals' demographic profile is heterogeneous (everyone can be convicted for white collar crime). As a consequence of this divided definitional approach we have a contradictive outcome of who the white collar criminal is. Our purpose is to investigate the qualification of the two definitions by analyzing heterogeneity/homogeneity based on crime type and national context. The investigation is based on seven countries from the EES 2004 (European Social Survey). We use four types of crime. The results show a rather homogeneous demographic profile but there is also a certain substantial heterogeneity depending on kinds of crime and context. The results altogether indicate that the Revisionists' definition is more correct in its description of the white collar criminal than Sutherland's definition. The demographic profile of the white collar criminal seems to be more complex than a profile confined to just one social category would be and the contextual factor has an impact on the variety of the demographic profile. An important task for future research is to hold the door open for further demographic investigations depending on the type of crime and country that the study is based on.

  • 14.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Larsson, DanielUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Vinddriven kriminalitet på en vinddriven marknad: Ekonomisk och organiserad brottslighet2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Alalehto, Tage
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sköld, Tryggve
    KNAPSU2014In: Tornionlaakson vuosikirja 2013-2014: Tornedalens årsbok 2013-2014 / [ed] Tapio Salo, Kyösti Satokangas, Minna Lehtola, Tornedalsrådet Nordkalottens kultur- och forskningscentrum , 2014, p. 30-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Angervall, Petra
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Akademisk karriär i sociala nätverk2013In: Kön och karriär i akademin: en studie inom det utbildningsvetenskapliga fältet / [ed] Elisabeth Öhrn & Lisbeth Lundahl, Göteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis, 2013, p. 124-142Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Arnell, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Narrating family: talk about a troublesome girlhood in the Swedish context2017In: Nordic girlhoods: new perspectives and outlooks / [ed] Bodil Formark, Heta Mulari, Myry Voipio, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017, p. 161-178Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter Linda Arnell examines how conceptions and norms regarding families and family patterns influence girls' lives and the constructions of their subjectivity. Arnell focuses on 18-year-old Amanda's narrative about her families and her troublesome upbringing. The narrative is understood as a continuous creation in relation to a broader societal narrative that occurs in intra-action with the researcher, and in relation to discursive possibilities and constraints. Through this one narrative the chapter examines how normative ideas about family can be understood as regulatory power structures that are ever-present in a complex and troubled narrative about family, girlhood, and a girl with experience of acting out.

  • 18.
    Aronsson, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Främlingsfientliga attityder på arbetsmarknaden: Risker för diskriminering i form av chefers attityder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka chefers attityder gentemot invandrare. En negativ syn på invandrare bland chefer skulle kunna bidra till diskriminering av invandrare inom rekrytering på arbetsmarknaden. Studien är kvantitativ och grundar sig på data- materialet European Social Survey (2002), där den beroende variabeln mäter om respondenterna anser att invandrare gör landet till ett bättre eller sämre ställe att leva på. Jag jämför: 1. Chefers attityder med attityder bland de anställda 2. Attityder bland chefer inom större organisationer med attityder bland egenföretagare/ familjeföretagare 3. Chefers attityder i förhållande till grupphot och kontakt.Resultaten pekar på att chefer är mindre främlingsfientliga än anställda, men detta samband beror i stor utsträckning på utbildning. Egenföretagare/famileföretagare är mer främlingsfientliga än chefer inom större organisationer, vad detta beror på är fortfarande ett frågetecken.Sedan testades påverkan av kontakt, och där undersöktes betydelsen av att ha invandrarvänner för huruvida chefer tycker att invandrare gör landet till ett bättre eller sämre ställe att leva på. Grupphotsteorin undersöktes också, och då analyserades påverkan av att man tycker att invandrare kommer till landet och tar arbeten eller skapar nya, och till sist testades de två teorierna tillsammans. Resultaten visade att både kontaktteorin och grupphotsteorin kan bidra till att förklara främlingsfientliga attityder.

  • 19.
    Asaro, Peter M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    A Body to Kick, but Still No Soul to Damn: Legal Perspectives on Robotics2012In: Robot Ethics: The Ethical and Social Implications of Robotics / [ed] Patrick Lin, Keith Abney and George A. Bekey, CAMBRIDGE: MIT Press, 2012, p. 169-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ethnicity, statistics and health in Sweden - ways forward2016In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, no 33200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Baranowska, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Family formation and subjective well-being: A literature overview2010In: Studia Demograficzne, ISSN 0039-3134, Vol. 157/158, no 1-2, p. 103-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While most frequently cited economic models of family formation link partnership or parenthood decisions with the concept of maximisation of life-cycle utility, empirical research has so far assumed that life satisfaction represents a factor which cannot be measured directly. Empirical studies have therefore treated the utility derived from partnership and parenthood as universal and assumed that only the direct or opportunity costs of family formation produce variation in the observed fertility behaviour. The emerging literature treats the subjective wellbeing as a measure of utility and hence allows direct tests of hypotheses related to the impact of events in family career on life satisfaction.

    This article provides an overview of the leading theoretical concepts and the recent empirical evidence on the impact of family formation on subjective wellbeing. It surveys the studies which investigate effects of entry into union and entry into parenthood on subjective well-being. The focus is on studies that attempt to estimate the causal effects. Furthermore, the article discusses studies that consider various ways in which institutional and cultural factors can modify the impact of family formation on subjective well-being. Finally, some suggestions are formulated how the research in this field could contribute to the debate on population policy. Consequently, and some topics for further research are proposed.

  • 22.
    Baranowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Gebel, Michael
    University of Mannheim, Mannheim Centre for European Social Research (MZES), Mannheim, Germany.
    The Determinants Of Youth Temporary Employment In The Enlarged Europe: Do Labour Market Institutions Matter?2010In: European Societies: The Official Journal of the European Sociological Association, ISSN 1461-6696, E-ISSN 1469-8307, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 367-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses comparative micro data from the 2004 European Union Labour Force Survey (EULFS) for 23 European countries to study the impact of labour market institutions on the youth relative temporary employment probability. We find relatively high temporary employment rates for young workers in all countries but also a large cross-country variation in this respect. The results of multi-level regression analyses confirm that neither employment protection of regular contracts nor its interaction with the level of employment protection of temporary contracts affects the young people's relative risk. Instead, we find a positive association between collective bargaining coverage as a measure of insider–outsider cleavages and the relative temporary employment risk of young persons. These results remain robust even after controlling for macro-structural conditions, such as unemployment rate and business uncertainty.

  • 23.
    Baranowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Gebel, Michael
    University of Mannheim.
    Kotowska, Irena Elzbieta
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    The role of fixed-term contracts at labour market entry in Poland: Stepping stones, screening devices, traps or search subsidies?2011In: Work, Employment and Society, ISSN 0950-0170, E-ISSN 1469-8722, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 777-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poland has become an interesting outlier in Europe in terms of employment flexibility, with an extremely high incidence of fixed-term contracts, particularly at labour market entry. In this article, detailed retrospective data from the Polish School Leavers Survey are used to analyse the dynamics of entry and exit from fixed-term contracts. The results show that neither firm-based vocational training nor diplomas from more selective tertiary education institutions provide graduates better access to secure entry positions. Regarding exit dynamics, transition patterns from fixed-term contracts into unemployment suggest that the timing of exits often coincides with the date of becoming eligible to collect unemployment benefits. The results also imply that, in Poland, fixed-term contracts might serve employers by helping them to identify the best workers.

  • 24.
    Baranowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Does parenthood increase happiness?: Evidence for Poland2011In: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, ISSN 1728-4414, E-ISSN 1728-5305, Vol. 9, p. 307-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent decade demographers turned their attention to investigating the effects of children on self-rated happiness or life satisfaction. The underlying idea of this strand of research is to find out whether it pays off for individuals to become parents in terms of their subjective well-being, given the costs of having children. Following this line of research, this article studies the impacts of childbearing on individual-level happiness in Poland; a country which experienced a rapid decline in fertility despite the particularly strong attachment of young Poles to family values. To this end, we applied methods for panel data analysis which allowed us to control for endogeneity of subjective well-being and parenthood. Our results reveal a significantly positive effect of the first child on the subjective well-being of mothers. For men, this impact is weaker and most likely temporary since it weakens with the child’s increasing age. An important finding is that neither for men nor for women does the positive impact of parenthood rise with an increase in parity. This may explain the persistence of low fertility in this country.

  • 25.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Trash contracts?: The impact of temporary employment on leaving the parental home in Poland2011In: Studia Demograficzne, ISSN 0039-3134, Vol. 159, no 1, p. 57-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poland stands out in international comparisons as a country where leaving the parental home is remarkably delayed. There are many economic and institutional factors which contribute to postponement of residential independence among youth, such as housing shortages, limited availability of rental housing and limited social assistance for young people. However, there is little discussion in public debate about re-designing social policy support for youth or improving the situation on the housing market. What attracts attention instead is the role of flexibilisation of contractual arrangements on the Polish labour market. In media discourse, fixed-term contracts have been labelled as “trash contracts” and all the problems that young people in Poland face when making the transition to adulthood have been attributed to the spread of this specific employment form. This article aims to find out whether fixed-term contracts do indeed hinder residential independence of youth. Models of leaving the parental home are estimated based on panel data from EU-SILC. The results show no significant negative impact of temporary employment on the probability of establishing one’s own household among youth. What matters is whether young people have jobs at all, whereas the type of contract that they receive from employers seems to be of little importance.

  • 26.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland .
    What would your parents say?: the impact of cohabitation among young people on their relationships with their parents2014In: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 1313-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most European countries have seen a retreat from marriage, which is increasingly preceded or replaced by cohabitation. A question that arises in light of this trend is how the diffusion of non-marital cohabitation may affect the quality of family relations. This article investigates how cohabitation among young people affects their level of satisfaction with their relationship with their parents. We analyse data from the recently released Generation and Gender Survey for Poland, a country with a limited degree of social acceptance of cohabitation, a high degree of attachment to the institution of marriage, and a familialistic culture. Since young adults who choose to cohabit are a rather specific group, we use statistical methods that allow us to control for both the observed and the unobserved characteristics of cohabiters. We find that young people who cohabited in their first union rated their level of satisfaction with their parental relationship lower than their peers who were married. Thus, at least in the context of a country where informal partnerships are not yet fully socially accepted or institutionally supported, the role of cohabitation in intergenerational relations may not be neutral.

  • 27.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Abramowska-Kmon, Anita
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland.
    Number of Children and Social Contacts among Older People: the Moderating Role of Filial Norms and Social Policies2018In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social contacts offer opportunities for provision of emotional and instrumental support that enhance well-being throughout the life course, and the importance of these contacts is especially evident at advanced ages. In this paper, we take a cross-country comparative perspective to examine the association between the number of children and the frequency of social contacts among older people. Using data from the European Quality of Life Survey, we employ multilevel models with cross-level interactions between the number of children and macro-level indicators of filial norms and social policies supporting older people. Our results suggest that older adults with children are more likely than older adults without children to have frequent social interactions, but that the number of children does not affect social contact frequency. The magnitude of the association between having children and social contact frequency varies across European societies. The social contact frequency gap between older adults with children and older adults without children is larger in more familialistic countries with strong filial norms. Our results do not confirm that having children affects social contact frequency less in countries where the state provides more support for older people.

  • 28.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Warsaw School of Economics.
    Barclay, Kieron
    Kolk, Martin
    The effect of number of siblings on adult mortality: evidence from Swedish registers for cohorts born between 1938 and 19722017In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 71, no 1, p. 43-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic research has paid much attention to the impact of childhood conditions on adult mortality. We focus on one of the key aspects of early life conditions, sibling group size, and examine the causal effect of growing up in a large family on mortality. While previous studies have focused on low- or middle-income countries, we examine whether growing up in a large family is a disadvantage in Sweden, a context where most parents have adequate resources, which are complemented by a generous welfare state. We used Swedish register data and frailty models, examining all-cause and cause-specific mortality between the ages of 40 and 74 for the 1938–72 cohorts, and also a quasi-experimental approach that exploited multiple births as a source of exogenous variation in the number of siblings. Overall our results do not indicate that growing up in a large family has a detrimental effect on longevity in Sweden.

  • 29.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    De Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Does the number of siblings affect health in midlife?: Evidence from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register2016In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 35, p. 1259-1302, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many societies, growing up in a large family is associated with receiving less parental time, attention, and financial support. As a result, children with a large number of siblings may have worse physical and mental health outcomes than children with fewer siblings.

    Objective: Our objective is to examine the long-term causal effects of sibship size on physical and mental health in modern Sweden.

    Methods: We employ longitudinal data covering the entire Swedish population from the Multigenerational Register and the Medical Birth Register. This data includes information on family size and on potential confounders such as parental background. We use the Prescribed Drug Register to identify the medicines that have been prescribed and dispensed. We use instrumental variable models with multiple births as instruments to examine the causal effects of family size on the health outcomes of children, as measured by receiving medicines at age 45.

    Results: Our results indicate that in Sweden, growing up in a large family does not have a detrimental effect on physical and mental health in midlife.

    Contribution: We provide a systematic overview of the health-related implications of growing up in a large family. We adopt a research design that gives us the opportunity to make causal inferences about the long-term effects of family size. Moreover, our paper provides evidence on the links between family size and health outcomes in the context of a developed country that implements policies oriented towards reducing social inequalities in health and other living conditions.

  • 30.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
    Czy znamy lekarstwo na niską dzietność? Międzynarodowe badania ewaluacyjne na temat polityki rodzinnej (Do we know the cure for low fertility? The results from the international research evaluating family policies)2012In: Polityka Społeczna (Social Policy), ISSN 0137-4729, Vol. 460, no 7, p. 9-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an idea of policy evaluation research and reviews empirical studies which measure causal effects of family policies reforms on fertility. In light of international experience, a positive impact on fertility can be exerted through an increase in availability of childcare, speed premium implemented in parental leave schemes as well as tax exemptions and family benefits. Nevertheless, family policy reforms that proved to work in Europe, might not necessarily have exactly the same effects in Poland. Therefore, it is of overriding importance to fill the existing research gap in the evaluation of family policies in Poland by making use of the methodology for evaluating policy interventions. Otherwise future reforms in family policies will be based on ad-hoc assumptions rather than on scientific evidence.

  • 31.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Warsaw, Poland.
    Matysiak, Anna
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics; Wittgenstein Centre (IIASA, VID/OEAW, WU), Vienna Institute of Demography / Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    The causal effects of the number of children on female employment: do European institutional and gender conditions matter?2016In: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 343-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the discussion on the effects of the number of children on female employment in Europe. Most previous research has either (1) compared these effects across countries, assuming an exogeneity of family size; or (2) used methods that dealt with endogeneity of family size, but that focused on single countries. We combine these two approaches by taking a cross-country comparative perspective and applying quasi-experimental methods. We use instrumental variable models, with multiple births as instruments, and the harmonized data from the European Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). We examine the cross-country variation in the effects of family size on maternal employment across groups of European countries with different welfare state regimes. This step gives us an opportunity to investigate whether the revealed cross-country differences in the magnitude of the effect of the family size on maternal employment can be attributed to the diversity of European institutional arrangements, as well as the cultural and the structural conditions for combining work and family duties.

  • 32.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics, Poland.
    Unt, Marge
    Institute of International and Social Studies, Tallinn University.
    Is it worth becoming an engineer in Central and Eastern Europe?: The evidence from Poland and Estonia2012In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 717-728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine the labour market returns to field of study for tertiary graduates in two countries with post-socialist heritage: Poland and Estonia. So far, research focusing on the employment chances of graduates in Western countries has emphasized the benefits of engineering. We would like to revisit this conclusion and find out if the same can be generalized for all other societies, including Central and Eastern Europe. We use micro-level data, which include detailed information about the type of education gained and early career development. We examine the following outcomes: the chances of finding a job within the first half-year of graduation and the quality of the first job and its salary. Our findings suggest that in Estonia and Poland, the effects of completing engineering courses are quite different to Western Europe. We discuss possible explanations for the lack of advantage for engineering graduates. We pay special attention to the role of licensing, i.e. institutional barriers to entry into the occupation of engineer.

  • 33.
    Bell, Andrew
    et al.
    Sheffield Methods Institute, University of Sheffield.
    Jones, Kelvyn
    School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol.
    Fairbrother, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Understanding and misunderstanding group mean centering: a commentary on Kelley et al.’s dangerous practiceIn: Quality & Quantity, ISSN 0033-5177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kelley et al. argue that group-mean-centering covariates in multilevel models is dangerous, since—they claim—it generates results that are biased and misleading. We argue instead that what is dangerous is Kelley et al.’s unjustified assault on a simple statistical procedure that is enormously helpful, if not vital, in analyses of multilevel data. Kelley et al.’s arguments appear to be based on a faulty algebraic operation, and on a simplistic argument that parameter estimates from models with mean-centered covariates must be wrong merely because they are different than those from models with uncentered covariates. They also fail to explain why researchers should dispense with mean-centering when it is central to the estimation of fixed effects models—a common alternative approach to the analysis of clustered data, albeit one increasingly incorporated within a random effects framework. Group-mean-centering is, in short, no more dangerous than any other statistical procedure, and should remain a normal part of multilevel data analyses where it can be judiciously employed to good effect.

  • 34.
    Bengs, Carita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Looking good: a study of gendered body ideals among young people2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this thesis is to study how social and cultural norms regarding body and appearance are perceived and interpreted by young people. This is done by studying both how these perceptions affect young people and how the body is controlled and altered through practices such as dieting, exercise, plastic surgery and the use of steroids. Another question raised in the study concerns important sources of influence for how one's own body is perceived. The study is based on a questionnaire distributed to 167 young girls and boys aged 13,15 and 17.The theoretical framework includes both general theories of the body and gender perspectives. Four themes have been applied in order to capture central and important aspects of the ideal body. These are; the problematic body, the controlled body, the commodified body and the social body. These themes are all related both to gender and to the portrayal of bodies in mass media.The main conclusion is that the body matters very much to many young people today, both their own perceptions of it and what others think of it. The perceptions of one's own body is also very much gendered. Many girls have internalised a fragmented and problematised way of looking at their bodies. They report a greater dissatisfaction with their bodies than do boys. Size and shape are regarded as particularly problematic and a small and slim body is preferred. Girls are also frequently engaged in practices to alter and control their bodies and are more concerned with the state of their own bodies and how others' view them. Boys expressed a greater satisfaction with their bodies. Their dissatisfaction is primarily focused on height and weight and indicates a desire to become bigger and taller. Exercise is the prime way for boys to alter their bodies. However, their own bodies are not as problematic as for girls; instead they seem to be more concerned with others' bodies. Friends, together with mass media (particularly visual media and magazines), are regarded as the strongest source of influence on how the respondents (both girls and boys) perceive their bodies.Age differences are also found. Girls display a tendency to be more dissatisfied with and be more involved in practices to alter the body the older they are. Boys display the reverse situation. The largest differences can therefore be found among the oldest. The influence of friends and media tend also to be perceived as more important among the oldest.

  • 35.
    Berglund, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Subjective well-being and job satisfaction among self-employed and regular employees: does personality matter differently?2016In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 55-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the importance of personality traits for subjective well-being (SWB) and job satisfaction among self-employed. The aim of this article is to investigate if the Big-Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience) have different relationships with SWB and job satisfaction among self-employed compared with regular employees. Data come from a Swedish survey comprising representative samples of self-employed (n = 2483) and regular employees (n = 2642). Personality traits are measured using a 10-item personality measure. Our findings show that there are only small differences, between self-employed and regular employees, in the associations between personality traits and SWB. For job satisfaction, on the other hand, we find much stronger relationships for self-employed than the regularly employed. For self-employed, every personality trait except ‘openness to experience’ have a significant positive relationship with job satisfaction. In comparison, only ‘extraversion’ and ‘emotional stability’ are significantly correlated to job satisfaction among regular employees. The relationship between ‘extraversion’ and job satisfaction was furthermore substantially weaker among regular employees. Therefore, being self-employed seems to be particularly beneficial for individuals scoring high on ‘extraversion,’ ‘agreeableness,’ and ‘conscientiousness.’

  • 36.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A special kind of married men: Notions of marriage and married men in the Swedish gay press 1954-19862012In: Journal of Historical Sociology, ISSN 0952-1909, E-ISSN 1467-6443, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 106-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has long been ambivalence in the LGBT movement and related research as to the meaning of gay identity in relation to marriage. The article explores changing homonormative discourses of marriage and married men within the Swedish gay press from the mid 1950s to the mid 1980s. Expressions of the changes are a shift in language and in views of extramarital relationships, openness, and gay male identity. As a result of the shift, “married men,” including both “married homosexuals” and “bisexuals,” came to be distinguished from “gays.”

  • 37.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Practice, practice: notions of training and normality among adults with Asperger Syndrome2012In: Disability Studies Quarterly (DSQ), ISSN 1041-5718, E-ISSN 2159-8371, Vol. 32, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People with autism are objects of interventions, such as social training, that construct a normate (i.e., neurotypical) subject position. The emerging neurodiverse movements are reconceptualizing the meaning of autism. This paper examines expressions of an emerging counter-hegemonic discourse of Asperger subjectivity in the Swedish neurodiverse movement by exploring an ambivalent discourse of adaptation among adults with autism. The material was gathered during three months of ethnographic fieldwork in an educational setting in Sweden among adults diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. The key meanings linked to the discourse of adaptation concern meaningful versus meaningless training, adaptation to an NT environment or to the person with autism, the meaning of affirmation, and the possibility of understanding the experience of autism. An understanding of adaptation is treated as integral to producing a counter-hegemonic discourse of "normal for an Asperger" and alternative forms of autistic normalcy formulated by adults with autism.

  • 38.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The politics of joking: narratives of humour and joking among adults with Asperger’s syndrome2012In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, E-ISSN 1360-0508, ISSN 0968-7599, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 235-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to analyse how humour and narratives about humour are used in a natural group of adults with Asperger’s syndrome. Narratives about humour and use of humour in the group are analysed from a discursive psychological perspective, informed by insights from both disability studies and critical autism studies. The setting of the research is ethnographic fieldwork in an educational setting in Sweden. In the paper, I show the use of three storylines among a natural group of people with autism (PWA) when talking about humour: the storyline of humourless PWA that dominates within Swedish society; and two alternatives, a storyline of alternative humour among PWA and another storyline in line with the social model of disability, of neurotypical humour or disabling humour. When invoking these two alternative storylines, PWA challenge both the humourlessness storyline and the lack of social accessibility within mainstream neurotypical settings.

  • 39.
    Bertilsdotter Rosqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Brownlow, Charlotte
    Department of Psychology, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350, Australia.
    O’Dell, Lindsay
    Faculty of Health and Social Care, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, UK.
    Mapping the social geographies of autism: online and off-line narratives of neuro-shared and separate spaces2013In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, E-ISSN 1360-0508, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 367-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper draws together empirical work that has been produced by the authors in two different autistic spaces: the Swedish magazine Empowerment produced by and aimed at adults with autism, and English-speaking autistic communities online. While the two points of data collection are quite different, there are important points of commonality that enable us to explore central issues concerning autistic and neurotypical space and the meanings assigned to these in different contexts. The paper aims to introduce the notion of social geographies of autism, based on talks among adults with autism and a social movement to promote autistic identities, giving examples from our previous work that has spanned both online and off-line spaces. Key issues discussed in the paper include a focus on autistic political platforms and the carving out of both social and political spaces for people with autism. In doing so, neuro-separate and neuro-shared spaces must be negotiated.

  • 40.
    Bertilsdotter-Rosqvist, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hennes egen tid: Internet som en arena för sexuell frigörelse2012In: Tanten, vem är hon?: En (t)antologi / [ed] Marianne Liliequist & Karin Lövgren, Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag, 2012, p. 165-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41. Bevelander, Pieter
    et al.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The religious affiliation and anti-Semitism of secondary school-age Swedish youths: an analysis of survey data from 2003 and 20092015In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 38, no 15, p. 2705-2721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not only Swedish studies, but also several international studies, claim an increase in anti-Semitic attitudes in recent decades. As prejudice is acquired in the early years of socialization, and/or is innate and fairly stable over the life cycle, examining adolescents’ attitudes is vitally important. Hence, by controlling for individual demographic and socio-economic background factors, we study two interrelated questions: Has anti-Semitism among Swedish secondary school-age youths changed between 2003 and 2009? Are changes equal across groups, with a specific focus on religious groups? Using two unique cross-section surveys of secondary school-age students in Sweden for the years 2003 and 2009, we try to address the above questions. Our analysis shows, in contrast to the views of the general public and other related studies, that anti-Semitism has decreased slightly during the examined period. Moreover, the study finds a variation in anti-Semitism by religious affiliation: it has increased among Muslim youth, but remains stable in other groups.

  • 42. Bladh, Greta
    Hard Body 2.0 - The Construction of the Fitness Subject: An analysis of Swedish Fitness Blogs2015In: Idrottsforum.org/Nordic sport science forum, ISSN 1652-7224, p. 1-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Blogging is an endeavor that is often taken for granted in our everyday lives. In this article Greta Bladh critically examines the constructiveness of the concepts of health and fitness in the blogosphere. Through conducting a discourse analysis of Swedish fitness blogs, aided by the theoretical framework of Michel Foucault in terms of technologies of the self, and the concept of habitus as developed by Pierre Bourdieu, as well as a critical perspective concerning the morals of health discourse, Bladh investigates how human beings engage and negotiate discourse and social structure using writing practices mediated through cyberspace. The results indicates that the fitness field is a field of possibilities and that the blogs display various technologies of the self, sometimes in a contradictory way. This shows that it is by agency that discourse and social structure come into play, and thus it is through agency that different practices of appropriating fitness and health are displayed, signifying that the fitness subject is heterogeneously constructed.

    Even though the fitness subject is located within a field of possibilities Bladh also emphasize the gendered aspect of fitness and health by problematizing the strained relationships between femininity and muscle development and exercise and womanhood. This demonstrates that the construction of the fitness subject is constrained within gendered social structures.

  • 43.
    Bohman, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    In the wake of radical right electoral success: a cross-country comparative study of anti-immigration attitudes over time2016In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 11, no 42, p. 1729-1747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper tests the theoretically assumed relationship between the parliamentary presence of radical right parties (RRPs) and anti-immigration attitudes over time. Data come from six rounds of the European Social Survey between 2002 and 2012. Using multi-level models with applications for repeated cross-sectional data, the study examines the implications of changes tied to the political advancements of the radical right with a focus on three possible scenarios: people's attitudes about immigration have generally become more negative, opposition towards immigration has become more dependent on immigrants' ethnicity, and attitudes towards immigration have become more polarised. Contrary to expectations, it is found that neither the presence, the representational strength, nor the nationalistic framing of an RRP affect opposition towards immigration over time. Thus, the conclusion is that the RRPs, so far, have not driven anti-immigration attitudes in Europe. Possible explanations for these results are discussed in the concluding section.

  • 44.
    Borén, Sandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kvinnor, kriminalitet och psykisk ohälsa: Lider kvinnliga brottslingar vanligen av psykisk ohälsa?2014Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45. Breimer, Lars H
    et al.
    Nilsson, Torbjörn K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Considerations for appointing an external examiner of a PhD in the biomedical sciences in Sweden: a questionnaire-based survey2014In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 2039-2049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey of 170 Swedish mentors of PhD-students found that expertise in the research field and avoidance of conflict of interest were big motivators for finding an examiner from abroad for PhD theses. The survey also identified that concern by supervisors for facilitating the career paths of younger scientists in terms of introductions to potential labs for post-doctoral work and obtaining high quality neutral review of one’s research was also important, as was the desire to set up collaborations. An expectation from the management of one’s university of the PR-value of a foreign senior person as examiner also played a part. Although few were willing to admit that PR for one’s own group was a motivating factor. A small fraction of responders expressed concern that, as some of the costs of the PhD-examination were being shifted on to the research groups themselves, this might impact the current situation. Language also played a subordinate role. To get the best out of the visiting examiner, it was important to educate and instruct them in their role in a Swedish PhD-examination protocol. Male supervisors had had more PhD-candidates than female, but they also had used more Sweden-based examiners than their female colleagues. We conclude that using a foreign examiner was motivated by factors that are likely to prevail for the foreseeable future. This Swedish practice may also provide a template for a common standard.

  • 46.
    Brodin Danell, Jenny-Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Representation and Negotiation of Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Citation Context Analysis2012In: Science communication, ISSN 1075-5470, E-ISSN 1552-8545, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 299-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is not only increasinglypopular and frequently used in Western societies, it is also a growing scientificfield. But how are results from clinical CAM studies received and representedby other researchers? This article discusses the migration and representationof three clinical CAM studies, published in high-impact medical journals, analyzedwith help from quantitative and qualitative citation context analysis. Theresults indicate a great variety concerning the migration of results and thatthis kind of research is subject to different kinds of boundary work, especiallyconcerning biomedical standards and design of the studies.

  • 47.
    Brydsten, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Arbete och arbetstidi det postindustriella samhället: En jämförande attitydstudie mellan Sverigeoch USA med fokus på arbetstidsförkortning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of welfare research, few people take into account both the aspect of gender and class. Thetraditional class-oriented research has a one-dimensional perspective on gender and the feminist welfare researchrarely carry out large comparative studies. A multi-dimensional perspective on the construction ofgender and class would benefit from both the feminist and class welfare-oriented research, and contribute toincreasing the knowledge about the individual's experience and attitudes to work and work time. The aim ofthis paper is to examine the correlation of the intersectional relationship between sex / gender position andclass position with the attitudes and motives for working time reduction. Especially in, (1) the value in work,and (2) the attitude to a high number of working hours, as well as (3) its combined effect on the conflict betweenwork and family. Countries compared are: Sweden as a social-democratic country and the UnitedStates as a liberal country, based on the similarities in high amount of working mothers and influentialwomen’s movements as well as in there different strategies in the labour market. The survey data collectionis conducted by the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) and based on the 2006 survey Role of GovernmentIV, 2005 survey Work Orientation III and the 2002 survey Family and Changing Gender Roles III.The results from this study show that there is general support, in Sweden and the United States, towards theworking society. Meanwhile, there is also support for the state to reduce the working hours. In brief summary,employees value their work highly and are generally receptive to working long hours. However, itdoes not create a perception of high conflict between work and family responsibilities. It has been interpretedas a general positive attitude towards work society, and indications that the work is an important part of anindividual's identity and individuality. With these three motives as the starting point, the attitude towards thestate's responsibility to reduce working hours was studied. The result was a generally high support, especiallyin a Swedish context. Politicization in relation to sympathetic pattern was seen as explanations, basedon the fact that the issue of working time reduction is a central part of the Swedish media and political arenaas well as the working class and women's movement are the main actors promoting the issue.

  • 48.
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Ageing: a cross-cutting research and policy challenge2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 225-227Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Brännlund, Annica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Edlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Education: family resources help girls more than boys when it comes to mental-health problems2017In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has established that school performance relates: (i) negatively with poor mental health during childhood and (ii) positively with family socioeconomic resources. In this article, we examine the potentially moderating effects of family resources on the relationship between school performance and poor mental health, using register data covering all children born in Sweden in 1990. The dependent variable is graduation from upper secondary school. We perform separate analyses for girls and boys. Our results indicate that compensatory effects of the socioeconomic resources of the family on the risk of graduation failure.

  • 50.
    Brännlund, Annica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nordlander, Erica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Centre for Applied Psychological Research, School of Psychology, Social Work and Social Policy at University of South Australia, Australia.
    Higher education and self-governance: the effects of higher education and field of study on voice and agency in Sweden2012In: International Journal of Lifelong Education, ISSN 0260-1370, E-ISSN 1464-519X, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 817-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is extensive research pointing to the positive effects of education in the form of labour market outcomes. These outcomes are vital when evaluating education; there are however additional outcomes of education that might also be important for quality of life. From this point of view, education could affect non-market areas such as democracy, gender equality and civic engagement. This article investigates the effects of level of education and field of study on two vital non-market capabilities: agency and voice. The study uses an eight-year longitudinal national survey of 1058 Swedish youth, controlling for baseline values of voice and agency. The empirical analysis shows that university education increases young people’s capabilities of voice and agency. Field of study was also found to have a relationship with agency, where social science and business education was found to be connected with the highest probability of agency, whereas there were only small effects of field of education on voice.

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