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  • 1.
    Adama, Blekou
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Assessing the walking access to bus stops in Umeå urban area and the relationship with the socio-economic characteristics2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere and protect the environment, Swedish cities are heavily invested in sustainable development by developing pedestrian roads and intensifying public transport. Their goal is to make the population less dependent on cars by facilitating accessibility to transit transport. The urban area of ​​Umeå (Sweden), which is experiencing an annual increasing of it population due to urban development, includes 244 km of pedestrian or bike routes and an intensified bus network. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the walking accessibility of the population at bus stops and to analyze the socio-economic relationship. The use of GIS tools allowed to calculate the proportion of the population and the houses around the bus stop, the average distance accessibility. The use of 3D allowed the observation of access constraints related to the topography and to calculate the slope. The use of the multiple regression model has analyzed the relationship between the shortest accessibility distance and the socio-economic factors that are the income, gender and age. The results show that the average distance of access to the bus stop is 186m. 99.2% of the population lives within 800m from the bus stops. The results of the regression showed that income is the main factor that pushes people to take the bus and live in certain types of housing. The observation of the 3d map and the calculation of the slope made it possible to know the neighborhoods established in the hill and whose residents are susceptible to spend more energy than the other inhabitant living on flat ground. The results mean that most people living in the urban area of ​​Umeå have good access to the bus stop whatever the social group, the level of income and the type of housing.

  • 2. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014Ingår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 956-974Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 3.
    Adjei, Evans
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Family firm and entrepreneurial capital: the importance of entrepreneurial capital for firm survival and growthManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effects of current (family firms) and past family relations (entrepreneurial capital (EC) -inherited entrepreneurial practices from self-employed parents)on the survival and growth of new entrants, taking into account the regional context and the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis. Moreover, we examined whether familial relations also contribute to job creation. The guiding assumption is that the role of familial relations for start-ups is of primary importance for spatial variations of economic development. Using start-ups with a maximum of 50 employees in 2002 in Sweden, we followed each firm until the firm exited. The results indicate that the resilience of family firms is confounded by EC. Hence, it is not family firms per se that are more resilient but rather firms with entrepreneurial experience from self-employed parents; however, it is family firms that create more jobs. The results further indicate that the impacts of EC are predominantly found in rural regions. The analyses suggest that family firms and EC explain different aspects of the local economic development, which is a finding important for policy-making.

  • 4.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces2016Ingår i: Regional Studies, Regional Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 303-319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study empirically assesses the role of social proximity, defined as the concentration of family members (FM) in firms, on firm performance. Based on longitudinal micro-data for the period 1995–2010 connecting information on workers and their workplaces in the Swedish labour market, the effects of FM (parents, children, siblings and grandparents) on per capita productivity in 15,359 firms were analysed. The results indicate that FM positively affect firm performance. In particular, the results suggest that in specialized regions (mainly small regions) FM have a positive influence on performance and can thus compensate for relative shortage of regional agglomeration economies.

  • 5.
    Adjei, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Holm, Einar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships2019Ingår i: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 31, nr 5-6, s. 357-377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While the family may serve as a resource for entrepreneurs, it has been studied separately in different disciplines. In this paper, we combine the arguments on familial relationships (family firm literature) and skill variety (regional learning literature) to analyse how different forms of entrepreneurial family relationships (co-occurrences) facilitate firm performance, and how familial relationships moderate the effects of skill variety on firm performance. Using longitudinal data (2002-2012) on a sample of privately owned firms with up to 50 employees with matched information on all employees, our results show that entrepreneur children relationship is the dominant dyad familial relationship in family firms. The fixed effects estimates demonstrate that entrepreneurial family relationships do affect firm performance but that this is dependent on the type of familial relationship. Children and spouses show a positive relationship with firm performance while siblings of the entrepreneur show no significant relationship with performance. The estimates further indicate that familial relationships involving spouses abate the negative effects of having too similar or too different types of skills. The paper thus contributes to new knowledge regarding not only whether family relationships matter for performance, but also in what way they matter.

  • 6.
    Adjei, Evans Korang
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Relatedness through kinship: the importance of family co-occurrence for firm performance2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyse the effects of family co-occurrence and past familial relationships (inherited entrepreneurial abilities) on firm performance. This aim is motivated by the contemporary arguments that social relations (e.g. family ties) are important in the analysis of today’s space economy. In most studies, the point of departure in the analysis of firm performance has often been to analyse and examine the cognitive resources available in a firm, as well as a firm’s geographical closeness to related firms and industries. However, this argument has been challenged, and it is further suggested that social relations, and for that matter family relations (or family co-occurrence), may be important in the analysis of firm performance. To test this argument, the analysis is based on longitudinal data comprising various register data on the Swedish population and firms.

    To examine the aim, three different but related questions were analysed: the first analysed the prevalence of family employment across different regions and how this affects firm performance; the second examined the relationship between entrepreneurs’ familial relations (co-occurrence of different family relations) and skill variety, on one hand, and how the relationship affects firm performance on the other; and the third examined the effects of present family relations (family firms) and entrepreneurial capital (EC, past family relations) on the survival and growth of new entrants. Questions 1 and 2 were explored by applying simple ordinary least squares (OLS) and fixed effects (FE) regressions, respectively. Question 3 was explored by employing an event-history analysis (survival analysis) to determine the time to exit and OLS for the growth analysis.

    The results show that family co-occurrence in firms (be they family or non-family firms) positively affect labour productivity. At the same time, the results show that some specific family relationships are more important than others in terms of impacting labour productivity. Moreover, the results indicate that family firms, in particular, benefit the most from having family members employed in the firm, especially when this involves family relationships such as couples and/or children. The co-occurrence of couples and/or children in family firms moderates the negative impacts of similarities and unrelatedness of skills on productivity. The results show that the impacts of family co-occurrence are greater in smaller specialized regions than diverse and larger ones. Thus, while the family positively correlates with firm performance, this is mainly the case in specialized regions. The results further show that family firms are not more resilient, as the literature argues; but this effect is confounded by EC. The implication is that it is not family firms per se that are resilient but rather firms with entrepreneurial experience from parents, especially in rural regions; meanwhile, family firms create more jobs. However, the analysis could not identify a clear regional effect of the role of family firm on job creation. In this sense, the present thesis provides important insight into why the family constitutes an important part of the firm production setup. The findings show that it is necessary and important to consider the family, and family firms, in the larger regional development framework. Moreover, while reflecting on the uniqueness of the family as a social group whose shared identity and mutual trust can enhance firm performance and regional development, we should also not lose sight of the fact that there is a latent risk: it is not a problem—until it becomes a problem.

  • 7.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Regional Income differences in Ghana: the importance of socio-demography and ethnicity2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the increased attention income differences/inequality has gained within the area of economic geography and among policy-planning; this study seeks to explore and analyze the factors affecting income differences in the regions of Ghana. From the use of regional (10 regions) panel data for 1960, 1970, 1984 and 2000; the results show a direct link between socio-demographic factors and regional income differences/inequality and also the impact of ethnic and religious composition on regional income differences. It was identified that ethnicity and religious compositions have different impacts on regional income differences. Christians have positive effect on regional income due to their fairly representation in almost all the regions likewise the Akans, but have negative effect on regional income. And also high population density in a region reduces the mean regional income, similarly high concentration of population aged 60years and over reduces the regional income. Evidence from the results empirically conclude that regions with high share of aged population, Akans, Muslims and high population density have low regional income compared with regions with high share of Christians. 

  • 8.
    Adjei Korang, Evans
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Skogen som resurs in Region Västernorrland: näringslivsnalys 2002-20152019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i perspektivet att ekonomisk utveckling i grund och botten är betingat på de kompetenser som används i produktionen av varor och tjänster, har denna rapport analyserat skogsnäringarnas utveckling i Västernorrland 2002-2015 med avseende på sysselsättning, antal arbetsgivare och arbetsinkomster. Särskilt fokus ligger på hur Västernorrlands skogsindustri är kopplad till övriga delar av näringslivet i form av det humankapital som de delar med varandra. Detta görs empiriskt genom analyser av regionens skill-relatedness, det vill säga flöden av arbetskraft mellan sektorer i regionen, för att grafiskt visa i vilken grad olika sektorer är relaterade till varandra. Utifrån argumentet att humankapital är en central resurs för regional utveckling låter vi data visa hur regionens skogsnäringar är kopplade till övriga näringslivet, och därigenom belysa branschöverskridande relationer bortom gängse föreställningar om kopplingar drivna av det officiella industriklassificeringssystemet. 

    Även om inkomstutvecklingen och andelen kvinnor i Västernorrland följer riksgenomsnittet har både antalet företag och sysselsatta utvecklats betydligt sämre i Västernorrland. Generella utbildningsnivån har ökat både i riket och i regionen, men Västernorrland har generellt en lägre utbildningsnivå. Skogsnäringarna i Västernorrland bryter delvis mot detta generella regionala mönster. Både antalet sysselsatta och antalet arbetsställen inom skogsnäringarna har kraftigt minskat i antal och tvärtemot regionens generella utveckling har också andelen högutbildade (med minst treårig universitetsexamen) minskat liksom andelen kvinnor. Trots dessa kraftiga rationaliseringar på personalsidan är utvecklingen för skogsnäringarna inom Västernorrland betydligt mindre negativ än för riket i övrigt. Det gäller framförallt inkomstnivåerna bland de anställda. Inkomstnivåerna i Sveriges skogsnäring har sjunkit i relativa termer men ökat med drygt 20% i Västernorrland och ligger 2015 på en något högre nivå än övriga näringar i regionen. Det kan i sin tur tyda på en positiv omvandling mot mer kvalificerade arbetstillfällen, även om det också inneburit kraftiga rationaliseringar. 

    För att belysa hur skogsnäringarna är inbäddade i regionens struktur av kompetenser har vi kartlagt graden av specialisering (hur representerad en industri är i regionen relativ i riket), graden av relatedness(hur väl en industri är kopplad till andra industrier genom personalflöden), och graden av inbäddning (förekomsten av andra industrier i regionen som delar liknande kompetensresurser). När det gäller den relativa närvaron av skogsnäringar i regionen utifrån antalet sysselsatta finner vi att ingen av skogsnäringarna har en betydande relativ specialisering i Västernorrland. Det är endast tillverkning av wellpapp och pappers- och pappförpackningar som har en specialiseringsgrad över 1 (dvs högre än riksgenomsnittet). Det innebär med andra ord att trots ett relativt högt bidrag till regionalt förädlingsvärde och skatter är näringarna underrepresenterade på regionens arbetsmarknad. Det återspeglas bland annat i den relativt kraftiga minskningen av sysselsatta och arbetsställen vi identifierat (och som pågått långt innan den period denna rapport analyserar) men också den relativt kraftiga ökningen av inkomster (högre än riksgenomsnittet för skogsnäringarna och i paritet med regionen i övrigt). Skogsnäringarna har med andra ord genomfört produktivitetshöjande rationaliseringar vilket i sig kan gynna regionen.

    Utifrån vårt analytiska ramverk är det dock aningen mer problematiskt att de relativt få arbetsgivarna inom skogsnäringarna också är relativt isolerade i regionen utifrån ett kompetensresursperspektiv. Det är endast tillverkning av andra byggnads- och inredningssnickerier, skogsförvaltning, drivning och pappers- och papptillverkning som har en genomsnittlig koppling till andra näringar i regionen över gränsvärdet för en kompetensrelaterad verksamhet. Detta återspeglas också i hur inbäddad skogsnäringen är utifrån den relativa koncentrationen av kompetensrelaterade verksamheter. Det är endast ovan nämnda fyra näringar som är tydligt inbäddade i regionens näringslivsstruktur, och endast två (pappers- och papptillverkning och tillverkning av byggnads- och inredningssnickerier) som har ett inbäddningsindex över regionens medelvärde. Det innebär att skogsnäringarna generellt är relativt perifera när vi pratar om vilka kompetensresurser skogsnäringen delar med övriga regionen. Dock är teknisk konsultverksamhet direkt eller indirekt relaterat till flertalet skogsnäringar, vilket kan peka på ökade tekniknivåer och ökat behov av tekniska specialistkunskaper. Även om företag kan kompensera för en svag regional inbäddning genom utomregionala nätverk, innebär framförallt en svag inbäddning att det kan vara svårare för arbetskraften att finna nya produktiva uttryck för sina kompetenser i regionen vid framtida rationaliseringar. Det i sin tur kan driva på utflyttning till andra regioner.

    Utifrån en smart specialiseringsagenda drar vi slutsatsen att policyinsatser bör verka för att öka graden av inbäddning för regionens nyckelindustrier då det kan underlätta en framgångsrik omvandling som bygger på regionens redan existerande kompetensresurser. 

  • 9.
    Agbi, Anita
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Social media platforms and travel destination choices among international students in umea.2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Social media platforms have the potential to influence destination choice among potential travellers.Before potential travellers embark on a trip, they are faced with decision-making processes on whereto go, what to do, the best time to go, how to get there among other things. These pre-travel planning decisions can be influenced by their expectation of the experiences they will encounter at the destination and based on their perception of the destination. Their perception of destinations isusually informed by information found on social media platforms or passed on by family and friendswho have encountered similar travel experiences. Using Crompton’s model of destination choice set,this study explores the roles of social media platforms on destination choice among international students in the Umea university.

  • 10.
    Agdahl, Helen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    THE INTEGRATION PROCESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION FOR FLOOD MANAGEMENT IN SPATIAL PLANNING: DRAWING EXAMPLES FROM ÄLVSTADEN-GOTHENBURGBETWEEN 1999-20152017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to climate change and natural variations in the hydrological cycle, global mean sea levels are increasing, causing the mean sea levels in different regions of the world to increase. In Sweden, coastal cities are facing rising water levels which is increasing flooding. The coastal community of Gothenburg, Sweden was identified the 18th most vulnerable city in the country both to flooding induced by water level rise and other climate change related impacts. Its location, in proximity of Lake Vänern, and in the mouth of the Göta River and its tributaries: Säveån, Mölndalsån and Lärjeån is heightening flood risk and vulnerability in the area. This thesis aims to contribute in comprehending the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden- central Gothenburg between 1999 and 2015. With the main objectives being” how the municipality of Gothenburg has applied the urban land use planning theory for the integration of natural hazard and climate change adaptation, with regards to adaptation for flood management in Älvstaden between 1999 and 2015? “What climate change adaptation policies for flood management have been implemented in Gothenburg within this time frame, and how the policies have been revised to match the reality of flood issues?” And “What improvements would be made in the integration process to better address adaptation for flood management?” A desk-based research and one case study approach was adopted for this study. The findings indicate that although the city has systematically used the steps involved in the integration process of natural hazard and climate change adaptation for flood management, it does not link the policies and the measures applied to adaptation for flood management. Which is an issue as it has led to the exclusion of vital functions of the integration process. Suggestions on how the integration process could be improved are provided.

  • 11.
    Ahl, Steffen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Schwedenhäppchen: Ein Forschungseisebericht2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 12.
    Ahlberg, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Planering av fritidshus: En studie om Stockholms skärgårds planaktörer och dilemmat fritidshus2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim for this bachelor thesis is to identify how second homes are applied in planning strategies between different levels of planning. The planning levels are identified by municipality’s and part-regional levels. Furthermore, this thesis aims to analyze in which contexts second homes brings consequences in both positive and negative ways. To answer the purpose of this analyze a case study based on Stockholm archipelago was made. Two part-regional documents, seven documents for the municipalities in the archipelago and two semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted to answer the aim.

    Second homes indicate the change of where a resident primarily lives depending on season. Which means that planning strategies should take into consideration for a phenomenon that doesn’t dwell on an all year basis. Due to this analyze, six themes were identified for the implementation of second homes in the planning strategies. Two main themes were identified. The first theme is in regards of the change that plays out when a second home becomes the primary dwelling and on the other hand when the primary dwelling becomes a second home. This in a combination with the second theme which indicates that the localization of the dwellings is of high priority for planning strategies in Stockholm archipelago. Remaining themes are identified in the planning strategies for the municipalities, which is the local level in this study. They indicate for example that second homes can provide profit for the local organizations and stakeholders, but some contexts also include the opposite implication as well. Furthermore, the themes apply to restrictions of use, constructions and the local conditions. 

  • 13. Ahmed, Bayes
    et al.
    Hasan, Rakibul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Maniruzzaman, K. M.
    Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax2014Ingår i: ISPRS International journal of geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 1412-1444Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72) of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal) type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72) are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values), and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18) lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

  • 14.
    Akhmetzyanova, Leyla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Modeling Income-Based Residential Segregation in Moscow, Russian Federation2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates spatial patterns of income-based residential segregation at the neighborhood level in the Russian capital city Moscow within new administrative boundaries, which have received relatively little attention in prior studies. It is argued that Moscow faces high levels of income inequality exacerbated by growing levels of spatial segregation between the affluent and prestigious Center – South-West and poor industrial South – South-East. Applying a whole set of quantitative methods complemented with computer mapping techniques, based on the latest 2013 data by the City of Moscow Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics and 2010 Census data, this study provides new insights into spatial differentiation processes and elaborates policy solutions aimed at addressing economic disparities in the city. A key finding of this thesis is that income segregation in the study area has been driven to a larger extent by the isolation of very poor neighborhoods from middle- and upper-income areas.

  • 15.
    Alatalo, Marita
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Salmon angling as a resource in regional development in the Swedish counties Norrbotten and Västerbotten1998Ingår i: Recreational Fisheries: Social, Economic and Management Aspects / [ed] Phil Hickley and Helena Tompkins, Oxford: Fishing News Books Ltd , 1998, s. 142-149Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Around the world, sportfishing for salmon is a major industry. Rivers attracting salmon anglers can make a big contribution to the local economy. As a result of exploitation and environmental impacts most of the approximately 70 former salmon rivers in the Baltic basin have been damaged and lost their spawning capacity. There is, however, a big potential for salmon angling in the remaining salmon rivers entering the Baltic sea, especially in the Swedish counties of Norrbotten and Västerbotten in north Sweden. The chapter aims to describe the effects of a possible future situation with full scale sportfishing for salmon in northern Sweden. An assessment was made of the aggregate economic effects based on the hypothetical future scenario taking into account the potential amount of salmon returning to the rivers included in our study. The economic estimate is based on a catch amounting to 300 tonnes per year. This return may support an angling activity with approximately 300 000 days in the whole region. Transformed into economic terms this could lead to a total economic impact of about SEK200 million per annum, economic multipliers included.

  • 16.
    Alcazar, Liza
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Att inte bli iakttagen men ändå bli sedd: En studie om tjejers trygghet i det offentliga rummet och hur det kan planeras för trygga och jämställda miljöer2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 180 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Making individuals feel safe in public space is an increasingly relevant issue in planning the city's public space. However, fear is not easy to explain or counteract as this is something that is highly subjective. Many urban planning projects are being carried out today focusing on creating safe and equal environments. Such a project is Frizon in Umeå municipality, which is a meeting place based on young girls' experience of security and gender equality.This study tries to create an understanding of how planners can work with girls' safety in the public space, as well as create an understanding of how places that are planned based on security and gender equality can be perceived.The study has been conducted through interviews, surveys and observations, in which young girls experience the city of Umeå and the meeting place Frizon has been the focus.The result shows that the city is primarily a place to hang out with friends and the places most used by the girls in the city are the central parts for shopping and food, but also some of the city's parks.Many of the girls who participated in the study feel insecure sometimes when in the city, but this is something that occurs mainly when they are alone. Hanging out with their friends is not just something they do for socializing, but this is also something that gives them a sense of security. The result also shows that Frizon is an appreciated place by many girls, but that the site partially feels somewhat unavailable during certain times of the day and year.

  • 17.
    Alexandersson, Linn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Turismdriven centrumförskjutning?: Exempel från svenska fjällen2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to study population change in tourism intensive mountain municipalities. Then to investigate whether center displacement takes place from the municipality center to the area with growing tourism. Areas of growing tourism have in this study been delimited to ski resorts. To answer the study’s purpose and questions, both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used. Population statistics have been used to explain population change in Swedish mountain municipalities. Population statistics showed that there are four mountain municipalities that have a shrinking population in the municipality and in the municipality center, while there is a ski resort with population growth in the municipality. These mountain municipalities are Dorotea, Malung-Sälen, Storuman and Härjedalen. Interviews with officials from these municipalities have been used as a complement to analyze the findings from the population statistics. The result of the interviews shows that the ski resorts have characteristics of being so-called ‘center’ with reference to the center-periphery model. At the same time, it also appears that the informants do not think that it is possible to talk about any tourism-driven center displacement. At least not with regard to public service. The municipality house will be remain located where it is today. Based on the given results, this essay conclude that ski resorts should be regarded as commercial centers and that the municipality center is the public center. From this aspect this study also conclude that there is possible to talk about a patriell center displacement from the municipality center to the ski resorts. Which, based on this study, is explained as commercial. The study also conclude that the commercial supply is dependent on the tourist visitors and those who work on the ski resorts, where the result shows that much of those who live in the ski resorts work in the touristindustry. In this way, the commercial center displacement also becomes tourism-driven.

  • 18.
    Alfredsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Green consumption energy use and carbon dioxide emission2002Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the quantitative potential to reduce energy requirements and CO2 emissions through changed patterns of consumption, given unchanged levels of consumption expenditure.

    The thesis question is analysed using a systems analysis approach which in this case means that life cycle assessment data on energy requirements and CO2 emissions related to household consumption are combined with a financial and behavioural analysis to make sure that the budget constraint is kept and that both the first and second order effects of adopting a green consumption pattern are analysed. The budget constraints are kept using a general linear model. By using marginal propensities to spend to direct the reallocation of saved or deficit money calculated utility is maintained as far as possible. Further, investigations explore the impact of individual household demographic characteristics and geographic context on household consumption patterns, energy requirements and CO2 emissions.

    The key result of this thesis is that changed household behaviour, choosing “green“ products and energy efficient technology will not make a big difference. What can be achieved in the short time perspective by adopting an almost completely green consumption pattern and energy efficient technology is a reduction of energy requirements by around 8% and CO2 emissions by around 13%. With a longer time perspective and further technological change that provides additional possibilities to move consumption patterns in a greener direction, the effect on energy requirements and CO2 emissions is still fairly small. By 2020, the potential to reduce energy requirements is around 13% and CO2 emissions around 25%. In the most extreme scenario (2050), the scope for reducing energy requirements is 17% and for CO2 emissions 30%. All these reductions will be outpaced by growth in income almost as soon as they are implemented.

    Of policy relevance the results reveal that very limited impact can be expected by a policy relying on greener consumption patterns, whether adopted voluntarily or as a result of incentives such as tax changes. Such a policy cannot achieve more than a small and temporary reduction to growth in energy requirements and CO2 emissions. It is also shown that, prescribing specific consumption patterns as a means of reducing energy requirements and CO2 emissions has to be done with care. This is illustrated by one of the experiments in which adopting a partly green consumption pattern, a green diet, in fact increased total energy requirements and CO2 emissions. This, and the results of all the other experiments show the importance of applying a systems approach. It demonstrates that life cycle data alone are irrelevant for assessing the total effects of adopting green consumption patterns. Further research on the potential to reduce energy requirements and CO2 emissions thus primarily needs to better capture system wide effects rather than to improve on, and fine tune the measurement of the energy requirements and CO2 emissions related to individual products.

  • 19. Ali, Alisha
    et al.
    Carson, Dean
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Information and communications technology (ICT) and the challenge of sustainable self-drive tourism2011Ingår i: Drive tourism: trends and emerging markets / [ed] Bruce Prideaux and Dean Carson, Abingdon: Routledge , 2011, s. 124-145Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Post-productivism in rural areas: A contested concept2013Ingår i: Natural resources and regional development theory / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Camilla Sandström, Umeå: Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Umeå universitet , 2013, s. 8-22Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Beyond Post-productivism: From Rural Policy Discource to Rural Diversity2014Ingår i: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 297-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a strong discourse in public policy aimed at transforming rural places from venues of primary production into truly diverse socioeconomic landscapes. Yet conceptualisations of the rural as envisioned in the policy and politics of the ‘new economy’ often prove to be elusive on the ground. However, post-productive activity in rural areas has become a major focus for rural studies scholars. This paper investigates the ideas of post-productivism in the existing literature, and argues for a holistic understanding of post-productivism as an idea and political ambition rather than an imperative and irreversible change of rural economic activity. The purpose of the study is to make clear the division between post-productivism and the related concepts of post-production and post-productive activities in order to better understand processes of rural change in relation to different geographical contexts. It is argued that post-productivism as a concept stands apart from de facto post-production and alternative concepts such as multifunctionality and should be regarded as part of broader regional development discourses. The paper outlines several important fields in which post-productivism is a necessary component for rural transformation and development. While it is not always easily captured in indicators or empirical studies in rural locations, post- productivism exists at the level of discourse and planning and thus has real effects on the ground. The paper concludes by offering suggestions on how to apply the concepts of post-productivism, post-production and multifunctionality in future studies. 

  • 22.
    Almstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Public spending on rural tourism in Sweden2016Ingår i: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 194, nr 1, s. 18-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is an important part of rural policies in European countries. An increased demand for rural amenities is seen as creating a more diversified labour market and contributing to the restructuring of the economy, from primary sectors and manufacturing to a more service-oriented economy, which has been termed a "new rural economy". As a result, and as often presented in many policy documents, tourism is now seen as a universal tool for rural development. The purpose of this study is to investigate the distribution of public spending on tourism in rural areas in Sweden. It focuses on public spending on the main programme for rural development, the Swedish rural development programme, but also on the regional structural funds programmes, from 2000 to 2013. Another subject of interest is how policy makers understand rural tourism as presented in policy documents since these documents, to a great extent, direct programme spending in terms of projects and their content. This study is based on register data on programme spending, policy documents and programme evaluation reports. Results show that a relatively small amount of total public spending targets tourism – mainly going to accommodation, activities and marketing efforts – indicating that tourism is still not a prioritised area despite policy makers’ understanding of rural tourism as expressed in policy documents. Thus, although public efforts target adequate parts of the tourism industry, they cannot be expected to contribute significantly to the restructuring of the rural economy.

  • 23.
    Amukena Nyqvist, Benjamin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Företagskluster och närhet i Katutura, Namibia: En studie kring småföretag, närhet och klusterfördelar2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In Economic Geography, there has been a strong interest of how different forms of proximity impacts businesses. In addition, there is also a strong interest in business agglomeration, as a result businesses cluster together through physical proximity, networks and knowledge. In the development sector, there is a strong interest on how to best support the creations and growth of small enterprises.

    This essay emphasises on the business cluster formations in Katutura, a suburb to Windhoek the capital city of Namibia. It oversees the impacts of different types of cluster formations and their effects on the businesses. In addition, this essay will identify the main clusters in Katutura and state what makes them unique from each other and what is a common cluster feature. Furthermore, it will give answers to the questions that follows: How does these forms of clusters influence businesses in Katutura? How are businesses conducted in different clusters? What benefits will the businesses derive from these forms of proximity and clustering?

    The data presented in the essay was collect from different clusters of business with regard to utilities, knowledge and skills, finances, and other important indicators of business wellbeing. The data is used to compare the different clusters and their forms of proximity within them.

    It is then concluded in the essay that the most successful clusters are those that are located at the incubation centres in terms of turn over but not with profit margins. Also, it was observed that these clusters are specialized. Furthermore, it was also observed that businesses seem to invest more in clusters with the highest innovation and diversification. In addition to the concluded observation, it was also observed that there is evolutionary processes amongst the clusters in Katutura such as described in the literature. 

  • 24. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Adaptation to climate change?: Why business-as-usual remains the logical choice in Swedish forestry2018Ingår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 48, s. 76-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The two latest IPCC assessment reports have concluded that knowledge is not sufficient for inducing action on climate change. This study problematizes the issue of going beyond business-as-usual through a study of the forestry sector in Sweden, which is a large economic sector and could be expected to be an early adapter, given that newly planted forest may stand some 70-90 years into the future. Therefore resources, economic motivation in the longer term and environmental foundations for early adaptation action could be expected to exist. This study draws upon the Foucauldian conceptualization of governmentality to explain the particular institutional logics that nevertheless lead to business-as-usual arguments dominating discussion on adaptation in the case of Swedish forestry. The study emphasizes that adaptation must be seen as steered and limited by existing institutional, social system logics, rather than by externally defined "rational" motivations. Efforts on adaptation to climate change must thus be considered in relation to, and seek to change, existing institutionally based motivational and incentive structures, and must thus be conceived through social rather than environmental logics. In fact, social logics may even define the types of actions that may be regarded as adaptations.

  • 25. Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Technology use in Swedish reindeer husbandry through a social lens2017Ingår i: Polar Geography, ISSN 1088-937X, E-ISSN 1939-0513, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 19-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationalizing production more effectively, technological developments and innovations also have effects on, for example, skills, knowledge and social relations, that connect the specific technique to large processes and rationalities. In the conflict between user rights and ownership rights in northern Sweden, the introduction of new techniques within reindeer husbandry is studied on a local and embodied level. Through observations and interviews, the tension between empowerment and control in their implementation is further explored by utilizing a labor process theoretical framework. The results illustrate a shift in the definition of skills and knowledge, in relation to the use of GPS and GIS, that reshape, reorganize, restructure and embody the labor process of reindeer husbandry and spatial, temporal and ecological relations. Through its production of subjective conditions and dependence, the disciplinary logic of these techniques contributes to shape and enact governable spaces and subjects within the context. Operating as technologies of government, the techniques emphasize the responsibilities of the reindeer herding community and shape their participation, by reinforcing the demand for certain kind of subjectivities and accountability – governmental rationales that contribute to a technologicalization and depoliticizing of policy and conflict managing.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Elias
    et al.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lawrence, Anna
    Adaptation to climate change in forestry: a perspective on forest ownership and adaptation responses2017Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 8, nr 12, artikel-id 493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptation to climate change has often been discussed from the perspectives of social vulnerability and community vulnerability, recognising that characteristics at local level will influence the particular adaptations undertaken. However, the extent to which national-level systemic factors influence and shape measures defined as adaptations has seldom been recognised. Focusing on adaptation to climate change in forestry, this study uses the example of two countries in the northern hemisphere with different forest ownership structures, forestry industry and traditions: Sweden, with strong private, non-industrial ownership, dominant forest industry and long forestry traditions; and Scotland, with forest ownership dominated by large estates and investment forestry based on plantations of exotic conifer species. The study shows how adaptation to climate change is structurally embedded and conditioned, which has resulted in specific challenges and constraints for different groups of forest owners within these two different contexts. This produces a specific set of political spaces and policy tools by rendering climate change in relation to forestry manageable, negotiable and practical/logical in specific ways. It is recommended that the focus of future work on climate-related issues and development of adaptation measures and policy should not be primarily on climate-related factors, but on institutional analysis of structural factors and logics in target sectors, in order to critically explore concepts of agency and power within these processes.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Are You Staying?: A Study of In-movers to Northern Sweden and the Factors Influencing Migration and Duration of Stay2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of the population has multiple implications on regional development and planning. In-migration is frequently seen as the only possible solution in order to rejuvenate the population and stimulate regional development in sparsely populated regions. A population increase results in greater tax revenues, meaning that local authorities can plan for their inhabitants and expenditures in a more sufficient way. In addition, certain professionals are needed in order to support essential local services such as schools and hospitals. Place marketing with the intention of attracting in-movers has become increasingly popular, especially for rural, sparsely populated Swedish municipalities. Still, the outcome from place marketing efforts are dubious and in addition, migration has a temporal aspect and individual migration propensity usually fluctuates over time. This begs the question – how long do in-movers stay? Is there potential for long lasting development in sparsely populated regions connected to in-movers or is it temporary?

    This study focuses on the duration of time until an in-mover re-migrates from Region 8 in northern Sweden and which socioeconomic and demographic factors that influences the out- migration. This is studied by applying an event history method with discrete-time logistic regressions. The study follows individuals in working age that moved to any of nine specified municipalities in Västerbotten and Norrbotten County, sometime between 2000 and 2011. Questions posed for the study is: i) On average, how long did people who moved to Region 8 between the years 2000-2011 stay in the region? ii) What are the socioeconomic and demographic factors that influence the out-migration from the region? iii) Do the influencing factors differ between women and men?

    The results show that the time perspective matters as the risk of moving out was highest in the initial years and that it declines with time. 30 % of the sampled in-movers had moved out again within the time of observation, and on average the in-movers stayed for nine years. The regression results indicated that the factors that had the greatest influence on the out- migration was unemployment, being between 20-26 years old, high education, having and unemployed partner, and having children below school age. Women had a slightly lower likelihood of moving out compared to men, and the most prominent influential factor to outmigration that varied between women and men was unemployment. 

  • 28.
    Andersson, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Att kommersialisera och sälja en plats: en analys av resereklam, representationer och geografiska föreställningar2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Pictures are often used when marketing a tourist destination. Photographs of a place, a destination, are used to convince customers and stimulate daydreaming in order to turn a potential customer into a real customer. For some people the photographic representations of a place is the only one they experience. With this in mind, it is reasonable to question how representations of places and geographical imaginations are being (re)produced when marketing a destination by using photographs. This paper aims to study how representations of place and people are used when marketing a tourist destination via travel commercial. The study was conducted by analysing images used for marketing tourist destinations located outside Europe, with a focus on photographs portraying people. The pictures included in this study were found in five travel catalogues for the Swedish market. The sample was narrowed down and reduced to three pictures, which were analysed by using a semiotic image analysis. The study aim to answer the following questions: When marketing a tourist destination how are people in the tourism advertising being presented? In what way can the images that are being used for tourism advertising generate stereotypes about places/people?

    The study indicates that, according to the included sample, the people portrayed in tourism advertising are being presented in a stereotypical manner. 

  • 29.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019Ingår i: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, nr 39, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Profits, dividends and industry restructuring: the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 19772016Ingår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 278-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of profit distribution in the restructuring of the Swedish paper and pulp industry between 1945 and 1977. In addressing this issue, we will draw on the life-cycle theory and market imperfection arguments to examine whether the less profitable firms shared more of their profits as dividends, or remained on the market longer by reinvesting the majority of the profits. Our study shows that an increasing share of the profits was distributed to owners over time, and thus less profit was reinvested in industrial renewal. We find that the observed general upward trend in dividends can be attributed to the decline in profit and firm legacy, as firms in the Swedish pulp and paper industry kept dividends up while reducing reinvestment as their profit margins decreased over time. Our study shows that the market imperfections related to capital taxation and investment funds increased rather than decreased dividends.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2018Ingår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Hane-Weijman, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Växande Regionala Obalanser2018Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, nr 8, s. 52-63Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska ekonomiska geografin genomgår en snabb förändring. Allt fler tjänstejobb skapas i storstäderna. I takt med att industrijobben minskar bidrar det till färre jobb totalt sett utanför storstäderna. Det hänger samman med storstädernas ekonomiska mångfald: att tjänsterna växer fram i nära koppling till andra relaterade verksamheter. Många tjänster kräver specialkompetenser och hög utbildning, resurser som främst finns i storstäder. Därtill finns starkare efterfrågan kopplad till högre privat köpkraft och offentlig konsumtion. Då dessa processer i hög grad är självförstärkande, spelar politiken en viktig roll för att hantera omvandlingens negativa effekter.

  • 33.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Hansen, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Var god tag plats - nu går sista bussen2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Andreasson, My
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Emergency Water Planning and the Issues with making Drinking Water Accessible for Everyone2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the access to drinking water is something that often is taken for granted. But several incidents where regions have found themselves without drinking water shows that we should be more concerned about crisis management concerning drinking water. Regulations state that even in a situation with drinking water disturbance the municipality is responsible for providing all citizens with drinking water of acceptable quality. When drinking water is not delivered in regular pipelines it is called emergency water, which is an alternative way to distribute drinking water within the region. During a crisis it is important that the authorities can act quickly in order to minimize the consequences that will occur if a region is without drinking water. The National Food Agency (Livsmedelsverket) have therefore developed a guide for municipalities how to make an emergency water plan. It contains information of how to map and prioritize water users. This is a case study of Nordmaling Municipality that investigates how and why water users should be prioritized during a disturbance in drinking water. The aim has also been to locate emergency water containers for citizens and study the accessibility of these locations and the level of justice within the society connected to citizens (in)accessibility. In order to do this study, the guide from the National Food Agency have been studied along with consultation with the municipal administration. Then a quantitative Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) in GIS has been performed in order to find “optimal” locations for emergency water resources. Recommendations from the National Food Agency have been followed within the frame, ability and visions of Nordmaling Municipality. The study displays the functions that will obtain emergency water, and recommendations and regulations behind the decisions. Along with 12 different locations which have been decided based on results from the MCA. Water users (with extra consideration to vulnerable water users) living outside of the geographical “catchment-area” of a location with emergency water have been studied. This has shown that the locations are not accessible for everyone within the municipality. Constrained accessibility can be seen especially for elderly and those living in the sparsely parts of Nordmaling, which displays an unjust society.

  • 35.
    Anne, Ouma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    From Rural Gift to Urban Commodity: Traditional Medicinal Knowledge and Socio-spatial Transformation in the Eastern Lake Victoria Region2013Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    As we celebrate all the dynamic and dramatic improvements in human health care in the 21st century, life in much of Africa begins with and is sustained with the support of traditional medicinal knowledge. Research on traditional medicinal knowledge (TMK) is extensive, but rather few studies have been written about Traditional Healers' (THs') own perceptions about TMK and practices in relation to changing societal dynamics.

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how THs perceive on going socio-spatial transformation, including contemporary processes of urbanization, migration, commercialization and commodification of TMK, as well as changing dynamics of learning and knowledge systems between generations and genders and how these affect their medicinal healing practices in time and space.

    The thesis consists of four main empirical chapters, which derive from different data sources including literature, documentation review and qualitative interview material. The findings in this thesis can be summarised as follows: First that TMK today exists side by side with modern health systems, in what are seen as complex patterns of medical pluralism that provide evidence of an evolving role the TH plays in primary health care, in the rural and urban space. Youthful migrating population dynamics that are linked to historical processes, have effectively carved an emerging cross-sectoral role of the TH in the formal space.

    Secondly the developing legislation on IPR and ABS in parallel with the representation of an earlier official formal governance around TMK in Tanzania; and the difference in the sectors where TMK is anchored in the two contexts, could have paved way to some earlier collaborative mechanisms, that today provide space to enable a more natural engagement between formal and informal organizations involved in the governance of TMK in Tanzania. Thirdly, the practical ways in which TMK learning processes, which are characterized by learning systems in place, being sent and visiting sacred places that are lived by an apprentice over a number of years, have increasingly come under pressure. Fourthly the thesis shows approaches by THs, encouraging the youth to access conventional medicinal education followed by, or in parallel with TMK learned through traditional pedagogies employed by the THs themselves. The youth’s keen interest in learning TMK is seen to increase when they view improved livelihood possibilities due to the commercialization of medicinal plants. The future of TMK learning processes may be limited unless incentives are put in place for the youth regarding their future livelihoods. Fifth, gendered and generational dimensions suggest that older and some younger female THs reemphasize the values of the gift and TMK in a climate of increased commodification and commercialization of TMK, where TMK increasingly meets neoliberal processes, engaging an alternative paradigm than the gift economy, where a predominance of male TH’s in the urban space and places, increasingly define the diversification of the TMK livelihoods. The gift provided by a higher power and which is embedded in a particular cosmological view, to be used as a social service to help the community, is increasingly evolving as an emerging tested force in a changing ideological climate, with an increasing awareness of commodification, commercialization, IPR and ABS issues surrounding TMK. It implies awareness in relation to the increased benefits of commoditized and commercialized medicinal plant knowledge (which THs hold) for other individuals and institutions.

    The TH profession and TMK is seen as entering a contested IPR/ABS arena at a time when increasingly socio-spatial transformations are modifying its role from that of a gift to an owned commodity. However while the practice of TMK has changed over time and space, presenting new challenges as well as opportunities, it is also seen as a threat that anyone today can sell and market TMK products.

  • 36.
    Antomarchi, Véronique
    et al.
    Cerlom-Inalco.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Tourisme et femmes2010Ingår i: Teoros, ISSN 1923-2705, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 87-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [fr]

    Aujourd’hui, l’importance du genre dans les études portant sur le tourisme n’est plus un sujet nécessitant un débat. En effet, depuis les années 1990, une littérature conséquente montre l’importance du genre dans ce domaine. La relation entre genre et tourisme peut être pensée de différentes façons. Annette Pritchard et Nigel Morgan (2000) reprennent les propositions antérieures de Rao (1995) en affirmant que le lien le plus notable entre le genre et le tourisme provient du fait que le tourisme apparaît comme le produit d’une société «genrée». Le développement du tourisme reflète bien les relations entre les sexes ainsi que leurs variations dans le temps et dans l’espace. Moins d’une décennie plus tard, Pritchard et al. (2007 : 1), tout en montrant le rôle important joué par le féminisme sur la question du genre et du tourisme, se demandent désormais si, à l’ère du postmodernisme, féminisme et analyse de genre ne seraient pas dépassés, voire obsolètes

  • 37.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Case Vindel river area2014Ingår i: Through joy: Mapping sporty activities in Norway, Sweden and Finland with a view to enhancing regional attractiveness / [ed] Olli Rosenqvist, Kokkola: University of Jyväskylä, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius , 2014, s. 46-64Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    En ny löparvåg i väntan på nästa Vindelälvslopp?2012Ingår i: Västerbottens Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 39.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Geografiska institutionen, Umeå universitet.
    Kanada en kontrapunkt på den nordamerikanska kontinenten: några iakttagelser rörande sociostrukturell karaktäristik och kriminalitet1993Ingår i: Den vet som vida färdas: reserapport från en kulturgeografisk exkursion i Kanada våren 1993 / [ed] Lars-Erik Borgegård, Umeå, 1993, s. 255-276Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Kriminalitet och bostadsbyten1995Ingår i: Invandrare & Minoriteter, ISSN 0346-6566, nr 5, s. 24-28Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 41.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Löparvågen och dess västerbottniska exponent Vindelälvsloppet2010Ingår i: Idrott Historia & Samhälle, ISSN 0280-2775, s. 67-83Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Löpningens masstävlingar: en del av den växande sportturismen2011Ingår i: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, Vol. 69, nr 2, s. 94-101Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 43.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Moldau - ett stycke musik och en flod mitt i Europa2010Ingår i: Geografiska Notiser, ISSN 0016-724X, nr 1, s. 35-45Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    The spawning salmon as a resource by recreational use : the case of the wild Baltic salmon and conditions for angling in north Swedish rivers2001Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to analyse the preconditions for increasedsalmon angling in the remaining wild salmon rivers in Upper Norrland in northernSweden, as well as to evaluate the present and possible future impacts on the localeconomy. It includes the identification of the internal and external conditions, in what ishere called the Salmon Utilisation Landscape, that influence the present use as well asfuture development of the Baltic salmon as a resource in angling. The empirical materialsderive from two mail surveys, 1) a survey of anglers in the River Byske and 2) a jointNordic survey on the economic value of recreational fishing.Interest in recreational fishing is widespread in Sweden. About 35 % of adultSwedes fish for recreation. Recreational fishery and angling can be seen as one expressionof the urbanised society's need for contact with nature and outdoor recreation. Salmonangling is one part of recreational fishery. Salmon are considered by many to be the 'biggame' of angling. Salmon anglers are often the most devoted kind of anglers, investingconsiderable resources into this leisure activity. The subgroup of Swedish salmon anglingspecialists is estimated at 10-30,000 persons. The wider category of Active River anglersconsists of approximately 170,000 persons.Salmon fishing in the River Byske has turned out to be representative of salmonangling in Upper Norrland, comparable with other high-class Scandinavian salmon rivers.The growing proportion of remote anglers in the 1990s indicates that the Byske hasbecome a rather specialised angling water. The groups of Fishing tourists and Home fishersmake up two distinctive categories. Fishing tourists fish more intensively, have higher dailyexpenditures and show higher consumer surplus. They fish the river almost entirely forsalmon in. On the other hand, Home fishers to a large extent claim the right to fish fordecent prices and without any particular restrictions. During the 1990s, the average annualincome to the local economy of Byske river valley derived from salmon angling fishingtourism was about 850,000 SEK.Many river habitats have been depleted during the 20th century and many salmonstocks were exterminated by severe degeneration factors linked to industrialisation. To thisis added the over-fishing on wild stocks of salmon and the mortality syndrome, M74. Theavailable estimates of the potential production of wild salmon smolt in Upper Norrlandaggregates close to 1.2 million. This can be converted to an angling activity of some250,000 fishing days.On the basis of the prevailing cost level, the potential angling activity in UpperNorrland would amount to a direct annual turnover of 75 million SEK, however theimpact caused by fishing tourism is likely to remain within the interval of 10 - 30 millionSEK. The Active River anglers' average willingness to pay for annual access to a salmon andsea trout scenario was 1,100 SEK per capita. There is a widespread attitude among manyanglers that fishing should be accessible for all and prices should be kept low. In theNordic context such opinions are especially evident among Swedish anglers in general, butless frequent among devoted salmon anglers.

  • 45.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Vindelälvsloppets uppgång och fall : vad lagledarna tycker i efterhand, en webbaserad enkätstudie2012Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 46.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Alatalo, Marita
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Wild Swedish salmon: A regional development resource through recreational use?1998Ingår i: Northern waters: Management issues and practice / [ed] David Symes, Oxford: Fishing News Books , 1998, s. 164-174Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 47.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Bengtsson, Bo
    National Board of Fisheries, Sweden.
    Weissglas, Gösta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Regional patterns in Swedish recreational fisheries2003Ingår i: Regional Experiences for Global Solutions / [ed] APM Coleman, Darwin, 2003, s. 39-42Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in Sweden, as in the other Nordic countries, for recreational fishing is widespread. About 35 % of adult Swedes fish for recreation. However, different regional patterns are evident concerning participation, attitudes towards the use of national resources and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for access to recreational fishing. One factor is to be found in the regional differences within Sweden: the population found in rural areas is generally more interested in fishing than people in urban areas. The recreational fishermen in the peripheral areas have, on the other hand, lower relative WTP for their fishing.

    Swedish recreational fisheries is based on roughly 10-20 % of the overall Swedish catch, while the yearly expenditure by recreational fishermen is about three times larger than the value derived from the commercial fisheries in Sweden. In a recent public survey, preservation and environmental issues concerning the overall fish stock was stressed, with the proposition of a general fishing fee in Sweden (long present in the other Nordic countries). The paper is based mainly on analysis of the Swedish component of a large Nordic survey. A comparison is also made with contemporary material from the official Swedish survey on recreational fisheries.

  • 48.
    Arango Nilsson, Emilio
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Kulturens betydelse och effekter som utvecklingsstrategi: En fallstudie om kulturhuvudstadsåret och kulturdriven tillväxt i Umeå2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify how cultural development and the European cultural capital event applies within the context of city development in Umeå. Furthermore, the study aims to examine how the European cultural capital event affects the local cultural actors. The analysis is a case study based upon how local and municipal cultural actors use culture to develop the municipality of Umeå and how the European cultural capital event has affected their work. To answer the aim of the thesis six semi-structured interviews was performed with cultural actors both within the municipality and private sector. This was to get wide-ranging information about cultural development in Umeå. The method to extract information was through thematic analysis of the preformed interviews, this allowed me as researcher to fully analyze the extracted material.

     

    The results of the study reveal that culture permeates city development in Umeå. Primarily the municipality makes great effort to make the city development rich with culture. Despite the effort culture is not a certainty in urban development and it is a constant political struggle to maintain and emphasize the importance of culture in city development. The study revealed that some actors feel that culture has become too commercialized in the municipality’s effort to generate urban growth, especially in the wake of the European capital event. All interviewed actors indicate that the European cultural capital event has had a great impact on their work and working methods. Primarily internal collaborations between the municipality and private cultural actors have been identified as meaningful, due to the many possibilities it brought, for all actors and the lack of collaboration in the post cultural capital Umeå is missed. There is an underlying understanding that all actors want to collaborate again but the lack of resources and common goals interferes. 

  • 49.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Regional cooperative and competitive forces driving industry cluster development and renewal2011Ingår i: Journal of Rural and Community Development, ISSN 1712-8277, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 22-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research paper assembles regional industry clusters cooperative and competitive relations into a conceptual framework and reports upon an empirical case study that captured initial developments of a regional biorefinery industry cluster in a peripheral region of Sweden. Key findings from the research illustrate how forces of intra-regional cooperation and inter-regional competition drove the new biorefinery industry clusters development, which in turn aided the peripheral regions renewal efforts. For the development and renewal of regional industry, the role of not-for-profit collaborative organisations is evident. As a result, this single case-study provides new implications for research and practice in specific relation to regional renewal and industry cluster development within peripheral regions.

  • 50.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Who is a "real" competitor and who is not?: A study of competitive and co-operative dynamics within an emerging Swedish cluster2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to complement prior research on competitive and cooperative dynamics within regional clusters. Through a longitudinal investigation I observed the role cooperation and competition played when large and small firms, located in a traditionally strong but currently struggling region of Sweden, interacted during the establishment of a new industry cluster. Qualitative data, consisting of interviews and documents, were coded into first-order categories, second-order themes, and overarching dimensions. Literature on institutional entrepreneurship was used as an interpretative framework. Subsequently for small and large firms working together in regional cluster initiatives, in which cooperation is a natural component, this single case study suggests that localised and institutionalised competition play a key role in their successive regional clustering trajectories.

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