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  • 1.
    Brändström Nyström, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Är kolonialismens tid förbi?: En teoriprövande fallstudie om koloniala samhällsstrukturer och språkpolitik på Haiti2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More than 200 years have passed since Haiti cut loose from the French colonial empire. A lot has happened since, both to Haiti as a state and to the society as a whole. This study investigates the critiqued relevance of postcolonialism in the 21th century, taking stance in the question of language of instruction in the Haitian school system. Through a qualitative interview based method of data gathering and a comparison with a postcolonialistic theoretical framework, this study first examines the reasons why the recommended use of Haitian creole as language of instruction, rather than French, has been sparsely implemented with the supposed effect of keeping the majority of Haitians in poverty. Secondly it discusses the conclusions drawn on the issue and what they say about the role of colonial societal structures globally. After establishing proof for the prevalence of colonial societal structures as reasons for the dominance of the French language in Haiti, this report suggests further studies on the subject of the relevance of postcolonialism as a model of explanation for contemporary societal phenomena.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Jacob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Amnesti och vägen till försoning: En jämförande studie mellan två amnestimodeller och deras respektive inverkan på respektive försoningsprocess.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1990-talet har antalet inomstatliga konflikter vuxit där forna fiender efter att konflikten är över tvingas leva med eller sida vid sida av varandra. Dock är detta inte oproblematiskt då känslorna forna fiender emellan inte försvinner över en natt utan kvarstår i dessa postkonflikt-samhällen. För att lösa detta stora och svåra problem har det blivit allt vanligare med upprättandet av sannings- och försoningskommissioner med olika konstellationer, vilka har haft som mål att underlätta en försoningsprocess med att form och lyckas och därmed nå en stabil och varaktig fred. Ett vanligt verktyg i dessa kommissioners arbete för att nå detta mål har blivit bildandet av olika amnestimodeller med olika krav och amnestiprocesser som en förövare måste uppfylla och genomgå för att erhålla amnesti, vilket även tidigare forskning pekar åt har en viss betydelse utifall en amnestimodell ska få en mer positiv än en mer negativ inverkan på en försoningsprocess. Utifrån denna bakgrund har denna studie som syfte att ge en djupare förståelse kring vilken inverkan utformningen av en amnestimodell har på en försoningsprocess genom att jämföra två olika amnestimodeller, den sydafrikanska (villkorlig och transparant) med den algeriska (delvis villkorlig och icke-transparant). Vilket denna studie belyser har inneburit den största skillnaden i inverkan på respektive försoningsprocess där den sydafrikanska har inneburit en mer positiv inverkan medan den algeriska amnestimodellen har inneburit en mer negativ inverkan på dess försoningsprocess.  

  • 3.
    Fairbrother, Malcolm
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Free traders: elites, democracy, and the rise of globalization2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's global economy was largely established by political events and decisions in the 1980s and 90s, when scores of nations opened up their economies to the forces of globalization. In Free Traders, Malcolm Fairbrother argues that politicians' embrace of globalization was much less motivated by public preferences than by the agendas of businesspeople and other elites. Drawing on over one hundred interviews with decision-makers, and analyses of archival materials from Canada, Mexico, and the U.S., Fairbrother tells the story of how each country negotiated and ratified two agreements that substantially opened and integrated their economies: the 1989 Canada-U.S. and trilateral 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement. Contrary to what many commentators believe, these agreements-like free trade elsewhere-were based less on mainstream, neoclassical economics than on the informal, self-serving economic ideas of business. While the stakes in the globalization debate remain high, Free Traders uses a comparative-historical approach to sharpen our understanding of how globalization arose in the past to provide us with clearer trajectory for how it will develop in the future.

  • 4.
    Fritzell, Elvira
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Barn som taktiska måltavlor: En fallstudie om kidnappningar genomförda av Boko Haram2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare år har ett skifte i konflikters karaktär skett vilket leder till att inte enbart de stridande drabbas utan att hela samhällen involveras i nutida konflikter. I dessa samhällen lever barn vilka således har kommit att få en allt mer framträdande roll i krigen, dels som offer och dels som aktörer. Barn utsätts bland annat för mord, stympning, terror, sexuellt utnyttjande och används som barnsoldater. Kidnappningar är även något som barn utsätts för i konflikt vilket Förenta Nationerna uppmärksammat som ett allt mer förekommande fenomen. År 2014 riktades internationellt ljus mot Nigeria då nära 300 skolflickor kidnappades från staden Chibock av den icke-statliga väpnade gruppen Boko Haram. Syftet med denna studie är att i kontexten nya krig analysera varför kidnappningar av barn förekommer i konflikt med hjälp av fallet Boko Haram, samt att undersöka hur dessa kidnappningar gått till. Teorin som ligger till grund för studien är nya och gamla krig i och med att barns utsatthet verkar bero på de nya krigens karaktärsdrag. Den valda metoden för uppsatsen är en kvalitativ fallstudiemetod där en omfattande litteratur behandlas. Slutsatsen som denna studie för med sig är att kidnappningar av barn fungerar som en strategi i de nya krigen för att nå konfliktens mål, vilket i detta fall var att göra sig av med dem som inte höll med gruppens trosuppfattning.

  • 5.
    Hallbom, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Integration i Sverige: En jämförande fallstudie mellan Umeå och Malmö kommun.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on a qualitative case study and is based on a social science perspective. The method of study is a comparative study; content analysis focused on document analysis. Interest is based on examining local basic policy programs for integration, as integration has become more noticeable in recent years, and has become increasingly important for science. The survey will be based on Ager and Strang's framework "good integration".

    Under the analysis section, various regulations, local action programs and tasks will be understood and explained from different criteria, based on the perspective of integration. The theoretical framework for "good integration" as proven to be very useful, and a high explanation factor. In summary, the analysis shows that the action programs for Malmö and Umeå, differ between each other, in relation to the framework for "good integration". The action Programs in the municipality of Malmö, complies with 3 of 4 categories in the theoretical framework. The categories fulfilled are

    Employment, Education and Housing. The action programs within the municipality of Umeå however, fulfill only one category; Employment. Both Malmö and Umeå’s action programs demonstrate differences and similarities against "good integration". Accordingly, Umeå's action program has more deficiencies in relation to the criteria for "good integration", in comparison with Malmö's action program. The conclusion is that Malmö's basic policy documents, at a local level; for integration, can be explained to more conditions for a successful integration, in comparison with Umeå's policy documents. However, something that both Malmö and Umeå should focus on is what the analysis showed for the category Health; develop policy documents for dissemination of information, which should include, inter alia and languages other than Swedish, to create conditions that achieve successful integration, according to the framework of "good integration".

  • 6.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    et al.
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haandrikman, Karen
    Department of Human Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Social and Economic Geography, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Repopulation of the Swedish countryside: globalisation by international migration2014In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 34, p. 128-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural areas have often been treated as mono-ethnic and homogeneous areas, as compared to urban areas that are seen as dynamic and mobile areas. Recent discourses in rural studies have been questioning this idea, adding the perspectives that rural areas are constituted by mobilities, actively engaged in globalization processes, and characterized by ethnic diversity. As population decline is a constant threat to many rural areas, international migration flows can contribute to their repopulation and to a dynamic and transnational countryside. The present paper takes a quantitative perspective, thereby adding to the mostly qualitative studies in this field. Through the use of Swedish full-population register data, patterns of international migrants in rural areas are depicted, using a unique definition of rurality. Our study shows that international migration to the countryside reveals a rich diversity in ethnicity and age. Nordic and European middle-aged and elderly migrants have the highest odds of living in the countryside, while South East Asian women are an upcoming group. Migrants in the countryside are more often women, have a Swedish partner, have less education, live in border areas and are short stayers. Female migrants in rural areas also have a higher employment rate than their urban counterparts. The results suggest a variety of migration motives, ranging from quality of life to cross-border and marriage migration, which indicate increased globalization of the countryside.

  • 7.
    Höglund, Clara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinna som soldat och den kvinnliga soldaten: En studie av svenska mediers framställning av kurdiska kvinnliga soldater2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syfte är att analysera på vilka sätt som kurdiska kvinnliga soldater har framställts i svenska medier, samt om framställningen skiljer sig från den i brittiska och franska medier. De centrala frågeställningarna är på vilka sätt framställs kvinnliga kurdiska soldater i svenska medier? Samt, skiljer sig presentationen av kurdiska kvinnliga soldater i svenska medier från den i franska och brittiska medier? Om ja, i sådana fall hur?

    Uppsatsen bygger på postkolonial feminism, Edward Saids exotifieringsteori, socialkonstruktivism samt diskurs som teoretiskt ramverk. Datainsamling har skett med hjälp av dokumentanalys av 5 artiklar i olika svenska nyhetstidningar och har analyserats med hjälp av kritisk diskursanalytisk metod. Uppsatsen finner att diskurserna i de franska och brittiska medierna även går att finna i de svenska medierna, vilket får konsekvenserna att stereotypa könsroller och orientalistiska uppfattningar. Syftet med uppsatsen har varit att lyfta hur kurdiska kvinnliga soldater framställs och positionernas i media. Med hjälp av de valda teorierna och metoden har detta kunnat göras.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ryssland och krisen i Ukraina: En studie av det ryska agerandet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Johansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Flyktingar och återvändande2017In: Om krig och fred: en introduktion till freds- och konfliktstudier / [ed] Karin Aggestam & Kristine Höglund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 2, p. 273-287Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The news framing of the ‘Syria Fighters’in Sweden: A frame analysis of Swedish Newspapers2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the framing of Syria fighters in Swedish newspapers during selected time periods of 2016 and 2017. Syria Fighters refer to individuals who travel to Syria to join the ongoing conflict, an occurrence commonly known as Foreign Fighters. Using framing analysis and framing theory the study finds that Syria fighters and their actions are framed mainly as problematic and as a negative social phenomenon. The study also makes a comparison to similar, previous research of Dutch and Flemish newspapers and finds clear similarities as well as differences.

  • 11.
    Kabashi, Festina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EU Conditionality in the Kosovo Serbia Dialogue2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis examines the role of EU conditionality and the way it influences the government of Kosovo and Serbia to implement the agreements of the dialogue and to make dialogue more efficient. This thesis aims at explaining why it is difficult for the countries to engage in the dialogue without the facilitation of EU and its conditionality. By analysing the external factors and the role of EU conditionality, as well as the domestic factors in Kosovo and Serbia, this thesis provides conditionality—studies with an original in—depth investigation of the topic.

    The capacity of the European Union to impact the potential candidates to make the required reforms and establish domestic institutions and policy that are both strong and stable enough for membership is fundamental to a fruitful enlargement program. The low political will to engage in the dialogue among both countries caused the EU to use its conditionality towards the dialogue which is also the main instrument at the EU disposal to urge and guarantee compliance.

    The thesis uses elements from conditionality theory. This allows for an in-depth analysis of the methods that EU used to bring the countries to the table of negotiations; the way it exerts influence and its foreign policy towards the countries. A detailed process tracing has been completed which consisted of examining official documents by both countries and by the EU. Three interviews have been conducted with in order to obtain final remarks and answers on the research question. It is important to emphasize that the all the interviewees are only based in Kosovo, however this does not mean that there is any biased information since the progress reports by both countries were analysed. The findings of the thesis suggest that even though EU conditionality has been the main incentive for pushing the countries engage in the dialogue it has not been consistent or strong enough as to have an impact on the parties to implement the agreements. The findings also indicate that internal factors and interests play an important role on the absence of implementation and commitment to create an efficient dialogue which would result in normalization of relations between two countries.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Après Paris: Breakthrough innovation as the primary moral obligation of rich countries2016In: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 63, p. 170-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the notion of differentiated responsibility has always included an element of technological transfer, the growing disparity between the deployment of non-scalable renewable energy sources in the rich countries and the massive expansion of fossil infrastructure elsewhere has brought new urgency to issues of climate leadership. Breakthrough innovation into technologies capable of providing an abundance of clean energy now appears necessary not only to broaden energy access but also to ensure that fossil fuels are quickly displaced globally (including in those countries that have failed to take climate change seriously). Moreover, it is reasonable to expect that a climatechanged world in itself will demand abundant energy to facilitate everything from carbon dioxide removal to mass desalination for agriculture and other adaptation measures. Considering the moral and political impossibility of treating sustained poverty as the “solution” to the climate crisis, this paper suggests that rich countries have a moral obligation to invest in breakthrough innovation into technologies that are compatible with a future global economic convergence around OECD-levels.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The environmental risks of incomplete globalization2017In: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 550-562Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the liberal optimism of the long 1990s has faded into a world of growing inequality and resurging nationalism, there is less certainty about the prospects of economic convergence and global integration. Beyond the formidable human cost of maintaining a divided world, the possibility of incomplete globalisation also gives rise to a number of environmental risks. While environmental political theory generally sees strength in localism, history rather shows that a robust world trade system is crucial to offset local resource scarcities and that cosmopolitan norms of solidarity are essential for helping communities to rebuild after environmental catastrophe. In relation to climate change, statist thinking has led to a focus on non-scalable technologies and a silent acceptance of chronic poverty abroad as a way of avoiding a climate emergency. Contrary to such views, this paper argues that accelerating the transition to a fully integrated high-energy planet may more effectively mitigate Anthropocene risks.

  • 14.
    Kinnersjö, MIchaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Symbolic Responsibility: A Pathway analysis of the Swedish Mineral Strategy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Kurki Lindblad, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Building Peace and Gaining Legitimacy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Köhler de Castro, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conflict and drought: is it a dual challenge?: A comparative case study of the challenges humanitarian reliefprogrammes in Mozambique and Zimbabwe faced during the 2016El Niño induced drought and conflict in Mozambique2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of people around the world who are affected by humanitarian crises has almost doubled in the past decade. For instance, in 2016, Southern Africa experienced the worst drought in 35 years, due to the weather phenomenon El Niño, and all aspects of society were affected. The aim of this thesis is to identify and analyse different types of challenges humanitarian relief programmes face in their disaster management in two different contexts: a conflict and a non-conflict context. The thesis combines both disaster management and peace and conflict studies.

    Interviews have been conducted in Zimbabwe (non-conflict) and Mozambique (conflict) with INGOs, UN organisations and donors that were involved in the humanitarian relief programmes in the countries during the El Niño induced drought in 2016. The programmes experienced various challenges, and additional challenges have been found in the humanitarian relief programmes in Mozambique due to the conflict. This thesis contributes to the existing theory with one piece of the puzzle: combining the theories on disaster management and peace and conflict studies and showing that neighbouring countries to those in conflict are likely to get spillover challenges from the country in conflict, primarily due to issues with refugees.

  • 17.
    Körner Hansson, Diana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Women's political participation during the democratization process in Tunisia 2010-2016: A case study on gender and democratization2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Linder, Adina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Organisatorisk förändring: När krisen är förbi2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Lund, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Empowerment - en väg till integration?: En kvalitativ fallstudie om empowermentspåverkan för flykting-, asyl-, ochmigrantkvinnors lokala integration2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker om empowerment som metod för flyktning-, asyl- och migrantkvinnor kan vara nyckeln och ge bättre förutsättningar till lokal och social integration. Detta har undersökts genom en kvalitativ fallstudie på ett integrationsprojekt för enbart kvinnor. Utifrån intervjuer och deltagande observation har empowermentprocessens verktyg identifierats samt på vilket sätt det kan främja kvinnornas förutsättningar för integration. Studien visar att empowermentrelaterade metoder i en miljö med endast kvinnor haft en positiv verkan för empowerment av kvinnorna och vidare underlättat deras förutsättningar för integration. Detta förklaras utifrån att empowerment ökar självkänslan och självförtroendet hos kvinnorna vilket kan resultera i förbättrad svenskinlärning och mottagligheten för samhälls- och kulturell kunskap. Det kan främja förmågan att definiera nya mål och framtidsplaner. Empowerment av kvinnorna kan således ge bättre förutsättningar och bidra till kvinnornas vilja och mod att ta del av det nya samhället.

  • 20.
    Nilsson, Rakel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bridging the gaps?: Practitioner’s attitudes and understanding of the temporal,institutional and funding gaps between humanitarian anddevelopment assistance2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to an increased humanitarian caseload the UN has called for the international community to work differently from delivering aid to ending needs, partly by enhancing the engagement between humanitarian and development actors. The thesis aims to describe and analyse the dynamics between humanitarian and development aid and by so doing provide an empirical contribution to the larger discussion on how to streamline international assistance by addressing the temporal, institutional and funding gaps between the two types of assistance. This is a qualitative comparative study based on nine interviews with development and humanitarian practitioners from five different organisations providing both types of assistance. Participants of the study were positive to the idea of collaboration across the sectors but that in order to accomplish this the international community, donors and each individual organisation need to overcome great institutional and financial constraints leading to the conclusion that international assistance will not be streamlined successfully until the institutional and funding gaps are properly addressed.

  • 21.
    Olivius, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Constructing Humanitarian Selves and Refugee Others: Gender Equality and the Global Governance of Refugees2016In: International feminist journal of politics, ISSN 1461-6742, E-ISSN 1468-4470, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 270-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contributing to ongoing debates about what happens when feminism is institutionalized in global governance, this article examines how gender equality is given meaning and applied in humanitarian aid to refugees, and what the implications are with regard to the production of subjectivities and their positioning in relations of power. Drawing on Foucauldian and postcolonial feminist perspectives, the analysis identifies two main representations of what it means to promote gender equality in refugee situations. Gender equality is represented as a means to aid effectiveness through the strategic mobilization of refugee women’s participation, and as a project of development, involving the transformation of “traditional” or “backward” refugee cultures into modern societies. The subject positions that are produced categorically cast refugees as either passive or problematic subjects who need to be rescued, protected, assisted, activated, controlled and reformed through humanitarian interventions, while humanitarian workers are positioned as rational administrators and progressive agents of social transformation. In effect, gender equality is used to sustain power asymmetries in refugee situations and to reproduce global hierarchies.

  • 22.
    Pettersson, Fanny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The impact of local beliefs and rituals on the psychosocial aspects of the reintegration of former child soldiers: a case study of northern Uganda2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Saati, Abrak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Participation Myth: outcomes of participatory constitution building processes on democracy2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s a growing number of constitution building processes in countries transitioning from authoritarian rule or recovering from war or severe institutional crisis have involved public participation. This increase stems from an assumption made by many peacebuilding scholars and practitioners that public participation in constitution building will lead to higher levels of democracy. This assumption has not, however, been the subject of systematic or comprehensive analysis. Therefore, the overarching purpose of this thesis is to scrutinize the participation-hypothesis - as it is referred to in this study.

    The study is a two-step investigation. The first part begins with an analysis of twenty cases of participatory constitution building that have occurred in post-conflict states, transitioning states and countries that have experienced a severe institutional crisis. In order to differentiate the cases in terms of how much influence participants were granted, an analytical framework is developed and the cases are categorized as either false, symbolic, limited, consultative or substantial participation. The participation-hypothesis is then empirically investigated by comparing democracy levels prior to and after the process for each of the 20 cases. In order to further test the hypothesis, cases of constitution making in which there was no public participation are then added to the investigation. These cases are included as a point of reference – the democratic outcome in this group is compared with the democratic outcome in the twenty participatory processes. The empirical results reveal that there is no relationship between public participation in constitution building processes and higher levels of democracy. On the contrary, some cases that involved considerable influence for participants have not experienced improved levels of democracy, while cases with low levels of influence for participants have shown democratic improvement. Moreover, a majority of cases of constitution making without public participation have also experienced increases in their democracy scores. Therefore, the conclusion of the first part of the study is that the participation-hypothesis does not stand up to empirical scrutiny.

    Particularly challenging for the participation-hypothesis is the fact that the analysis in part one shows that similar participatory processes have been followed by democratic improvement in some countries and democratic decline in others. Two such cases are Kenya and Zimbabwe. While democracy levels have increased in Kenya since the conclusion of the process, they have steadily declined in Zimbabwe. In the second part of the study, these two countries are therefore the object of intense, systematic and comparative scrutiny in order to explore factors beyond participation in constitution building that might explain the different trajectories of democracy. The comparison shows that the actions of political elites – in particular their ability to cooperate with each other – is the major explanation as to why the two wind up on different paths. The importance of elite cooperation is well-established in the democratization literature. One major conclusion of this study is therefore that the participation-hypothesis needs to be informed by insights drawn from this literature.

  • 24.
    Sahovic, Dzenan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Zulumovic, Dino
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Changing the meaning of Second World War monuments in post-Dayton Bosnia Herzegovina: A case study of the Kozara monument and memorial complex2015In: War and Cultural Heritage: Biographies of Place / [ed] Marie Louise Stig Sørensen, Dacie Viejo Rose, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 208-224Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reconstruction of society after conflict is complex and multifaceted. This book investigates this theme as it relates to cultural heritage through a number of case studies relating to European wars since 1864. The case studies show in detail how buildings, landscapes, and monuments become important agents in post-conflict reconstruction, as well as how their meanings change and how they become sites of competition over historical narratives and claims. Looking at iconic and lesser-known sites, this book connects broad theoretical discussions of reconstruction and memorialisation to specific physical places, and in the process it traces shifts in their meanings over time. This book identifies common threads and investigates their wider implications. It explores the relationship between cultural heritage and international conflict, paying close attention to the long aftermaths of acts of destruction and reconstruction and making important contributions through the use of new empirical evidence and critical theory.

  • 25.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinnliga ex-kombattanters icke-deltagande i DDR-program: En teoriprövande fallstudie i Liberias DDRR-process från år 20032017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kvinnors medverkande som kombattanter i krig är en företeelse som under en längre tid har varit försummad i forskarvärlden. Den allenarådande bilden av kvinnor i krig har formats utifrån essentialistiska uppfattningar om kvinnlighet, enligt vilka kvinnor är fredliga och i princip alltid offer. I takt med att denna bild har nyanserats har intresset för kvinnliga kombattanters delaktighet i krig och i de efterföljande DDR-processerna fått alltmer uppmärksamhet. Med hjälp av två teoretiska verktyg - säkerhetiseringsteorin och jämställdhetsintegreringsteorin – syftar denna uppsats till att studera varför kvinnliga kombattanter inte deltar i dessa program i lika hög grad som manliga kombattanter gör. Teorierna har applicerats på Liberias DDRR-process från år 2003. Resultatet av studien visar att säkerhetsfaktorn var av prioritet i processen, vilket missgynnade de kvinnliga kombattanterna. Mycket tyder på att dessa kvinnor genomgick ett slags nedsäkerhetiseringsprocess i DDRR-programmet, då deras roller som kombattanter förminskades samtidigt som deras utsatthet i kriget förstärktes. Studien visade även att jämställdhetsintegreringsstrategin behandlade de kvinnliga kombattanterna utifrån könsstereotypiska uppfattningar om kvinnor i krig, vilket ledde till att det inte var ett särskilt effektivt verktyg i främjandet av kvinnliga kombattanters deltagande i programmet. Ytterligare ett problem med jämställdhetsintegreringen var att den genomgående var starkare i teorin än vad den var i praktiken.

  • 26.
    Svensson, dennis
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    En motivanalys av Rysslands annektering av Krim: En samhällsvetenskaplig analys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har undersökt Rysslands agerande i Ukraina och annekteringen av Krim 2014, via en kvalitativ fallstudie med motivanalys som huvudsaklig metod. Studien har använt sig av en teoriprövande design där det teoretiska materialet har stått i centrum och testats utifrån det valda fallet. Dom teorier som har ställs mot varandra och prövats har varit den strukturella realismen och socialkonstruktivismen. Undersökningen riktade in sig på Rysslands egna motiveringar till deras agerande och resultatet pekade på att dessa motiveringar var otillräckliga för att förklara handlingen som undersöks. Istället så identifierades andra motivindikatorer och slutligen motiv där slutsatserna pekade på att handlingen kan identifieras och motiveras som egennyttjande motiv i korrelation till teorin kring strukturell realism.

  • 27.
    Swedenhammar, Marika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Från barnsoldat till barn: vad är det som krävs?: En komparativ analys av DDR-programmen i Angola och Sierra Leone2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Användandet av barnsoldater ökar världen över, ett medel för att motverka det är att på ett effektivt sätt återintegrera före detta barnsoldater tillbaka i samhället och därmed förhindra återrekrytering. Studien syftar till att undersöka inkorporeringen av de tre faktorerna familjeåterförening, lokala traditioner och utbildningsstöd i utformningen av DDR-program (disarmament, demobilisation, reintegration) samt dess effekt för återintegreringen av före detta barnsoldater i Angola och Sierra Leone. Två länder som delar några egenskaper såsom konfliktkontext och sociala förhållande, men vars olika utfall gällande återintegrering av före detta barnsoldater i denna studie förstås och förklaras genom skillnaderna i utformningen av DDR-programmen.

    Resultaten visar att familjeåterförening, lokala traditioner och utbildningsstöd i teorin såväl som i praktiken har betydelse för ett DDR-programs effekt för återintegreringen av före detta barnsoldater. Därmed tydliggörs den avgörande rollen som utformningen av DDR-program har för återintegrering. Analysen framhäver vikten av att dessa kontextbaseras och kontinuerligt analyseras i likhet med denna studie, i syfte att få rätsida på de i nuläget splittrade åsikterna om vad som faktiskt leder till effektiv återintegrering av före detta barnsoldater och slutligen uppnå fred.

  • 28. Symons, Jonathan
    et al.
    Karlsson, Rasmus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ecomodernist citizenship: rethinking political obligations in a climate-changed world2018In: Citizenship Studies, ISSN 1362-1025, E-ISSN 1469-3593, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 685-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green accounts of environmental citizenship typically seek to promote environmental sustainability and justice. However, some green theorists have argued that liberal freedoms are incompatible with preserving a planetary environment capable of meeting basic human needs and must be wound back. More recently, ‘ecomodernists’ have proposed that liberalism might be reconciled with environmental challenges through state-directed innovation focused on the provision of global public goods. Yet, they have not articulated an account of ecomodernist citizenship. This article seeks to advance the normative theory of ecomodernism by specifying an account of ecomodernist citizenship and subjecting the theory’s core claims to sympathetic critique. We argue that state-directed innovation has the potential to reconcile ambitious mitigation with liberal freedoms. However, full implementation of ecomodernist ideals would require widespread embrace of ecophilic values, high-trust societies and acceptance of thick political obligations within both national and global communities. Ecomodernism’s wider commitments to cosmopolitan egalitarianism and separation from nature thus amount to a non-liberal comprehensive public conception of the good. Furthermore, ecomodernism currently lacks an adequate account of how a society that successfully ‘separates’ from nature can nurture green values, or how vulnerable people’s substantive freedoms will be protected during an era of worsening climate harms.

  • 29.
    Tikka, Veronica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    What’s the problem represented to be?: A study of four actors' description of gender equality2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how gender equality is being described by four actors who includes gender equality within their work. These four are:

    Kosovo Stability Initiative, Development for Democracy, Embassy of Sweden in Pristina, and a feminist activist and writer.

    Questions:In which ways are gender equality described? What issues are mentioned in the context of gender equality? What is not problematized in the description of gender equality?

    To answer the research questions, semi-structured interviews were held in Pristina, Kosovo, in March and April 2017. Five different approaches are used to categorize the answers and Carol Bacchis’ "What’s the problem represtented to be" is used to analyze the discourse.

    Results: It is concluded that all the three questions have a several different answers. Gender equality is described as: a goal; a process; a tool and a principle. Issues that all four respondents mention are; patriarchy; traditions; corruption; implementation of laws; gender roles; gender blindness; maternity leave law; employment; political positions and education. The expected role of women, and the impact of not deciding if gender differences should be valuated or erased, is not being problematized.

  • 30.
    Wicht, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kvinnligt deltagande i DDR-processer: En jämförande studie mellan Liberia och Nepal2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att medvetenheten om väpnade konflikters påverkan på kvinnor har ökat under de senaste åren är kvinnor fortfarande underrepresenterade i fredsprocesser, i vilka DDR-program är en viktig del av. Problemet idag är att många kvinnosoldater inte får delta i DDR-processer och lämnas utan återintegreringsstöd efter konflikt, vilket hindrar länders fredsbyggande. Denna studie syftar till att studera anledningar till lågt kvinnligt deltagande i DDR-processer i två konfliktdrabbade länder som genomgått DDR-processer under 2000-talet. Studien har utförts genom att bygga upp en egen analysram utifrån det teoretiska antagandet om att DDR-processer misslyckas att ta hänsyn till kvinnosoldaters olika behov och erfarenheter, vilket begränsar deras möjligheter att delta. Studien kommer fram till att den främsta anledningen till lågt kvinnligt deltagande i dessa DDR-processer var kvinnosoldaters rädsla för stigma att associeras med den väpnade konflikten. Rädslan för stigma grundar sig i samhällets konservativa syn på de traditionella könsrollerna. Eftersom att kvinnosoldaters roll i konflikten avviker sig från de könsrollerna kan de utsättas för stigmatisering.

  • 31.
    Åkebo, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The Politics of Ceasefires: On Ceasefire Agreements and Peace Processes in Aceh and Sri Lanka2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades we have seen an increase in peace processes aimed at solving armed conflicts through peaceful means. The often fragile characteristics of such processes and the settlements that they produce underline the essential importance of improving our understanding of the dynamics at play in transitions from war to peace. This thesis aims to contribute to this overarching objective by analysing ceasefire agreements in relation to peace processes in two protracted intrastate armed conflicts: Aceh, Indonesia, and Sri Lanka. In the scholarly literature, ceasefire agreements are often assumed to create momentum due to their ability to pave the way to a peaceful solution. At the same time, it has also been suggested that ceasefires can influence conflict dynamics in negative ways. Although there are many unanswered questions about ceasefire agreements in contemporary peace processes, few studies have been devoted to systematic and in-depth analysis of how ceasefire agreements can be characterized and analysed in relation to peace processes in protracted intrastate conflicts. This thesis, which is based on written documents and on interviews conducted during four research trips to the region, contributes to filling this research gap by presenting comparative case studies of Aceh and Sri Lanka. The point of departure in the study is a process-oriented, conflict dynamics approach and a view that war-to-peace transitions require changes in the conflicting parties’ attitudes, behaviours and relationships. I analyse and compare ceasefire agreements by looking at their initiation, form and content, and by examining their implementation and the unfolding of the processes. I identify six key factors in the literature that can influence the conflicting parties’ attitudes, behaviours and relationships. I then use these factors to analyse ceasefire agreements in relation to the dynamics of the broader peace processes. In this thesis I show how these key factors – including issues of recognition, trust, whether the parties’ claims are met, international involvement, contextual changes and intra-party dynamics – have mattered. I also show that context is important for understanding how and why they have mattered. The results suggest that ceasefire agreements can facilitate war-topeace transitions; however, it also illuminates challenges and the risk that such agreements can be counter-productive in the context of intrastate conflicts. The study also shows that ceasefire agreements have a historical legacy, as illustrated by their impact on subsequent interactions and agreements, and it underlines the symbolic politics of ceasefires in asymmetrical intrastate conflicts. The thesis ends with a number of propositions, among others that ceasefire agreements tend to become more comprehensive over time and that power struggles and developments within the conflicting parties are important for understanding ceasefire agreements in relation to contemporary peace processes.

  • 32.
    Åkerdahl, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nationally Initiated Local Peace Committees: On the structure and functioning of the Nakuru Peace Committees in Kenya2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the evolving concept of Infrastructure for Peace as a starting point, and its emphasis on local ownership of peacebuilding initiatives, I analyse the structure and functioning of Local Peace Committees (LPCs) with the focus on one county in Kenya. The thesis explores a gap in the knowledge of these committees by focusing on the friction between a nationally initiated LPC structure and the creation of local ownership of this peacebuilding operation. The case study analysis is conducted by exploring different perspectives regarding the mandate, role, composition and external support of the nationally initiated Nakuru Peace Committees with the aim to contribute to our knowledge of nationally initiated LPCs and their possibilities and challenges.

  • 33.
    Örestig, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Local moral economies: the space, place, and locality of social media mobilisation2017In: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 884-895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a case study of a locally rooted environmental campaign on the Swedish island of Gotland. We aim to enhance the understanding of how locality is manifested in social movements that emerge in today’s networked world. We analyse how the double goals of speaking to, as well as beyond, the local context came into expression in the movement's social media activities. We draw on data from tweets and Facebook posts and include interactions between activists and critics as well as the resources linked to in the posts. Analysis indicate that the conflict must be seen as spanning across local, national and global levels. In line with earlier research, activists used social media to link their struggle with other struggles. Also, it was used to charge the local struggle with symbolic content by framing it as one of many struggles between local communities, authorities and multinational corporations. Beyond this, posts from the island signalled dedication to the history and long-term interests of the community. We argue that future studies should recognise the crucial role that reciprocity norms in the local community can play for outcomes of conflicts and that the notion of a 'local moral economy' can be used to reach a deeper understanding of this.

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